# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Physics
Energy Flow in Technological Systems
173
Physics
10/31/2012

Term
 We can analyze the motion of an object only if we compare the object's position to another point. This point is called a _________ point, all all observations are made to that point.
Definition
 We can analyze the motion of an object only if we compare the object's position to another point. This point is called a reference point, all observations are made to that point.
Term
 The ______ of an object occurs when an imaginary line joining the object to the reference point changes in ______ or _______ or both.
Definition
 The motion of an object occurs when an imaginary line joining the object to the reference point changes in length or direction or both.
Term
 When does the motion of an object occur ?
Definition
 The motion of an object occurs when an imaginary line joining the object to the reference point changes in length or direction or both.
Term
 What is the simplest type of motion ?
Definition
 The simplest type of motion is uniform motion.
Term
 _________ _______ is a term used to describe an object that is traveling at a constant rate of motion in a straight line.
Definition
 Uniform Motion is a term used to describe an object that is traveling at a constant rate of motion in a straight line.
Term
 TRUE OR FALSE.It is almost impossible to maintain motion in a perfectly straight line in everyday situations.
Definition
 TRUE.It is almost impossible to maintain motion in a perfectly straight line in everyday situations.
Term
 Because uniform motion is difficult to maintain, the term _________ ______ is usually used. It is a uniform motion that involves traveling a distance in a specified time.
Definition
 Because uniform motion is difficult to maintain, the average speed is usually used. Average speed is uniform motion that involves traveling a distance in a specified time.
Term
 What is the formula for velocity ?
Definition
 V = Δd / Δt
Term
 What is the formula for average speed ?
Definition
 average speed = distance travelled / time elapsed.
Term
 Why is it important to use graphs when studying uniform motion ?
Definition
 A graph is an important tool for studying uniform motion because it not only shows the relationship between the two variables, but also provides a visual representation of the motion.
Term
 What are the two types of graphs that can be used to study uniform motion ?
Definition
 For uniform motion, there are two types of graphs that can be used. They are a distance-time graph and a speed-time graph.
Term
 TRUE OR FALSE.As long as the line is straight, the object represented in the graph is displaying uniform motion. If the line of best fit were a curve of any type, this would mean the object was changing distance travelled in equal time intervals.
Definition
 TRUE.As long as the line is a straight line, the object represented in the graph is displaying uniform motion. If the line of best fir were a curve of any type, this would mean the object was changing distance travelled in equal time intervals.
Term
 How can you determine if an object is in uniform motion?
Definition
 The slope (slope = rise/run) = 0 indicates a speed to be uniform.
Term
 When is an object traveling at uniform motion?
Definition
 When that object is moving in a straight line at a constant speed.
Term
 ________ describes both the rate of motion and the direction of an object.
Definition
 Velocity describes both the rate of motion and the direction of an object.
Term
 What is the difference between speed and velocity?
Definition
 The difference between speed and velocity is that speed is a scalar quantity, and velocity is a vector quantity.
Term
 TRUE OR FALSE.Not all quantities in science can be classified as either scalar or vector quantities.
Definition
 FALSE.All quantities in science can be classified as either scalar or vector quantities.
Term
 A _______ quantity is one that only indicates "how much" (the magnitude) of the quantity.
Definition
 A scalar quantity is the one that only indicates "how much" (the magnitude) of the quantity,
Term
 A _______ quantity indicates "how much" (the magnitude) and the direction of the quantity.
Definition
 A vector quantity indicates "how much" (the magnitude) and the direction of the quantity.
Term
 How is a vector quantity written ?
Definition
 A vector quantity is written with a vector arrow above the symbol for the measured quantity. For example, the symbol for speed is v, and the symbol for velocity is a v with an arrow on top.
Term
 What are two examples of related scalar and vector quantities.
Definition
 Distance travelled and displacement are two other examples of related scalar and vector quantities.
Term
 Distance travelled is a _______ quantity.
Definition
 Distance travelled is a scalar quantity. It is a measurement of the change in distance of an object moving from a starting reference point.
Term
 Displacement is a _______ quantity.
Definition
 Displacement is a vector quantity. It is a measurement of change in distance and the direction or the change in position of an object from a reference to a point.
