Shared Flashcard Set


PON Final
Bastyr Psychology of Nourishment Final Exam
Undergraduate 4

Additional Psychology Flashcards




Not necessarily obvious things about fat asses exercising. (4)
• Fat tissues act as insulation, trapping the heat generated by exercise inside the body, so it is very important for them to wear absorbent clothing that allows air to circulate over the skin.
• Fat deposits in the chest area makes deep breaths more difficult and most heavy people tend to take rapid and shallow breaths.. The diaphragm must do more work and become stronger as the physical activity increases.
• Large individuals need to thoroughly warm up their lower legs, ankles and feet before they begin moving.
• Large person can be moving notably slower than a small person with incurring the same work load.
Things to keep in mind when a client is a fatty (7)
• A large size does not translate to exercise resistance
• Disconnect the activity to results, such as burning calories, getting rid of fat, changing body shape or size.
• Focus the activity toward self fulfillment, pleasure, social and psychological benefits, energy boosts, and sense of self mastery.
• Avoid complimenting clients based on the physical shape or size reduction. Because what does that mean when the weight is regained?
• Explore the non competitive aspect of joyful movement without any attachment to level of goals or fitness.
• Be realistic with clients, change doesn’t happen overnight.
• Encourage them to stick to their choice of activity for up to 6 weeks.
Moving Away From Diets Mentality challenges the following common assumptions (5)
• It is impossible to be fit and fat at the same time
• All large people must lose weight in order to improve their health and fitness
• All large people are in poor health
• Everyone can lose weight if they just follow proper diet and exercise regimen
• Main reason for regained lost weight is person’s failure to comply with prescribed diet or make long term commitment to weight loss
Association of body fat with metabolic disorders
• Body fat is associated with metabolic disorders such as higher blood pressures, blood lipids and poorer glucose tolerance, but does not prove cause-effect.
Dangers of weight cycling (5)
• increase blood pressures
• Decrease HDL cholesterol
• Deplete body reserves of heart-protective omega 3 fatty acids
• Increase risk for gall bladder disease, kidney cancer, and breast cancer
• Increase risk for premature death
What is metabolic Fitness: (Vs. traditional fitness)
• Defined as how the human body responds to insulin.
• “Insulin sensitive” bodies have excellent glucose tolerance, normal blood pressures, and healthy blood lipid profiles
• “Insulin resistance” is a condition where the body’s cells (muscle, liver, and adipose tissue) don’t respond normally to this hormone.
o May result in disordered lipid metabolism, increased blood pressure, risk for type 2 diabetes and heart disease.
Cause of insulin resistance
• Lack of exercise and proper diet and increase in saturated fat, trans-fatty acids, and added sugar, and decrease in fiber.
Modern Exercise Prescriptions (3)
• Moderate-vigorous activity (heart rate range of 60-75% max) for 20-40 min on most days/wk
• High intensity exercise of 20-30 min on most days
• Communicate to clients the importance of metabolic fitness/intrinsic value of exercise and healthy eating
The Tenets of Health at Every Size, From Moving Away From Diets (5)
Tenet 1: Health Enhancement—attention to emotional, physical and spiritual well being, without focus on weight loss or achieving a specific “ideal weight”.

Tenet 2: Size & Self Acceptance—respect and appreciation for the wonderful diversity of body shapes and sizes (including one’s own!) rather than the pursuit of an idealized weight or shape.

Tenet 3: The Pleasure of Eating Well—eating based on internal cues of hunger, satiety, appetite and individual needs, rather than on external food plans or diets.

Tenet 4: The Joy of Movement—encouraging all physical activities for the associated pleasure and health benefits, rather than following a specific routine of regimented exercise for the primary purpose of weight loss.

Tenet 5: An End to Weight Bias—recognition that body shape, size, and/or weight are not evidence of any particular way of eating, level of physical activity, personality, psychological issue or moral character; confirmation that there is beauty and worth in EVERY body.
Who is appropriate for the HAES (health at every size) model? (7)
• Have made repeated unsuccessful attempts to diet, follow restrictive nutrition plans, changes eating patterns • Feel anxious, uncomfortable, or fearful around food • Are out of touch with hunger, fullness, appetite and satiety cues; eat compulsively, binge or restrict food • Experience food as unsatisfying much of the time • Start and drop exercise, resist an active lifestyle, or exercise compulsively • Connect their self-esteem/worth to their weight, food intake, exercise, or appearance • Assume their total health hinges on their degree of control over their nutrition-sensitive disease (e.g. diabetes or hypertension)
Clients who may not be suited for HAES (7)
• Critical, progressive, or terminal illness
• Dual or multiple diagnoses such as severe depression or other mental illness
• Late intervention
• Relationship crises
• Difficulties in comprehension
• Financial limitations
• Infrequent contact with the health care system
Disconnected eating (1)
What Causes it (2)
• Initiating eating when one is not hungry, restricting food when hungry, or eating past point of satisfaction/fullness

