Term

Definition
(rather than mathematical), using the most manageable codings as possible 


Term
Process of concept to number and back (steps) 

Definition
Observation> Coding> Analysis of data> read codes> interpret results 


Term

Definition
Process of assigning numerical values to our observations. 


Term

Definition
a test of the statistical significance of the association between two nominal variables 


Term

Definition
a figure which a circle representing a given population has been segmented to show the distribution of particular attributes. limitations does not represent the sheer number, or change in number (multiple pie charts), very accurately 


Term

Definition
a graphic representation in which the height, and occasionally the width, of a series of bars illustrates a set of observations on one or more variables. 


Term

Definition
a graphic summary of the distribution of cases on two variables, in which the base line, or xaxis, is denoted in units of the independent variable; the vertical line, or Yaxis, is denoted in units of the dependent variable; and each dot represents observations of one case on both variables. 


Term

Definition
a listing of each variable to be employed in a study, of each value the variable might take on, and of the numerical scores the codes  associated with each of these values. 


Term

Definition
a measure of position within a distribution. 


Term
coefficient of association 

Definition
a measure of the degree and direction of association between two variables. 


Term

Definition
a particular change in the value of the independent variable X is always accompanied by a particular change in the value of the dependent variable Y. 


Term
Category frequency counts 

Definition
a set of words or phrases are first grouped into categories, then the program shows how many times each category occurs in the document. 


Term

Definition
a single mode in the very center of the distribution and in which the frequencies decline symmetrically as the values become more extreme in each direction. 


Term

Definition
a straight line drawn through the field of dots so no other line comes closer to touching all of the dots. (best fit line) 


Term

Definition
a twodirectional figure that is used to illustrate variation above or below some norm as represented by a center line. 


Term

Definition


Term

Definition
analysis of the simultaneous relationship among three or more variables. 


Term
native language questions 

Definition
asks for an example in the respondents' own words ("how would you describe event X in your own words?") 


Term

Definition
bar graph used to show frequency distribution. 


Term

Definition
The measure of location in an interval distribution based on standard deviation units about the mean. calculated by simply subtracting the mean from the score and then dividing by the standard deviation. allows us to compare scores that are based on very different units of measurements. 


Term

Definition
collect data by personal contact with the events we are studying as they happen. 


Term

Definition
connects with a continuous line all the data points for a given indicator and provides for a comparison of data points across indicators by representing each in a separate corresponding line, often in a contrasting style. 


Term
beta weight or beta coefficient 

Definition
a standardized partial regression coefficient used to compare the relative effects of independent variables on a dependent variable. 


Term

Definition
data recording device whose structure is based on the codebook and whose form will aid in data entry and analysis in our statistics program. 


Term
partial regression coefficients 

Definition
a statistic that indicates the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable when the effects of all other variables in a model are controlled. 


Term

Definition
during interviews, prompts keep people talking even when they believe that they do not have to say much in response to a specific question. 


Term

Definition
each individual bar is subdivided to illustrate an additional set of observations relating to the distribution of attributes among the population represented by the bar itself. 


Term
scheduled vs unscheduled interviews 

Definition
elite interviews are largely unscheduled. a highly scheduled interview asks questions in order of their appearance and are predetermined and inflexible. 


Term

Definition
measure of dispersion for interval variables 


Term

Definition
likelihood that an association noted between two variables, based on analysis of a sample, might have occured by chance and might not exist in the larger population 


Term

Definition
ex) researcher attends all public meetings of a city council and openly sits with other citizens in the audience but carefully watches the debate to analyze patterns of influence on the council without the knowledge of the council members. 


Term

Definition
focus on a single issue or event mentioned by the respondent and then ask for an example ("can you give me an example of a time during which you did X?" 


Term

Definition
helps identify the most typical value: the one value or score that best represents the entire set of cases on that variable. 


Term

Definition
holding constant the influence of a third variable on the relationship between two other variables 


Term

Definition
number of cells in a table or points along a regression line that may be entered without being determined by prior entries. df=(r1)(c1)
r=# of categories of the row variable
c=# of categories of the column variable 


Term

Definition
in depth, oneonone conversations with respondents used, as a means of gaining indepth understanding of a phenomenon and discovering aspects of that phenomenon that researchers did not anticipate. 


Term

Definition
interviews with respondents who are representative of persons from a particular group 


Term

Definition
involves translating your verbal theory of the phenomenon into mathematical equation. 


