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POE - 120 flashcards
Flashcards for poe-120 at the college of idaho
International Studies
Undergraduate 1

Additional International Studies Flashcards




"POWER" as defined in Dayley's class tends to mean "the ability to make someone do what they would not otherwise do.
A system in which there is no centralized power. Tends to be discussed in concert with international relations, wherein there is no power with authority over individual states.
League of Nations
Founded as a result of treaty of versailles post wwI, (1919-20)

Intended to uphold rights of man, promote disarmament, and provide for war prevention through a collective security mechanism.

Brought about by wilson, yet wilson failed to convince usa to join the league of nations.
A nebulous term : defined on wikipedia as "an exclusive right to manage a government, a people, a country, or oneself. Often cited as one of the principal factors in international relations

how convenient we can't define it.
Power Continuum
A continuum of the different ways that one can apply power, ranging from asking on one end to war on the other. Sanctions, tarriffs, blockates, & etc are included on this continuum.

Balance of Power
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In the international relations, a balance of power exists when there is parity or stability between competing forces. As a term in international law for a 'just equilibrium' between the members of the family of nations, it expresses the doctrine intended to prevent any one nation from becoming sufficiently strong so as to enable it to enforce its will upon the rest.
"BoP" is a central concept in neorealist theory. Within a balance of power system, a state may choose to engage in either balancing or bandwagoning behavior. In a time of war, the decision to balance or to bandwagon may well determine the survival of the state.
Truman Doctrine
A doctrine which emphasized the need for the us of a to provide help to countries resisting the specter of communism

represents the "hard side" of containment.

"One of the primary objectives of the foreign policy of the United States is the creation of conditions in which we and other nations will be able to work out a way of life free from coercion. This was a fundamental issue in the war with Germany and Japan. Our victory was won over countries which sought to impose their will, and their way of life, upon other nations." He called upon the U.S. to "support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures,"

- President Harry S Truman's address before a joint session of Congress on March 12, 1947

A policy aimed at "containing" the expansion of soviet interests and supporting groups in foreign countries temporarily allied with the US in fighting the soviets.


Rosseau's Stag-Hare Parable

A metaphor to demonstrate a reality of international relations...five hungry hunters are wandering about, and at the same time they see a stag and a hare. If the five cooperate they can catch the stag and have a likelihood of all being able to eat, however each individual can catch the hare and eat individually. A metaphor primarily for the difficulties of cooperating when objectives are not neccesarily shared.
Collective Security
Collective security can be understood as a security arrangement in which all states cooperate collectively to provide security for all by the actions of all against any states within the groups which might challenge the existing order by using force
Deterrence theory/assumptions
Deterrence is a strategy by which governments threaten an immense retaliation if attacked, such that aggressors are deterred if they do not wish to suffer great damage as a result of an aggressive action.

Assumes rational actors who can both be deterred and retaliated against (not so valid against nonstate actors).

Key Actors: State elites; Social groups

View of the individual: Shape norms, culture,and ideas through collective behavior

View of the state: reflect the identities of tehs tate elites and social groups which influence them

View of intl' system: Eschew structures as meaningless; identities and norms are most importatant. Focus on cooperative behavior

Beleives about change: Power via ideas, discourse, culture (not material resources)

Theorists: Wendt, hopf
Neoconservatism (aka neocons)
Key actors: Hegemonic state, powerful states

View of the individual: Deemphasized as determinant of international politcs, but individual liberty is a universal value all people have a right to (and desire)

View of the state: Democratic states are the only states in which conditions of individual liberty can exist

View of int'l system: Anarchical; order established through heirarchy of power; order is not spontaneous but must be made by hegemonic power

Beleifs about change: Powerful actors cause change; use of force is a legitimate means to foster change and expand conditions of liberty

Theorists: Henry "Scoop" Jackson, Bill Kristol, Robert Kagan, Paul Wolfowitz...Democrats disillusioned with liberalism and republicans disillusioned with realism...
Key Actors: Social classes; transnational elties; capitalist states (lenin)

View of the individual: Actions determined by one's class

View of the state: Agent of int'l capitalism unless captured by working class/proletariat

View of Int'l system: Stratified by int'l division of labor

Beleifs about change: Need revolution, radical change

Major theorists: marx, lenin.
Radicalism/Dependency Theory/Structuralism
Key Actors: Core States (richm industrialized North); Semi-periphery; periphery states (less developed south) situated in a "modern world system"

