Term

Definition
entity we want to describe 


Term

Definition
chaotic distortion of an empirical measurement 


Term

Definition
within the conditions artificially created by the researcher, the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable is isolated from other plausible explanations



Term

Definition
distribution used to describe internallevel variables 


Term

Definition
treats the cases in the median category as uniformly distributed across the interval and adjusts the median in the direction of the 50th percentile 


Term

Definition
variation of spread of cases across its values 


Term

Definition
universe of cases the researcher wants to describe 


Term

Definition
refers to a statistical property of a large family of distributions. 


Term

Definition
a difference obtained from a simple comparison 


Term

Definition
an error int he interruption of data whereby inferences about the nature of specific individuals are based solely upon aggregate statistics collected for the group to which those individuals belong 


Term

Definition
idea that represents phoenomena in the real world 


Term

Definition
results of a study can be applied to situations in the real world 


Term

Definition
identifies the most representative value of the distribution (mode, median, mean) 


Term

Definition
removes the most extreme observations before comupting the mean 


Term
Coefficient of Association 

Definition
reflects the strength and direction of association between two variables 


Term

Definition
each subject has an equal chance of being picked for the test of control group 


Term

Definition
researcher uses the standard error to determine the smallest plausible mean difference in the population. If the smallest difference is greater than 0, the null hypothesis can be rejected 


Term

Definition
occurs when the subjects in the test group are different from subjects in the control group 


Term

Definition
summarizes a relationship between two variables after taking rival variables into account 


Term
Systematic Measuement Error 

Definition
consistent, chronic distortion of an empirical measurement 


Term

Definition
dependent variable represents the effect in an explanation and an independent variable represents the cause of the explanation 


Term

Definition
other plausible causes for different values of the dependent variable 


Term

Definition
deals with a grouped frequency distribution. Adjusts crude mode by considering the frequencies of the intervals adjacent to the model interval 


Term

Definition
reports the percentage of cases in a distribution that lie below it 


Term

Definition
a number of cases or observations drawn from a population 


Term

Definition
when every member of a potential sample population has an equal chance of being included in the sample



Term

Definition
amount of random sampling error in a surveys result 


Term

Definition
variable that is held constant or whose impact is removed in order to analyze the relationshop between other variables without interference 


Term

Definition
the upper plausible boundary of random error 


Term
Four Stages of the Measurement Process 

Definition
a. Concept
b. Conceptual Definition
C. Operational Definition
D. Variable 


Term

Definition
describe's a concept's properties 


Term

Definition
describes how the concept is to be measured empirically 


Term

Definition
Nominal: no regard to rank or distance
Ordinal: rank but no regard to distance
Interval: rank and distance matter 


Term

Definition
extent to which it is a consistent measure of a concept 


Term

Definition
extent to which true vlue of characteristic is recorded 


Term
Approaches to evaluate reliability 

Definition
testretest method: apply measure at 2 different points in time to same group of subjects
split half method: divide test in half for gorup to assess 


Term
Approaches to evaluate validity 

Definition
Face validity: closely examine operational procedure and relies on informed judgment
Constuct Validity: assess the association between the measure of concept and another related concept 


Term

Definition
1. Variable
2. Explanation
3. State Hypothesis
4. Test Hypothesis 


Term
3 types of research design 

Definition
lab experiment
field experiment
natural experiment 


Term

Definition
describes the percentage of all cases that do not fall into the modal category 