Term
 A person moves 3m to the right of a bus stop and than left 5m, putting her final position at 2m left of the bus stop. The distance (Δd) is the total distance travelled by the person on both sides of the bus stop. So Δd is 8m. The displacement (Δd→) is the person's change in position relative to the bus stop. So Δd→ is only 2m (left).
Definition
 A person moves 3m to the right of a bus stop and than left 5m, putting her final position at 2m left of the bus stop. The distance (Δd) is the total distance travelled by the person on both sides of the bus stop. So Δd is 8m. The displacement (Δd→) is the person's change in position relative to the bus stop. So Δd→ is only 2m (left).
Term
 You are describing ______ when you record distance travelled and displacement. You must indicate this by using the ___ notation to indicate a change in the distance or the position of an object.
Definition
 You are describing motion when you record distance travelled and displacement. You must indicate this by using the "Δ" notation to indicate a change in the distance or the position of the object.
Term
 Ex. The difference between distance and displacement:- The distance travelled by the person is Δd =3m + 5m = 8m- The displacement of the person relative to the bus stop is Δd→ = 3m (right) + -5m (left) = -2m (left).
Definition
 Ex. The difference between distance and displacement:- The distance travelled by the person is Δd =3m + 5m = 8m- The displacement of the person relative to the bus stop is Δd→ = 3m (right) + -5m (left) = -2m (left).
Term
 What is the X-Axis method ?
Definition
 The x-axis method for determining vector directions uses the mathematical method of setting up a coordinate system grid with an "x" axis and a "y" axis, similar to a graph.
Term
 On an x-axis grid ;(up) and (right) are _______.(down) and (left) are ________.Directions between the axis lines are given only in degrees and are not given a positive or negative value.
Definition
 On a x-axis grid ; (up) and (right) are positive.(down) and (left) are negative.Directions between the axis lines are given only in degrees and are not given a positive or negative value.
Term
 What is the Navigator Method ?
Definition
 The navigator method uses the directions of north (N), south (S), east (E) & west (W) on a grid to identify vector directions.
Term
 When using the Navigator Method, where is the starting point ?
Definition
 North is the starting reference point of 0°. In this method, directions are stated clockwise from north.
Term
 On a navigator grid ; (N) and (E) are _______.(S) and (W) are _______.Directions between the axis lines are given only in degrees and are not given a positive or negative value.
Definition
 On a navigator grid ; (N) and (E) are positive.(S) and (W) are negative.Directions between the axis lines are given only in degrees and are not given a positive or negative value.
Term
 REMEMBER TO READ VECTOR PROBLEMS CAREFULLY TO SEE WHICH METHOD YOU ARE SUPPOSED TO USE TO SOLVE THEM (A-AXIS) OR (NAVIGATOR).
Definition
 REMEMBER TO READ VECTOR PROBLEMS CAREFULLY TO SEE WHICH METHOD YOU ARE SUPPOSED TO USE TO SOLVE THEM (A-AXIS) OR (NAVIGATOR).
Term
 Both distance travelled and speed are _______ quantities.
Definition
 Both distance travelled and speed are scalar quantities.
Term
 To calculate average velocity, you use _________.
Definition
 To calculate average velocity, you use displacement.
Term
 Both displacement and velocity are _______ quantities,
Definition
 Both displacement and velocity are vector quantities.
Term
 Scalar or Vector quantity ; Distance
Definition
 Scalar Quantity.
Term
 Scalar or Vector quantity ; Speed
Definition
 Scalar Quantity.
Term
 Scalar or Vector quantity ; Displacement
Definition
 Vector Quantity.
Term
 Scalar or Vector quantity ; Velocity.
Definition
 Vector Quantity.
Term
 Is this an example of velocity ?The average velocity of a car on the highway from Edmonton to Red Deer might be 100km/h (S).
Definition
 Yes, this is an example of velocity.
Term
 What are two examples of related scalar and vector quantities.
Definition
 Distance travelled and displacement are two other examples of related scalar and vector quantities.
Term
 Distance travelled is a _______ quantity.
Definition
 Distance travelled is a scalar quantity. It is a measurement of the change in distance of an object moving from a starting reference point.
Term
 Displacement is a _______ quantity.
Definition
 Displacement is a vector quantity. It is a measurement of change in distance and the direction or the change in position of an object from a reference to a point.
