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Population Geography FINALE
Undergraduate 1

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How is age a determinant of mortality?
-Age; older we are, higher likelihood we die; infants and elderly are more likely to die; biological weaknesses usually exhibited soon after birth. ALSO- level of development & education(sanitation, mothers health, etc)
-Infant mortality rate: Africa-74/1000 vs Europe 6/1000(US 6.1) vs Japan 2.6/1000(also has highest life expectancy)
3 Biological factors for mortality
-Age: Older you are, more likely you die; elderly/infants most likely to die; biological weaknesses exhibited after birth. Infant mortality Rate-74/1000 Africa, Europe/US(6.1), Japan (2.6-also longest life expectancy)

-Sex: Women live longer than men
1)females biologically superior-more resilient to diseases.
2)Difference in occupation, status, and role
3)Males under greater stress
-When woman have higher education/participate in labor force they live longer, further increasing gap w/ independent women(US-5yrs); Low women status= low gap in life expectancy(Bangladesh)

-Morbidity: Degenerative & communicable diseases
1)degenerative= biological deterioration of body; chronic disease(Heart disease, stroke, things that exhibit themselves as body ages)
2)Communicable= transmitted from 1 person to another.
What is the epidemological transition theory?
-It states there is a shift in kinds of diseases and causes of death during development.
1)pestilience & famine- high mortality
2)receding pandemics=epidemic peaks less frequent now.
3)Degenerative and human-made diseases- mortality approaches stability. Most diseases today are degenerative(See top 15); since 1900- diarrhea, tuberculosis and infancy diseases plummed but heart disease, stroke, violence risen.
Top 10 leading causes of death in US
1) heart disease
2) Cancer
3) Stroke
4) Chronic lower respirator disease
5) accidents
9)Kidney disease
-11= Suicide.
What is root cause of population growth? Define lifespan, Life expectancy & Longevity.
-Root cause is declining mortality
-Life span= how long a person can possibly live
-Longevity= ability to resist death
-Life expectancy- Avg length of life
How to measure crude death rate
(#of deaths in a year/avg total population in the year)x1000
-Doesn't take into account differences by sex and age
How to measure age/sex specific death rates
Total deaths in a year of people aged (x) to (x+n)/total population aged x to (x+n) times 1000.
-highest in infants/elderly so J-shaped curve.
What is a good measurement of the state of health care; what's the formula? why may it not be the best way? What is a better way?
Infant mortality rate is a good measurement of state of healthcare.
-(Total deaths under age 1 in a year/live births in a year) x 1000
-Not best way because IMR doesn't capture most prominent reasons of death soon after birth; congenital defects & injuries at birth(soon after birth, not evenly distributed through 1st year of life)
-Alternative method: neonatal mortality rate= deaths during first 28 days/1000 live births.
-US rate is 6.6(high for developed countries); IMR is high in teenage pregnancies and US has a lot.
Life expectancy formula
avg # of years a person aged x has to live
-based on probability of dying at age x; derived from life table
-assumes one experiences the prevailing risks of dying.
What are the 5 social and economic factors that contribute to mortality?
Note: Differences in mortality by social class are most pervasive inequalities in modern society, communicable disease more common in lower social classes.

-Negative association w/ death rate
-Hazards; industrial work
-Negative associated between income and mortality.

2)Income & education
-decline in risk of death as educatin increases
-income,education & occupation all related to mortality but different relationships.
-Income=better access to healthcare, doctors, etc
-Education= better preventative decisions, well-informed.
-Occupation=status of occupation.
3)Race/ethnicity: Minority have negative correlation to mortality.
-Blacks highest death rate in US, but asians lowest rate. Diet, social, and economic reasons.

4) Marital status- Married people live longer than unmarried people.
-people more likely to get married when financially stable, healthy people more likely to get married.
-marriage good for health

5)urban-rural differentials- used to be higher mortality in urban in beginning(communicable diseases spread easier) but medical advances benefiting urban more now.
Whats best spatial measurement of mortality? Where is highest and lowest life expectancy? Whats a major cause of death in these areas?
-Life expectancy and Infant mortality Rate better measurement than crude death rate.
-Life expectancy highest in N.America/Europe/E.Asia; lowest in Sub-sahara Africa

