# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Political Research 3000 MU Final Exam
from "Empirical Political Analysis" book 8th edition Brians et al.
86
Political Studies
12/10/2011

Term
 parsimony
Definition
 (rather than mathematical), using the most manageable codings as possible
Term
 Process of concept to number and back (steps)
Definition
 Observation-> Coding-> Analysis of data-> read codes-> interpret results
Term
 Coding
Definition
 Process of assigning numerical values to our observations.
Term
 chi-square
Definition
 a test of the statistical significance of the association between two nominal variables
Term
 pie chart
Definition
 a figure which a circle representing a given population has been segmented to show the distribution of particular attributes. limitations- does not represent the sheer number, or change in number (multiple pie charts), very accurately
Term
 bar charts
Definition
 a graphic representation in which the height, and occasionally the width, of a series of bars illustrates a set of observations on one or more variables.
Term
 scatter plot
Definition
 a graphic summary of the distribution of cases on two variables, in which the base line, or x-axis, is denoted in units of the independent variable; the vertical line, or Y-axis, is denoted in units of the dependent variable; and each dot represents observations of one case on both variables.
Term
 codebook
Definition
 a listing of each variable to be employed in a study, of each value the variable might take on, and of the numerical scores- the codes - associated with each of these values.
Term
 quantile
Definition
 a measure of position within a distribution.
Term
 coefficient of association
Definition
 a measure of the degree and direction of association between two variables.
Term
 linear relationship
Definition
 a particular change in the value of the independent variable X is always accompanied by a particular change in the value of the dependent variable Y.
Term
 Category frequency counts
Definition
 a set of words or phrases are first grouped into categories, then the program shows how many times each category occurs in the document.
Term
 normal distribution
Definition
 a single mode in the very center of the distribution and in which the frequencies decline symmetrically as the values become more extreme in each direction.
Term
 regression line
Definition
 a straight line drawn through the field of dots so no other line comes closer to touching all of the dots. (best fit line)
Term
 bilateral bar chart
Definition
 a two-directional figure that is used to illustrate variation above or below some norm as represented by a center line.
Term
 key
Definition
 an itemized explanation
Term
 multivariate analysis
Definition
 analysis of the simultaneous relationship among three or more variables.
Term
 native language questions
Definition
 asks for an example in the respondents' own words ("how would you describe event X in your own words?")
Term
 histogram
Definition
 bar graph used to show frequency distribution.
Term
 standard score (z-score)
Definition
 The measure of location in an interval distribution based on standard deviation units about the mean. calculated by simply subtracting the mean from the score and then dividing by the standard deviation. allows us to compare scores that are based on very different units of measurements.
Term
 direct observation
Definition
 collect data by personal contact with the events we are studying as they happen.
Term
 line graph
Definition
 connects with a continuous line all the data points for a given indicator and provides for a comparison of data points across indicators by representing each in a separate corresponding line, often in a contrasting style.
Term
 beta weight or beta coefficient
Definition
 a standardized partial regression coefficient used to compare the relative effects of independent variables on a dependent variable.
Term
 coding sheet
Definition
 data recording device whose structure is based on the codebook and whose form will aid in data entry and analysis in our statistics program.
Term
 partial regression coefficients
Definition
 a statistic that indicates the effect of an independent variable on a dependent variable when the effects of all other variables in a model are controlled.
Term
 prompts
Definition
 during interviews, prompts keep people talking even when they believe that they do not have to say much in response to a specific question.
Term
 segmented bar chart
Definition
 each individual bar is subdivided to illustrate an additional set of observations relating to the distribution of attributes among the population represented by the bar itself.
Term
 scheduled vs unscheduled interviews
Definition
 elite interviews are largely unscheduled. a highly scheduled interview asks questions in order of their appearance and are predetermined and inflexible.
Term
 standard deviation
Definition
 measure of dispersion for interval variables
Term
 statistical significance
Definition
 likelihood that an association noted between two variables, based on analysis of a sample, might have occured by chance and might not exist in the larger population
Term
 passive observation
Definition
 ex) researcher attends all public meetings of a city council and openly sits with other citizens in the audience but carefully watches the debate to analyze patterns of influence on the council without the knowledge of the council members.
Term
 example question
Definition
 focus on a single issue or event mentioned by the respondent and then ask for an example ("can you give me an example of a time during which you did X?"
Term
 central tendency
Definition
 helps identify the most typical value: the one value or score that best represents the entire set of cases on that variable.
Term
 controlling
Definition
 holding constant the influence of a third variable on the relationship between two other variables
Term
 degrees of freedom
Definition
 number of cells in a table or points along a regression line that may be entered without being determined by prior entries. df=(r-1)(c-1) r=# of categories of the row variable c=# of categories of the column variable
Term
 intensive interviewing
Definition
 in depth, one-on-one conversations with respondents used, as a means of gaining in-depth understanding of a phenomenon and discovering aspects of that phenomenon that researchers did not anticipate.
