Term
.05 level of significance (p.147) 

Definition
The minimum standard. if we decide to reject H0 we want to to commit a type 1 error, this threshold frames the inferential fate of H0 and Ha: If the answer is "more than 5 out of 100" we do not reject the null hypothesis. 


Term
asymetric measure of association(p. 160) 

Definition
by contrast, models the independent variables as the casual variable and the dependent variable as the effect. Because these measures are better suited to the enterprise of testing a casual hypthesis, they are preffered to symmetric measures, which are agnostic on the question of cause and effect. 


Term
chisquare test of significance (p.154) 

Definition
determines whether the observed dispersal of cases depart significantly from what we would expect to find if the null hypothesis were correct. 


Term

Definition
a pair of observations that is consistent with a negative relationship. 


Term
confidence interval approach (p.149) 

Definition
the investigator uses the standard error to determine the smallest plausible mean of difference in the population. 


Term

Definition
based on chisquared, takes a value of between 0, no relatiohship, and 1, a perfect realtionship. used instead of lambda. 


Term

Definition
marks the upper plausible boundry for random error and so defines H0's limit. 


Term

Definition
a pair of observations that is consistent with a negative relationship. 


Term

Definition
is designed to measure the strength of the relationship between two catagorial variables, at least one of which is nominallevel. 


Term
measure of association(p.146) 

Definition
tells the researcher how well the independent variable works in explaining the dependent variable 


Term

Definition
The skeptical assumption. Plays a vital role in hypothesis testing. States that in the population there is no relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. 


Term
onetailed test of significance (p.150) 

Definition
we do not divide .05 in two and find upper and lower confidence boundries. Rather, we place the entire rejection region in null hypothesis territory, the region of the curve containing a population difference equal to 0. 


Term
proportional reduction in error (p.159)
(PRE) 

Definition
is a predictionbased metric that varies in madnitude between 0 and 1. The precise value of the measure tells you how much better you can predict the dependent variable by knowing the independent variable than by not knowing the independent variable. 


Term

Definition
the researcher determines the exact probability of obtaining the observed sample differenc, under the assumption that the null hypothesis is correct. if the probability value is less than or equal to .05 the the null hypothesis can be rejected. 


Term

Definition
is appropriate for gauging the strength of ordinallevel relationships. 


Term
standard error of difference (p. 148) 

Definition
to see whether or not the statistical evidence supports the prima facie case against H0, a more formal derivation of the standard error of the mean difference is required. this is.. 


Term
symmetric measure of assosiation (p. 160) 

Definition
takes on the same value, regardless of whether the independent variable is used to predict the dependent variable or the dependent variable is used to predict the independent variable. 


Term
test of statistical significance (p.146) 

Definition
helps you decide whether an observed relationship between an independent variable and a dependent variable really exsists or whether it could have happened by chance when the sample was drawn. 


Term

Definition
tells us exactly how many standard errors separate the sample difference from zero, the difference claimed by H0. The general formula for this is:
(HaH0)/Standard error of the difference 


Term

Definition
has different values on the independent variable but the same values on the dependent variable. 


Term

Definition
For large samples, the normal distribution and the tdistribution are virtually identical. Even so, computer programs usually report the Pvalues that are associated with the students tdistribution statistic. this statistic is called..., is calculated just like Z
(HaH0) / standard error of the difference
(4.6  0) / 1.4
=3.3 


Term
twotailed test of statistical significance (p.149) 

Definition
it divides the .05 rejection region in half, reporting the value above which .025 of the curve falls and the value below which .025 of the curve falls. 


Term

Definition
occurs when the researcher concludes that there is a relationship in the population when in fact, there is none. 


Term

Definition
occurs when the researcher infers that there is no relationship in the population when, in fact there is. 