HIV/AIDS(Major cause):
-most deadly infectious disease
-likelihood of infection leading to death much higher than other communicable diseases.
-33.4 million people w/HIV
-6th leading cause of death in world; 4th in low-income countries.
-Sub-sahara Africa: 5.2% adult prevalence rate; women/men same likelihoohd of infection.
-one of the reasons for persisent low life expectancy in these regions; Lesotho(41),Zimbabwe(43),Zambia(42)
-Also high rates along coutny highways of Indiana/Ohio, likely attributed to truck drivers unprotected sex.
What is migration? Historical migration? Reasons for migration? Where is migration important?
Migration: permanent change in residence, which can occur many times through individuals or groups(family/refugees), and may or may not be cross political boundary(international/domestic)
-Historically before agricultural revolution, early humans move a lot as hunter/gatherers, still nomads today.
-Group/masses can migrate for multiple reasons such as refugees or people in search of resources(Europe to Americas)
-Impelled/forced= mostly political reasons; refugees facing persecution.
-Can be Free-individual movement such as HK female migrants from SE Asia for domestic work.
-Countries w/ low fertility & mortality, balanced w/ migration as seen in demographic equation(natural increase + net migration)
Factors of migrants: Political boundary, internal, mover, return migrant, Migration stream...
-Distance; attitude of mind
-Political boundary: International-immigrant/emigrant of home or internal- in-migrant; out-migrant
-Mover: hasn't crossed county border, according to Census bureau.
-Return Migrant=people who leave, then return to origin
-Migration streams= migration from a particular origin to a particular location, involving a group of people; particular path once established new migrants follow path, streams are unique to migration. Pioneer migrants convey information back home.
Calculating volume of migration; Gross migration, net migration & crude net migration
-Gross migration= immigration + emigration
-net migration= immigation-emigration
-Crude net migration= (immigration - emigration/population)x1000
Push-pull migration general theory;
-Place that you are leaving behind has a PUSH(Deterent) and the place that you arrive has a PULL(Attractant); I.e. leaving area of less job opportunities to ones w/ more; further emphasis is provided by Ravenstein and Everett Lee.
-push-pull can be from job opportunities, climate; UCLA has pull
Ravensteins laws of migration(5 points)
-Work on migration more recent; L of M considered new/cutting edge.(1860s)
1)Most moves cover short distance(takes more effort/commitement to have longer move)
2)females predominate among short-distance moves
3)for every stream there is a counter stream; "stream" refers to group of people moving from specific origin to specific destination; not 100% in one direction, always somebody coming back but can be very small #
4) movement from hinterland to city made in stages(people tend to move closer to cities gradually, among those moves, womend do more of them than men/men tend to do more long-distance moves, ex. most migrants from Europe to N & S America were men/ move from NE US to SW US were men)
5) Major motive for migration is economy.
Everett S. Lee(1966) Theory on Push-Pull
-Factors associated w/ origin & Factors associate w/ destination and obstacles between the 2.
-Mix of pluses and minuses: Destination might be better, but people are "sticky", so movement can be tricky.
-Obstacles can prevent people from moving to a destination even w/ a net positive. Obstacles like distance, cost, etc.
-Personal factors: age, health, marital status; all can hold you down from potential migration.

-Everett's theory is way of organizing the reasons for moving!
The Gravity model on migration. Formula?
-In physics, mass and distance determine gravitational pull
-This model is used to predict flows/interactions
-Directly proportional to masses of I and j; inversely proportional to distance.

Interactions between population I and population J divided by distance between the two= K(PiPj/dij)
-Ex: We expect the interaction between SF and LA to be larger than between LA and NYC, also expect interaction between LA and SF to be larger than interaction between LA and Fresno.
The economic model for migration
-Migrants move up the wage rate gradient
-Migration serves as an equilibrating mechanism, i.e. high wage area will increase supply of workers which will cause wages to decline, since labor supply in low wage area has decreased, wages will increase.
-So why do people keep moving to cities? The model is very simple and only variables are wage & supply, but doesn't consider cost of living, remittances(Neoclassical economics)
What is the Behavioral view
-Percieved utility; stress or threshold people have to put up w/ situations until they can't take it any more. Migration doesn't happen right away, always delayed.
What is the Life-cycle approach?
-MAIN POINT: Movement is a part of the aging process.

