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Physics
Chapter 22
16
Physics
04/29/2006

Term
 Electricity
Definition
 General term for electrical phenomena, much like gravity has to do with gravitational phenomena, or sociology with social phenomena.
Term
 Electrostatistics
Definition
 The study of electric charge at rest.
Term
 Conservation of charge
Definition
 Electric charge is neither created nor destroyed. The total charge before an interaction equals the total charge after.
Term
 Coulomb's Law
Definition
 The relationship between electrical force, charge, and distance. If the charges are alike in sign, the force is repulsive; if the charges are unlike, the force is attractive.
Term
 Coulomb
Definition
 The SI unit of electrical charge. One coulomb is equal to the total charge of 6.25 x 10^18 electrons.
Term
 Conductor
Definition
 Any material having free charged particles that easily flow through it when an electric force acts on them.
Term
 Insulator
Definition
 A material without free charged particles and through which charge does not easily flow.
Term
 Semiconductor
Definition
 A device composed of material not only with properties that fall between a conductor and an insulator but with resistance that changes abruptly when other conditions change, such as temperature, voltage, and electric or magnetic fields.
Term
 Superconductor
Definition
 A material that is a perfect conductor with zero resistance to the flow of electric charge.
Term
 Charging by contact
Definition
 Transfer of electric charge between objects by rubbing or simple touching.
Term
 Charging by induction
Definition
 Redistribution of electric charges in and on objects caused by the electrical influence of a charged object close by but not in contact.
Term
 Electrically Polarized
Definition
 Term applied to an atom or molecule in which the charges are aligned so that one side has a slight excess of positive charge and the other side a slight excess of negative charge.
Term
 Electric field
Definition
 Defined as force per unit charge, it can be considered to be an "aura" surrounding charged objects and is a storehouse of electric energy. About a charged point, the field decreases with distance according to the inverse-square law, like a gravitational field. Between oppositely charged parallel plates, the electric field is uniform.
Term
 Electric potential energy
Definition
 The energy a charged object possesses by virtue of its location in an electric field.
Term
 Electric Potential
Definition
 The electric potential energy per unit of charge, measured in volts, and often called voltage.
Term
 Capacitor
Definition
 An electrical device-in its simplest form, a pair of paralllel conducting plates seperated by a small distance-that stores electric charge and energy.
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