Term
 specialized interviewing
Definition
 interviews with respondents who are representative of persons from a particular group
Term
 model specification
Definition
 involves translating your verbal theory of the phenomenon into mathematical equation.
Term
 simple table
Definition
 little more than a tabular presentation of research data in what is essentially the form of a list.
Term
 multicollinearity
Definition
 the condition in which one or more of the independent variables in a regression equation are perfect linear functions of one or more other independent variables in the equation
Term
 correlation coefficient
Definition
 the coefficient of association between two interval variables measuring the closeness of fit of data points around the regression line.
Term
 lambda
Definition
 a coefficient of association between two nominal variables.
Term
 crosstabulation (crosstab)
Definition
 most common form of table used in contemporary political science research. resemble simple tables but are based more directly upon hypotheses and are structured to facilitate an examination of the relationships between variables. (ex-regression table)
Term
 nominal, ordinal, or interval/ratio
Definition
 nominal- when numbers need distinguish only between mutually exclusive categories without respect to rank, ordinal- assign numbers in relative positions (rankings) of values, interval/ratio- numbers take more precise meanings where values are mutually exclusive and indicative of rank and distances between any two sets of adjacent categories are constant and equal.
Term
 statistics
Definition
 numbers that summarize either the distributions of values on, or the relationships between, variables.
Term
 obtrusive research
Definition
 occurs anytime the persons being studied are aware of being observed.
Term
 frequency distribution
Definition
 ordered count of the number of cases that take on each value of a variable.
Term
 Coders
Definition
 people who are part of the research team or are employed by it, who can read each key word in context. They are also known as judges.
Term
Definition
 play role of critic or antagonist, questioning and challenging respondents' remarkes in hopes of forcing them to reveal information in order to defend their views or prove a point.
Term
 Word frequency counts
Definition
 provide a list of all the words that occur in a text and the number of times they occur.
Term
 grand tour questions (3 types)
Definition
 questions with provide respondents with the opportunity to talk about something they know well. 1- "typical"- asks respondents to describe a typical day in their office 2- "specific"- asks for a description based on some specific parameter decided by the interviewer, 3-"task-related"- asks respondents to carry out a common task while describing it to the interviewer
Term
 coefficient of determination (R^2)
Definition
 regression sum of squares/total sum of squares. tells us how close all the data plots came to touching the "line" projected by our model the multiple regression coefficient tells how much of the variance in the values on a dependent variable is "explained" by variance in a set of independent variables
Term
 Pair-comparison scaling
Definition
 relies on the decision of a group of judges about the meaning or intensity of a term.
Term
 focus group
Definition
 small group of carefully selected individuals for an in-depth discussion of some topic guided by a moderator, in order to learn how people think about that topic.
Term
 univariate statistics
Definition
 statistics describing the characteristics of individual variables
Term
 bivariate statistics
Definition
 statistics which summarize the relationship between two variables
Term
 unobtrusive research
Definition
 subjects are unaware of being observed.
Term
 Substance vs Structure content analysis
Definition
 substance- meanings of words and content, structure- what is said rather than how it is said.
Term
 observation protocol
Definition
 tells the observer what to look for, the order in which to make observations, and the way to record the results.
Term
 quantile ranges
Definition
 a measure of dispersion for ordinal variables
Term
 variation ratio
Definition
 tells us the percentage of all cases that do not fit into the modal category.
Term
 dispersion
Definition
 an indicator of variation around the measure of central tendency, that is, an indicator of its representativeness.
Term
 Intercoder reliability
Definition
 the degree of consensus reached about the meaning of content.
Term
 elite interviewing vs survey interview
Definition
 the degree of how standardized the interview is
Term
 interobserver reliability
Definition
 the degree to which different observers classify similar events in the same way on the observation schedule.
Term
 structured vs unstructured observation
Definition
 the distinction is made on the basis of the degree to which the researcher organizes or structures the process of observation by imposing a preconceived set of concepts and categories.
Term
 mode
Definition
 the most frequently occurring value
Term
 Unit of analysis
Definition
 the particular element or characteristic of a given communication that we shall examine, count, or assess.
Term
 Content Analysis
Definition
 the systematic counting, assessing, and interpreting of the form and substance of communication.
Term
 median
Definition
 the value of the middle case in a distribution
Term
 association
Definition
 there is an association between two variables when knowing the value of one for a given case improves the odds of our guessing correctly the corresponding value of the second.
Term
 judgemental sample
Definition
 a sample in which specific cases are purposely selected.
Term
 participant observation
Definition
 when researchers actually become part of the events under study.
Term
 method effect
Definition
 when researchers data collection efforts have, in some way, influenced the data that are obtained and have produced an inaccurate picture of the reality they hope to understand.
Term
 Types of units of analysis (3)
Definition
 word- identify key words and count the frequency in which they appear, theme- a particular combination of words or ideas, such as a phrase, a sentence, or even a paragraph, item- the communication itself taken as a whole.
Term
 gamma
Definition
 a coefficient of association between two ordinal variables
Term
 multiple regression
Definition
 a statistical procedure for examining the relationship among a dependent variable and several independent variables.
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