-Things that might induce a move: adulthood, marriage, birth of child, increasing income, retiruement(any mismatch between needs and current housing)
-Classical life cycle:
0-16-Live w/ household
25-marriage, form new household
30-birth of child
35-add children
60-empty nest
65+- retirement

-Expansion of life-cycle includes single-headed families, stepchildren, adopted children.
What are the selective groups most likely to migrate? Age? Marital status? gender? Occupation/education?
1)age-older adolescents & young adults(18-34); after 29 migration declines until 65 then levels off at 65.
2)Marital status- mixed; no clean-cut results of correlation between marriage & migration.
3)Gender- women more likely to migrate short distances.
4) Occupation/education- more education one has, more likely they are to migrate. Migration rate among those w/ higher education is higher than w/ lower education.
-also true of higher job status.
-People w/ more education move more because they have more knowledge, know about other options, have higher ability to access other resources because of their education.
What are some of the consequences of migration? On migrants? On sending/receiving areas?
1) On migrants-
-stress(fertility level drops)
-enclaves form which are spatial entities where new migrants tend to congregate(i.e. China/Korea town, Little Ethiopia)

2)On sending recieving areas:
-If most people who move are younger, than we expect receiving areas to be younger,sending areas to be older.
-affects age structure; Ex. Appalachians have lots of emigrants making it older age structure.

-Social organization: Places receiving migrants more diverse.
-Social stratification: places losing migrants los young/highly skilled, people more homogenous, poor losing the support of higher class.
Migrant stock and flow
-Migrant stock is a factor that contrivutes to future migration .
-flow has temporal dimension to it: origin to destination during a particular period of time.
-Census question: where were you 5 years ago?
-If you left 10 years ago, you'd be considered part of the stock, but not part of the flow.
Spatial patterns of International Migration since 1940?
Refugee movement(wars, realignment of boundaries, persecution), labor migration(guest workers after WWII in Germany; meant to be temporary but migrants stayed)
Internal migration changes; Rural, Urban, suburban
-Rural to urban movement historically began in the Industrial Revolution.
-Suburbanization occurred in US as people move to city, city expands, then people move to suburbs.
Which country takes in the most imigrants and which loses the most?
-US takes most, Mexico sends the most.
-Countries losing population in SE Asia as migrant workers leave to other places in Asia.
Formula for Sex ratio & factors
# of males/ # of females)*100
1)mortality- women live longer so society w/ low mortality has sex ration under 100(96). Country w/ high mortality and low Life expectancy, the fact that women live longer won't be as strongly felt; high sex ratio.
2)Newborn- more newborn boys than girls, # can be manipulated (I.e. Chinas 1-child policy)
3)Migration is selective- places w/ higher net migration(receive more migrants) tend to have more men than women, because more migrants are men.
Sex Ratio of the US
-Decline in sex ratio means beginning there were more men than women and as we go into 20th century theres more women than men, general trend not just US; Reasons- increase in health(less childbirth deaths, and length of peoples lives)
-lower sex ratio of 1870 from civil war.
-Peaked in 1910 due to high immigration; stricter immigration laws since, except 1965 when relaxed.
Age structures of populatins: when is a population deemed young or old? why is it hard?
Old- more than 10% are 65+
Young-more than 35% under 15

-age is rounded down, misreported.
-Use population pyramid to determine age structure.
Population pyramids:
1)High fertility, high mortality
2)High fertility, declining mortality
3)Declining fertility, declining mortality
4)sharp decline in fertility, low mortality
2)triangle w/ concave slope
3)beehive shape
4)diamond shaped

-On individual basis, # of children born to family hasn't changed much, instead more to do w/ # of parents there are.
How to calculate dependency ratio
-Ratio of economically active to economically inactive persons
-(Children<15 + elderly 64+)/Working age population(15-64)x 1000