Term

Definition
little more than a tabular presentation of research data in what is essentially the form of a list. 


Term

Definition
the condition in which one or more of the independent variables in a regression equation are perfect linear functions of one or more other independent variables in the equation 


Term

Definition
the coefficient of association between two interval variables measuring the closeness of fit of data points around the regression line. 


Term

Definition
a coefficient of association between two nominal variables. 


Term
crosstabulation (crosstab) 

Definition
most common form of table used in contemporary political science research. resemble simple tables but are based more directly upon hypotheses and are structured to facilitate an examination of the relationships between variables. (exregression table) 


Term
nominal, ordinal, or interval/ratio 

Definition
nominal when numbers need distinguish only between mutually exclusive categories without respect to rank, ordinal assign numbers in relative positions (rankings) of values, interval/ratio numbers take more precise meanings where values are mutually exclusive and indicative of rank and distances between any two sets of adjacent categories are constant and equal. 


Term

Definition
numbers that summarize either the distributions of values on, or the relationships between, variables. 


Term

Definition
occurs anytime the persons being studied are aware of being observed. 


Term

Definition
ordered count of the number of cases that take on each value of a variable. 


Term

Definition
people who are part of the research team or are employed by it, who can read each key word in context. They are also known as judges. 


Term

Definition
play role of critic or antagonist, questioning and challenging respondents' remarkes in hopes of forcing them to reveal information in order to defend their views or prove a point. 


Term

Definition
provide a list of all the words that occur in a text and the number of times they occur. 


Term
grand tour questions (3 types) 

Definition
questions with provide respondents with the opportunity to talk about something they know well. 1 "typical" asks respondents to describe a typical day in their office 2 "specific" asks for a description based on some specific parameter decided by the interviewer, 3"taskrelated" asks respondents to carry out a common task while describing it to the interviewer 


Term
coefficient of determination (R^2) 

Definition
regression sum of squares/total sum of squares. tells us how close all the data plots came to touching the "line" projected by our model the multiple regression coefficient tells how much of the variance in the values on a dependent variable is "explained" by variance in a set of independent variables 


Term

Definition
relies on the decision of a group of judges about the meaning or intensity of a term. 


Term

Definition
small group of carefully selected individuals for an indepth discussion of some topic guided by a moderator, in order to learn how people think about that topic. 


Term

Definition
statistics describing the characteristics of individual variables 


Term

Definition
statistics which summarize the relationship between two variables 


Term

Definition
subjects are unaware of being observed. 


Term
Substance vs Structure content analysis 

Definition
substance meanings of words and content, structure what is said rather than how it is said. 


Term

Definition
tells the observer what to look for, the order in which to make observations, and the way to record the results. 


Term

Definition
a measure of dispersion for ordinal variables 


Term

Definition
tells us the percentage of all cases that do not fit into the modal category. 


Term

Definition
an indicator of variation around the measure of central tendency, that is, an indicator of its representativeness. 


Term

Definition
the degree of consensus reached about the meaning of content. 


Term
elite interviewing vs survey interview 

Definition
the degree of how standardized the interview is 


Term
interobserver reliability 

Definition
the degree to which different observers classify similar events in the same way on the observation schedule. 


Term
structured vs unstructured observation 

Definition
the distinction is made on the basis of the degree to which the researcher organizes or structures the process of observation by imposing a preconceived set of concepts and categories. 


Term

Definition
the most frequently occurring value 


Term

Definition
the particular element or characteristic of a given communication that we shall examine, count, or assess. 


Term

Definition
the systematic counting, assessing, and interpreting of the form and substance of communication. 


Term

Definition
the value of the middle case in a distribution 


Term

Definition
there is an association between two variables when knowing the value of one for a given case improves the odds of our guessing correctly the corresponding value of the second. 


Term

Definition
a sample in which specific cases are purposely selected. 


Term

Definition
when researchers actually become part of the events under study. 


Term

Definition
when researchers data collection efforts have, in some way, influenced the data that are obtained and have produced an inaccurate picture of the reality they hope to understand. 


Term
Types of units of analysis (3) 

Definition
word identify key words and count the frequency in which they appear, theme a particular combination of words or ideas, such as a phrase, a sentence, or even a paragraph, item the communication itself taken as a whole. 


Term

Definition
a coefficient of association between two ordinal variables 


Term

Definition
a statistical procedure for examining the relationship among a dependent variable and several independent variables. 