• Eating according to pattern, habit, time of day, other external signals unrelated to hunger.
• Eating prompted or perpetuated by emotions like: boredom, fear, excitement, anxiety.
Common circumstances that promote disconnection (5)
• External messages that influence decision making around food that interferes with internal hunger cues:
• Food Deprivation
o Voluntary (dieting to lose weight) or Involuntary (Dr.’s order)
• Emotional Eating
o Food and the eating process serve to comfort, distract or “distance” oneself from emotions OR express emotions through food choices and behaviors
Fear of hunger and illusion of control
• Dieters learn the only way to stay with the diet is to ignore their hunger. Messages promising “lose weight without ever feeling hungry” reinforce the fear of hunger.
3 facets of hunger work
• Discover physically-connected eating
o Neutralize food
o Identify and interpret hunger and satiety cues
o Educate clients on the differing nutrient values of foods without labeling them “good/bad
o Reduce fear-based food choices
o Rephrase terms that have moral overtones or make value judgments
o View individual foods in relation to daily intake.
o Appreciate the social context of eating.
o Avoid foods if they produce a negative outcome.
o Evaluate fuel put into the body without judgment.
• Heal disconnected eating: Identify and decode eating experiences
o Explore the client’s perception of physical hunger.
o Experiment with the meal mix
o Examine distorted perception of hunger using the Hunger Scale
o Enhance the usefulness of food journals
o Quantify and monitor physical cues using the HUNGER SCALE.
• Promote joyful and healthful eating
o Attempt to normalize eating patterns using the food journal
o Identify whether there is “emotional hunger” using the Hunger Scale/Food Journal
o Empower clients to ask for themselves, “Is this food choice a health enhancing one for me physically, spiritually, emotionally, mentally and socially?”
Remember the 1950 Minnesota “Biology of Starvation” study: 32 healthy, above average intelligence men put on reduced calorie diet and lost notable body weight in 24 weeks, followed by 12 weeks of rehabilitation.
Signs of starvation included: (11)
• Dizziness
• Cold sensitivity
• Food preoccupation
• decreased concentration
• Extreme weakness
• Tiredness
• Depression
• Anxiety
• Isolating behavior
• Mood swings
• Sleep disturbances
• Until the client can eat in a sound manner, monitor these symptoms as one sign of progress.
If clients are struggling with perceiving any cues (hunger or fullness)
• Allow them a few moments to “check-in and take a reading” of their hunger level.
• Discuss the sensations they are feeling.
• Help the clients put their experiences into words and begin placing degree of fullness on the 0-10 Hunger Scale.
The Mindless Margin (4)
• Weight loss: most people can lose about ½ # per week w/out triggering metabolism slow down.
• Calories: eating about 100-200 fewer kcal per day will not create a feeling of deprivation
• Most of us are unaware of what influences how much we eat.
• Average person makes over 200 decisions about food every day
Examples of environmental cues that determine amount eaten (9)
Container size, Label, visual cues, Loose Clothing, Package Sizes, The “See-Food” Trap, T.V. and snacking, Atmosphere, Weather
Impulse eating
• Constantly thinking about a particular food will probably result in eating more of that food than if you just suddenly decided to have some. (deprivation leads to rumination leads to binge)
• Make healthy foods easy to see (fruit bowl) and less healthy foods harder to get at.
Diet Danger Zones/Personalities (5)
The Meal Stuffer:
• Eats primarily at mealtimes, but then clean their plates and eat in excess. Eat so quickly they’re uncomfortably full after they finish. Consider themselves to have “healthy appetites”. Often take 2nd helpings.

The Snack Grazer:
• Reach for whatever food is available, typically about 3 times/day. Convenience is important. They love the 4 C’s—candy, cookies, cakes, chips. Hard to pass up the candy dish. Something for them to do with their hands, nervous habit.

The Party Binger:
• Often professionals, who wine and dine often or single, stay out late people. High distraction events like buffets, tailgates, and happy hours are the problem areas.

The Restaurant Indulger:
• Eats out at least 3 days per week. Often with comfortable income.

The Desktop or Dashboard Diner:
• Speed-eat while multi-tasking. Want to save time and the hassle of finding a good lunch. Under motivated.
The 4 C's of a snack grazer
candy, cookies, cakes, chips
The 4 Unhealthy Food-Tool Extremes
• Food as Reward—“If you get an A, we’ll go out for ice cream.”
• Food as Guilt—“Clean your plate, children are starving in China.”
• Food as Punishment—“Finish your vegetables or you can’t watch T.V.”
• Food as Comfort—“Eat this pudding; it’ll make you feel better.”
What are the top comfort foods for men and women?

How does a happy or sad mood affect eating comfort foods?
Top Comfort Foods:
• Women—ice cream, chocolate, cookies. Foods that seem hassle-free/effortless.
• Men—ice cream, soup, pizza or pasta. Foods that make them feel “spoiled, pampered, taken care of, or waited on” and the focus of attention from mother or wife.

Happy Moods:
• In one survey, people were twice as likely to reach for a comfort food than when sad, but one that is healthier. A healthier snack may help maintain or extend the happy feeling and not cause guilt.

Sad Moods:
• People more likely to reach for something indulgent that tastes great and gives a temporary bump of euphoria. May extend sadness though, by causing guilt later.
Mindlessly Eat Better
Eating right may sound difficult and be hard to do all the time, but eating better sounds doable and can be done every time.
4 Basic Themes for Food Descriptions/Labels
• Geographic—Words that create an image or ideology of a geographic area assoc. with the food. Tex-Mex Salad, Kansas City Barbeque, Country Peach Tart.

• Nostalgic—Alluding to the past can trigger happy associations of family, tradition, national origin, and wholesomeness. Old World Manicotti, Legendary Chocolate Mousse Pie, Grandma’s Chicken Pot Pie.

• Sensory—Describing taste, smell, and mouth feel of the menu can raise expectations. Velvety Chocolate Mousse, Hearty Sizzling Steak, Snappy Seasonal Carrots.

• Brand—Cross-promoting a name brand item. Common in franchise restaurants. Jack Daniels glazed ribs, Butterfinger Blizzards.
Eating Scripts (4)
Food situations that we encounter so frequently that we develop automatic patterns or habitual behaviors to navigate them.

• Eating with one other person will result in you eating about 35% more than if alone.
• Eating with a group of 7 or more you may eat up to 96% more.
• Another experiment found that in groups of 4-8, light eaters ate more & heavy eaters ate less.
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