-Youngest population in developing countries(Africa-41%;avg 27%); oldest in Europe(16%;avg 8%)
What are some factors affecting age-sex structure?
-migration: more men, young
-mortality: decline mens more women, more older
-fertilty: More young, men; demographic momentum= high birth of younger population will "boom" leading to future "boomlet".
Socioeconomic characteristics; what are they? Ascribed vs achieved?
A number of markers that predict whether you will have a "good" life.
-expanatory variables, but use with caution, its a complex relationship and can't assume.
-Ascribed= characteristics you are born into: gender,race/ethnicity, religion, etc.
-Achieved: easier to change; education, income, occupation.
Measurement of poverty index
-Developed in 1964 as measure of need; decided to use food as measurement; "Normal" to spend 1/3 of income on food so cost of "economy food plan" multiplied by 3
-$11,161 for a single person to be above poverty; 13% below poverty line.
-widening gap between rich and poor.
Describe the progressive changes in women's status
-High mortality meant need for many births, women's performance tied to reproduction; early marriage, many births.
-Decline in mortality meant decline in fertility- Women freer to do things.
-Urbanization: "breadwinner system"; prior to urbanization, men & women both worked in agriculture, in urbanzation roles more defined men as "breadwinner" women as homemakers. begginging of urbanization hurt women's status but eventually lead to increased education/labor force participation.
US progression of women rights; WWII, immigration act
WWII- men leave civilian jobs for military
Immigration Act in 1920s- limited immigration, stopped flow of migrant workers.
-Job openings filled by women; especially past childbearing years(45-54); "mothers of depression"(didnt have as many children due to economy)
List some changes in family and household structure in the U.S.
-Delay in marriage
-rise in cohabitation
-rise in divorce
-rise in illigetimacy(bastard children)
-increase in childlessness
-decline in remarriage
-increase in nontraditional households
-family: related by marriage/birth/adoption
-Household- sharing a housing unit(ex. roommates in a dorm are household); households increasingly diverse in US.
Assimiliation vs. multiculturalism schools of immigrants: What are they
Assimiliation stages:
1)separation-spatially, socially isolated)
2)accommodation- minorities attempt to conform to dominant groups practices.
3)acculturation- minorities adopt traits/characteristics that describe dominant group; i.e. language, lifestyle, values, atitude; goes 1 way- dominant groups do not adopt.
4)assimilation-more 2-directional characteristics; from minorities point of view there's stronger identity w/ majority(i.e. Asian-American not asian), and dominant group will accept minorities w/o discrimination.
5)Amalgamation: true melting pot, interracial marriage (accepted and practiced)

Pluralist(Multiculturalism) school-
-critical of assimilation, inevitability of assimilation, don't think that all people want to do this, can't force them.
-Multiculturalism is more the coexistence of groups.
-different cultural heritages mixing
-Pride in differences being celebrated
-security that being different is OK. -Permanence in that heritage and culture don't have to change in order to be "full" citizen of community.

-some argue multiculturalism is a divisive force.
-blurs American way of life
-Racialization: pan-ethnic groups
-Transnationalism: era of globalization means racial issues w/in a country can't be detached from transnational issues
What are the effects of religion in population structure?
-Between ascribed and achieved characteristics; can be born into or chosen.
-Religion tied to fertility rates; more religion= higher fertility(latin america)
-Religion and ethnicity intertwined; Ex. Jewish population.
China as a population presence; How many people? Why so many? Recent rapid growth? Fluctuations since 1950s.
-1 in 5 people in world live in China; 19% of population
-one of oldest civlizations
-good soil, lots of rice, 2 big rivers for irrigation/rinking, labor-intensive agriculture requiring large families.

-1949 only 11% population urban, lots of agrarian families still; also children are source of power and economic wealth.

-post-1949 growth: doubled in 40 years from 542 million to 1.1 billion; reasons:

1)labor intensive economy;children
2)peace & unification
3)Promises of communist regime
4)Absence of family planning; Mao opposed it.
5)Drop in mortality- communists sent health care providers to rural areas.

-1950s: baby boom; 1959-61 sharp drop in BR/rise in DR(GLF), 1960-baby boom, 1970s-decline in BR(Wan XI Shao(late, sparse, few program)), 1980s small increase in BR, 1990s decline in BR(1-child policy)
China's sex ratio
-Men outnumber women; one of few countries where this exists
-usually higher LE = more women but maternal mortality big reason for death of women
-More important: male preference, boys provide for family, obtain land/property passed down, carry the family name; girls marry out and leave, women are domestic/less productive
Population policy of China: 1949-53,1956-65, 65-70,71-78, 79-present
-1949: PRC founded, peace and stability
-1956-65: 1st baby boom, then GLF, census: 583 million!!, Mao considered human production as part of socialist revolution(dida wubo renduo- big territory, abunant resources, large pop.), Hands vs mouth(producers vs. consumers); "every stomach comes w/ 2 hands". Anyone that spoke out was a liberal radical!

-65-71: 60's baby boom, food shortage, severe underemployment

-71-78: Wan Xi Shao(Late,sparse, few)-voluntary program; recommended age of marriage 25 women/28 men(cities) & 23 women/25 men(rural); Fewer births in family , dramatic change from 5-6 to 2 per family.

1979 to present: one-child policy, rapid fertility decline, wanted to keep pop w/in 1.2 billion by 2000(did not achieve)
The One-child Policy: Incentives and punishment
-Incentives: cash, preferntial treatment, pension; couples sign pledge for 1-child, large pensions so don't need to rely on children.

Punishment: penalities- fines/fees
-can be fined upto several years of income; some able to pay, gives wealthy people more freedom to determine.

-Lots of propoganda, govt officials held responsivble for their areas, birht control widely available.
-leading to labor shortages

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