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the study of matter and energy and their relationships 


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a method of treating units as algebraic quantities, which can be cancelled; can be used to check that an answer will be in the correct units 


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all the valid digits in a measurement, the number of which indicates the measurement’s precision all nonzero are significant leading zeros are not captive and trailing are 


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a systematic method of observing, experimenting, and analyzing to answer questions about the natural world 


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an educated, testable guess about how variables are related 


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a wellestablished rule about the natural world that sums up, but doesn’t explain, a pattern in nature 


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an explanation based on numerous observations, supported by experimental results, that may explain why things may work the way they do 


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a comparison between an unknown quantity and a standard 


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a characteristic of a measured value describing the degree of exactness of a measurement 


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a characteristic of a measured value that describes how well the results of a measurement agree with the "real" value, which is the accepted value, as measured by competent experiments 


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the factor that is changed or manipulated during an experiment 


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the factor in an experiment that depends on the independent variable 


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a line that best passes through or near graphed data; used to describe data and predict where new data will appear on the graph 


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a type of relationship that exists between two variables whose graphed data points lie on a straight line 


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a parabolic relationship that results when one variable depends on the square of another variable 


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a hyperbolic relationship that results when one variable depends on the inverse of another variable 


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a series of images showing the positions of a moving objects taken at regular (equal) time intervals 


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a simplified version of a motion diagram in which the moving object is replaced by a series of single points 


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a system used to describe motion that gives the zero point location of the variable being studied and the direction in which the values of the variable increase 


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the point at which both variables in a coordinate system have the value zero 


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the separation between an object and the origin; it can be either positive or negative 


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a scalar quantity that describes how far an object is from the origin 


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Definition


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quantities, such as position, that have both magnitude and direction 


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quantities, such as temperature or distance, that are just numbers without any direction 


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a vector that results from the sum of two other vectors; it always points from the first vector’s tail to the last vecto's tip 


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the difference between two times; final time initial time 


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a change in position having both magnitude and direction; is equal to the final position minus the initial position 


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a graph that can be used to determine an object’s velocity and position, as well as where and when two objects meet, by plotting the time data on the xaxis and the position data on the yaxis 


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the position of an object at any particular instant in time 


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the change in position, divided by the time during which the change occurred; the slope of an object's position time graph 


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how fast an object is moving; is the absolute value of the slope of an object’s positiontime graph cant be negative 


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a measure of motion that tells the speed and direction of an object at a specific instant in time 


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a graph that can be used to plot the velocity of an object vs time and to determine the sign of an object's acceleration 


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the rate at which the velocity of an object changes 


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the change in an object’s velocity during a measurable time interval, divided by that specific time interval; measured in m/s^{2} 


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instantaneous acceleration 

Definition
the change in an object’s velocity at a specific instant of time 


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Definition
the motion of a body when air resistance is negligible and the motion can be considered due to the force of gravity alone 


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acceleration due to gravity 

Definition
the acceleration of an object in free fall, resulting from the influence of Earth’s gravity; acceleration due to gravity on Earth, g, is 9.80 m/s^{2} toward the center of Earth 


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a push or pull exerted on an object that causes a change in motion; vector b/c it has both direction and magnitude 


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a physical model that represents the forces acting on a system 


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the vector sum of all the forces on an object 


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states that the acceleration of an object is proportional to the net force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object being accelerated 


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states that an object at rest will remain at rest, and a moving object will continue moving in a straight line with constant speed, if and only if the net force acting on that object is zero 


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the tendency of an object to resist change 


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the condition in which the net force on an object is zero 


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the force experienced by an object, resulting from all the forces acting it, giving the object an acceleration 


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an object's apparent weight of 0 that results when there are no control forces pushing up on the object 


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the forces exerted by a fluid on an object moving through the fluid; depends on the object's motion and properties and the fluid's properties 


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the constant velocity of an object that is reached when the drag force equals the force of gravity 


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a pair of forces that are equal in strength, but opposite in direction 


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states that all forces come in pairs and that the two forces in a pair act on different objects and are equal in strength and opposite in direction 


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the specific name for the force exerted by a rope or a string 


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the perpendicular contact force exerted by a surface on another object 


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projections of the component vectors 


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the process of breaking a vector into its components 


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the force exerted on one surface by a second surface when the two surfaces rub against one another because one or both of the surfaces are moving 


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the force exerted on one surface by a second surface when there is no motion between the two surfaces 


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coefficiant of kinetic friction 

Definition
the slope of a line, m_{k , between two surfaces, relating frictional force to normal force} 


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coefficient of static friction 

Definition
a dimensionless constant depending on the two surfaces in contact. It is used to calculate the maximum static frictional force that needs to be overcome before motion begins 


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Definition
a force that places an object in equilibrium; is the same magnitude as the resultant, but opposite in direction 

