# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

PLS 201
First Exam (Ch. 1-3)
57
Political Studies
02/09/2011

Term
 cross-tabulation pg.55
Definition
 analyzes the relationship between two variables. A table that shows the distribution of cases across the values of the dependent variable for cases that have different values on an independent variable
Term
 curvilinear relationship pg. 61
Definition
 the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable depends on which interval or range of the independent variable is being examined.
Term
 dependent variable pg.46
Definition
 the variable that represents the effect in a causal explanation. a distinguishing feature is not is weather it is correct or not, but if it can be tested to find out if it is incorrect.
Term
 hypothesis p.45
Definition
 a testable statement about the empirical relationship between cause and effect.
Term
 independent variable pg.46
Definition
 the variable that represents a causal factor in an explanation.
Term
 intervening variable pg.53
Definition
 a variable that acts as go-between or mediator between an independent variable and dependent variable. often they are of central importance in describing "how" the independent is linked to the dependent variable.
Term
 line chart pg. 59
Definition
 similar to a bar chart, describes the relationship between variables.
Term
 linear relation pg. 60
Definition
 an increase in the independent variable is associated with a consistent increase or decrease in the dependent variable. can be positive or negative. for negative linear relationships, any time you compare the dependent variable for subjects having different values on the independent variable its negative. for a positive linear relation each time you compare values of the dependent variable for cases having different values on the independent variable, its positive
Term
 mean comparison table pg. 58
Definition
 table that shows the mean of a dependent variable for cases that have different values on an independent variable.
Term
 negative relationship pg.59
Definition
 EX: income-smoking relationship:an increase in the independent variable (income), is associated with a decrease in the dependent variable (likelihood of smoking)
Term
 positive relationship pg.58
Definition
 EX: GDP-political rights and freedoms:an increase in the independent variable (pre capita GDP), is associated with an increase in the dependent variable (political rights and freedoms)
Term
 bar chart pg. 33
Definition
 a graphic display for data
Term
 bimodal distribution pg. 34
Definition
 a frequency distribution having two different values that are heavily populated with cases
Term
 central tendency pg.31
Definition
 a typical or average value. may be measured in mean median or mode.
Term
 cumulative percentage pg.33
Definition
 the percentage of cases at or below any given value of the variable
Term
 dispersion pg. 31
Definition
 the variation or spread of cases across its values. sometimes a variables most interesting and distinctive feature.
Term
 frequency distribution pg.32
Definition
 a tabular summary of a variable's values. commonly used in data presentations of all kinds1st column: variable's values2nd column: number/raw frequency3rd column: reports % of cases falling into each value of the variable
Term
 index pg.29
Definition
 an additive combination of ordinal variables, each of which is identically coded, and all of which are measures of the same concept.
Term
 interval-level variable pg. 28
Definition
 communicates exact differences between units of analysis.EX. age measured in years 18,24,71 (measures the exact amount of the characteristic)
Term
 Likert scale pg.29
Definition
 conceived by Rensis Likert, an additive index of 5- or 7- value ordinals, each of which captures the strength and direction of agreement (or disagreement) with a declarative statement.
Term
 mean pg. 31
Definition
 average of a set of numbers
Term
 median pg.31
Definition
 the middle most number of the set. half the cases below it, half above it.
Term
 mode pg.31
Definition
 the vale that contains the largest number of cases or units of analysis
Term
 negative skew pg.38
Definition
 information is negative skew if it was a skinnier left-handed tail
Term
 positive skew pg.38
Definition
 a distribution with a longer or skinnier, right-hand tail
Term
 nominal-level variable pg.28
Definition
 communicates differences between units of analysis on the characteristic being measured. Ex: marital status
Term
 ordinal-level variable pg.28
Definition
 more precise than nominal-level variables. communicates relative differences between units of analysis. has values that can be ranked, the ranking is reflected in the variable's numeric codes.Ex: 1-4...strongly oppose, oppose, agree, strongly agree
Term
 percentile pg.35
Definition
 reports the percentage of cases in a distribution that lie below it
Term
 raw frequency pg.32
Definition
 the actual number or raw data of what is being measured
Term
 resistant measure of central tendency pg.38
Definition
 another name for the "median". less sensitive to outliers
Term
 total frequency pg.33
Definition
 the totals of the raw frequencies
Term
 variable pg.26
Definition
 an empirical measurement of a characteristic
Term
 aggregate-level unit of analysis pg.12
Definition
 a collection of individual entities. Ex: neighborhoods or census tracts, congressional districts, states, and countries
Term
 alternative-form method pg.18
Definition
 investigator administers 2 different but equivalent versions of the instrument--one form at time point 1 and the equivalent form at time point 2
Term
 concept pg.7
Definition
 an idea or mental construct that represents phenomena in the real world
Term
 conceptual definition pg.8
Definition
 clearly describes the concept's measurable properties and specifies the units of analysis to which the concept applies
Term
 conceptional dimension pg.11
Definition
 defined by a set of concrete traits of similar type
Term
 conceptual question pg.8
Definition
 a question expressed using ideas. is frequently unclear and thus is difficult to answer empirically.
Term
 concrete question pg.8
Definition
 a question expressed using tangible properties . can be answered empirically.
Term
 construct validity pg.20
Definition
 researcher examines the empirical relationships between a measurement and other concepts to which it should be related.
Term
 Cronbach's alpha pg.19
Definition
 a natural methodological extension of the split-half technique. instead of evaluating consistency between separate halves of a scale, is compares consistency between pairs of individual items and provides an overall reading of the measure's reliability.
Term
 cross-sectional study pg.19
Definition
 contains information on units of analysis measured at one point in time
Term
 ecological fallacy pg.13
Definition
 arises when an aggregate-level phenomenon is used to make inferences at the individual level.
Term
 face validity pg 20
Definition
 investigator uses informed judgement to determine weather an operational procedure is measuring what it is suppose to measure.
Term
 Hawthorne effect pg.16
Definition
 inadvertently measures a subject's response to the knowledge that he or she is being studied. Ex: Test anxiety
Term
 individual-level unit of analysis pg.12
Definition
 used when a concept describes a phenomenon at its lowest possible level.
Term
 multidimensional concept pg.11
Definition
 has 2 or more distinct groups of empirical characteristics. each group contains empirical traits that are similar to each other. also, each group of traits is qualitatively distinct from other groups of traits
Term
 operational definition pg.8
Definition
 describes the instrument to be used in measuring the concept and putting a conceptional definition "into operation"
Term
 panel study pg.19
Definition
 contains information on the same units of analysis measured at two or more points in time
Term
 random measurement error pg.15
Definition
 a random mistake in the data...usually an accident while recording
Term
 panel study pg.19
Definition
 contains information on the same units of analysis measured at two or more points in time
Term
 reliability pg.17
Definition
 in terms of measuring, it the extent to which it is a consistent measure of a concept. a perfectly reliable measure give the same reading every time it is taken.
Term
 split-half method pg.19
Definition
 based on the idea that an operational measurement obtained from half of a scale's items should be the same as the measurement obtained from the other half.
Term
 systematic measurement error pg.15
Definition
 introduces consistent, chronic distortion into an empirical measurement
Term
 test-retest method pg.18
Definition
 investigator applies the measure once and then applies it again to the same units of analysis. if measurement is reliable, then the 2 results should be the same or very similar
Term
 unit of analysis pg.12
Definition
 the entity (person, city, country, university, state, ect.) we want to describe and analyze; it is the entity to which the concept applies
Term
 validity pg.17
Definition
 in terms of measurement, is the extent to which it records the true value of the intended characteristic and does not measure any unintended characteristics.
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