View of the individual: Actions determined by one's place in world economic system

View of the state: Agent of int'l capitalism and MNC's

View of Int'l system: Stratified by int'l division of labor

Beleifs about change: Need structural change in global economy

Theorists: Wallerstein, prebish, galtung
Key Actors: States

View of the individual: Power seeking; selfish; antagonistic; rational

View of the state: Power seeking; unitary actor; seeks national interest

View of int'l system: Anarchy; stability via balance of power system

Beleifs about change: Low change potential: war as instrument of policy

Major theorists: Thucydides, St. Augustine, machiavelli, hobbes, morgenthau
Key actors: States; Interstate organizations

View of the individual: Basically good; Capable of cooperation

View of the int'l system: International society (a society of states)

Beleifs about change: Probable; desirable

major theorists: Montesquieu,Kant, Wilson, Nye
Key actors: states (same as realism)

View of the individual: (unimportant to analysis)

View of the state: Self-interested; power seeking (seeks political and economic power)

View of int'l system: Anarchy, but the "distribution of power" is always present (e.g. Bipolar, multipolar, unipolar)

Beliefs about change: Low change potential; Slow; war is possible but not mandatory for change in the distribution of power

Major theorists: Waltz, Gilpin, Mearsheimer
Neoliberal Institutionalism
Key actors: States NGOs, International Regimes (rules, norms, procedures of int'l law, interstate organizations, and transnational actors)

Views of the individual: Normative Bias toward individual human rights (analytically individuals are less important actors)

View of the state: self ianterested; capable of cooperation

View of int'l system: Interdependence among states in condition of anarchy

Beleifs about change: Possible, especially b.c continuous interactions between actors

Major theorists: Keohane, axelrod.
The Quiet American
Book By Graham Green -

Emphasis on American Naivete in international relations. Aulden Pyle (the quiet american) arrives in america wholly convinced by a scholar (york harding) who beleives that a "third force" of combatants is the answer to the war in vietnam.

The scholar had never been to vietnam...

"You have to get involved to stay human" - refrain to fowler during the book.
Thirteen Days
Takes place during cuban missile crisis.

Soviets have deployed missiles to cuba. Details american/soviet diplomatic response to perceived soviet agression. Example of nuclear brinksmanship...skilled diplomacy prevents american/soviet annhilation by quelling the situation.

Nuclear weapons are "special" weapons that change the game.

Shows a real-life example of the use of deterrence theory...Worked well as rational actors prevailed, but given different leadership outcome might not have been as positive. Shows how deterrence theory's success is highly sensitive to a leader's understanding that a nuclear war is not something that one 'wins'.
Bush's West Point speech
Sets out doctrine of pre-emption, lays out neocon agenda.

Very "us (good) vs. them (bad)"

"Deterrence and containment don't work anymore"

(needs work)
Fukuyama's End of history
Fukuyama's thesis consists of three main elements.[3]

-First, there is an empirical argument. Fukuyama points out that since the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, democracy, which started off as being merely one among many systems of government, has grown until nowadays the majority of governments in the world are termed "democratic". He also points out that democracy's main intellectual alternatives (which he takes to be various forms of dictatorship) have become discredited.

-Second, there is a philosophical argument examining the influence of thymos (or human spiritedness). Fukuyama argues that the original battles for prestige among the first men of history, and the willingness of some to risk their lives in order to receive recognition from another is an unnecessary form of human behavior within a democracy. In essence; the roles of master and slave are rationally understood by both parties to be unsatisfying and self-defeating. This follows the work of Hegel and an Anglo-Saxon tradition typified by John Locke's ideas on self preservation and the right to property.

-Finally Fukuyama also argues that for a variety of reasons, radical socialism (or communism) is likely to be incompatible with modern representative democracy. Therefore, in the future, democracies are overwhelmingly likely to contain markets of some sort, and most are likely to be capitalist or social democratic.
The Clash of Civilizations (samuel p. huntington)
Trends of global conflict after the cold war are increasingly appearing at civilizational divisions

Widespread western beleif in universal western values & political systems is naive...contiued insistence on the adoption of these norms will antagonize other civilizations

Shift of economic/military/political power from the west to the other civilizations of the world
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