Term

Definition
analyzes the relationship between two variables. A table that shows the distribution of cases across the values of the dependent variable for cases that have different values on an independent variable 


Term
curvilinear relationship pg. 61 

Definition
the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable depends on which interval or range of the independent variable is being examined. 


Term

Definition
the variable that represents the effect in a causal explanation. a distinguishing feature is not is weather it is correct or not, but if it can be tested to find out if it is incorrect. 


Term

Definition
a testable statement about the empirical relationship between cause and effect. 


Term
independent variable pg.46 

Definition
the variable that represents a causal factor in an explanation. 


Term
intervening variable pg.53 

Definition
a variable that acts as gobetween or mediator between an independent variable and dependent variable. often they are of central importance in describing "how" the independent is linked to the dependent variable. 


Term

Definition
similar to a bar chart, describes the relationship between variables. 


Term

Definition
an increase in the independent variable is associated with a consistent increase or decrease in the dependent variable. can be positive or negative. for negative linear relationships, any time you compare the dependent variable for subjects having different values on the independent variable its negative. for a positive linear relation each time you compare values of the dependent variable for cases having different values on the independent variable, its positive 


Term
mean comparison table pg. 58 

Definition
table that shows the mean of a dependent variable for cases that have different values on an independent variable. 


Term
negative relationship pg.59 

Definition
EX: incomesmoking relationship:
an increase in the independent variable (income), is associated with a decrease in the dependent variable (likelihood of smoking) 


Term
positive relationship pg.58 

Definition
EX: GDPpolitical rights and freedoms:
an increase in the independent variable (pre capita GDP), is associated with an increase in the dependent variable (political rights and freedoms) 


Term

Definition
a graphic display for data 


Term
bimodal distribution pg. 34 

Definition
a frequency distribution having two different values that are heavily populated with cases 


Term

Definition
a typical or average value. may be measured in mean median or mode. 


Term
cumulative percentage pg.33 

Definition
the percentage of cases at or below any given value of the variable 


Term

Definition
the variation or spread of cases across its values. sometimes a variables most interesting and distinctive feature. 


Term
frequency distribution pg.32 

Definition
a tabular summary of a variable's values. commonly used in data presentations of all kinds 1st column: variable's values 2nd column: number/raw frequency 3rd column: reports % of cases falling into each value of the variable 


Term

Definition
an additive combination of ordinal variables, each of which is identically coded, and all of which are measures of the same concept. 


Term
intervallevel variable pg. 28 

Definition
communicates exact differences between units of analysis. EX. age measured in years 18,24,71 (measures the exact amount of the characteristic) 


Term

Definition
conceived by Rensis Likert, an additive index of 5 or 7 value ordinals, each of which captures the strength and direction of agreement (or disagreement) with a declarative statement. 


Term

Definition
average of a set of numbers 


Term

Definition
the middle most number of the set. half the cases below it, half above it. 


Term

Definition
the vale that contains the largest number of cases or units of analysis 


Term

Definition
information is negative skew if it was a skinnier lefthanded tail 


Term

Definition
a distribution with a longer or skinnier, righthand tail 


Term
nominallevel variable pg.28 

Definition
communicates differences between units of analysis on the characteristic being measured. Ex: marital status 


Term
ordinallevel variable pg.28 

Definition
more precise than nominallevel variables. communicates relative differences between units of analysis. has values that can be ranked, the ranking is reflected in the variable's numeric codes. Ex: 14...strongly oppose, oppose, agree, strongly agree 


Term

Definition
reports the percentage of cases in a distribution that lie below it 


Term

Definition
the actual number or raw data of what is being measured 


Term
resistant measure of central tendency pg.38 

Definition
another name for the "median". less sensitive to outliers 


Term

Definition
the totals of the raw frequencies 


Term

Definition
an empirical measurement of a characteristic 


Term
aggregatelevel unit of analysis pg.12 

Definition
a collection of individual entities. Ex: neighborhoods or census tracts, congressional districts, states, and countries 


Term
alternativeform method pg.18 

Definition
investigator administers 2 different but equivalent versions of the instrumentone form at time point 1 and the equivalent form at time point 2 


Term

Definition
an idea or mental construct that represents phenomena in the real world 


Term
conceptual definition pg.8 

Definition
clearly describes the concept's measurable properties and specifies the units of analysis to which the concept applies 


Term
conceptional dimension pg.11 

Definition
defined by a set of concrete traits of similar type 


Term

Definition
a question expressed using ideas. is frequently unclear and thus is difficult to answer empirically. 


Term

Definition
a question expressed using tangible properties . can be answered empirically. 


Term

Definition
researcher examines the empirical relationships between a measurement and other concepts to which it should be related. 


Term

Definition
a natural methodological extension of the splithalf technique. instead of evaluating consistency between separate halves of a scale, is compares consistency between pairs of individual items and provides an overall reading of the measure's reliability. 


Term
crosssectional study pg.19 

Definition
contains information on units of analysis measured at one point in time 


Term

Definition
arises when an aggregatelevel phenomenon is used to make inferences at the individual level. 


Term

Definition
investigator uses informed judgement to determine weather an operational procedure is measuring what it is suppose to measure. 


Term

Definition
inadvertently measures a subject's response to the knowledge that he or she is being studied. Ex: Test anxiety 


Term
individuallevel unit of analysis pg.12 

Definition
used when a concept describes a phenomenon at its lowest possible level. 


Term
multidimensional concept pg.11 

Definition
has 2 or more distinct groups of empirical characteristics. each group contains empirical traits that are similar to each other. also, each group of traits is qualitatively distinct from other groups of traits 


Term
operational definition pg.8 

Definition
describes the instrument to be used in measuring the concept and putting a conceptional definition "into operation" 


Term

Definition
contains information on the same units of analysis measured at two or more points in time 


Term
random measurement error pg.15 

Definition
a random mistake in the data...usually an accident while recording 


Term

Definition
contains information on the same units of analysis measured at two or more points in time 


Term

Definition
in terms of measuring, it the extent to which it is a consistent measure of a concept. a perfectly reliable measure give the same reading every time it is taken. 


Term

Definition
based on the idea that an operational measurement obtained from half of a scale's items should be the same as the measurement obtained from the other half. 


Term
systematic measurement error pg.15 

Definition
introduces consistent, chronic distortion into an empirical measurement 


Term

Definition
investigator applies the measure once and then applies it again to the same units of analysis. if measurement is reliable, then the 2 results should be the same or very similar 


Term

Definition
the entity (person, city, country, university, state, ect.) we want to describe and analyze; it is the entity to which the concept applies 


Term

Definition
in terms of measurement, is the extent to which it records the true value of the intended characteristic and does not measure any unintended characteristics. 