Term
 A person moves 3m to the right of a bus stop and than left 5m, putting her final position at 2m left of the bus stop. The distance (Δd) is the total distance travelled by the person on both sides of the bus stop. So Δd is 8m. The displacement (Δd→) is the person's change in position relative to the bus stop. So Δd→ is only 2m (left).
Definition
 A person moves 3m to the right of a bus stop and than left 5m, putting her final position at 2m left of the bus stop. The distance (Δd) is the total distance travelled by the person on both sides of the bus stop. So Δd is 8m. The displacement (Δd→) is the person's change in position relative to the bus stop. So Δd→ is only 2m (left).
Term
 You are describing ______ when you record distance travelled and displacement. You must indicate this by using the ___ notation to indicate a change in the distance or the position of an object.
Definition
 You are describing motion when you record distance travelled and displacement. You must indicate this by using the "Δ" notation to indicate a change in the distance or the position of the object.
Term
 Ex. The difference between distance and displacement:- The distance travelled by the person is Δd =3m + 5m = 8m- The displacement of the person relative to the bus stop is Δd→ = 3m (right) + -5m (left) = -2m (left).
Definition
 Ex. The difference between distance and displacement:- The distance travelled by the person is Δd =3m + 5m = 8m- The displacement of the person relative to the bus stop is Δd→ = 3m (right) + -5m (left) = -2m (left).
Term
 What is the X-Axis method ?
Definition
 The x-axis method for determining vector directions uses the mathematical method of setting up a coordinate system grid with an "x" axis and a "y" axis, similar to a graph.
Term
 On an x-axis grid ;(up) and (right) are _______.(down) and (left) are ________.Directions between the axis lines are given only in degrees and are not given a positive or negative value.
Definition
 On a x-axis grid ; (up) and (right) are positive.(down) and (left) are negative.Directions between the axis lines are given only in degrees and are not given a positive or negative value.
Term
 What is the Navigator Method ?
Definition
 The navigator method uses the directions of north (N), south (S), east (E) & west (W) on a grid to identify vector directions.
Term
 When using the Navigator Method, where is the starting point ?
Definition
 North is the starting reference point of 0°. In this method, directions are stated clockwise from north.
Term
 On a navigator grid ; (N) and (E) are _______.(S) and (W) are _______.Directions between the axis lines are given only in degrees and are not given a positive or negative value.
Definition
 On a navigator grid ; (N) and (E) are positive.(S) and (W) are negative.Directions between the axis lines are given only in degrees and are not given a positive or negative value.
Term
 REMEMBER TO READ VECTOR PROBLEMS CAREFULLY TO SEE WHICH METHOD YOU ARE SUPPOSED TO USE TO SOLVE THEM (A-AXIS) OR (NAVIGATOR).
Definition
 REMEMBER TO READ VECTOR PROBLEMS CAREFULLY TO SEE WHICH METHOD YOU ARE SUPPOSED TO USE TO SOLVE THEM (A-AXIS) OR (NAVIGATOR).
Term
 Both distance travelled and speed are _______ quantities.
Definition
 Both distance travelled and speed are scalar quantities.
Term
 To calculate average velocity, you use _________.
Definition
 To calculate average velocity, you use displacement.
Term
 Both displacement and velocity are _______ quantities,
Definition
 Both displacement and velocity are vector quantities.
Term
 Scalar or Vector quantity ; Distance
Definition
 Scalar Quantity.
Term
 Scalar or Vector quantity ; Speed
Definition
 Scalar Quantity.
Term
 Scalar or Vector quantity ; Displacement
Definition
 Vector Quantity.
Term
 Scalar or Vector quantity ; Velocity.
Definition
 Vector Quantity.
Term
 Is this an example of velocity ?The average velocity of a car on the highway from Edmonton to Red Deer might be 100km/h (S).
Definition
 Yes, this is an example of velocity.
Term
 Average Velocity is uniform motion that involves changing a position in a specified time. What is the equation to determine the average velocity quantitatively.
Definition
 Average Velocity = displacement/time elapsed.V→ = Δd→ / Δt= d→ final - d→ initial / t final - t initial.
Term
 Velocity is a vector quantity, so you must state its _________ & _________.
Definition
 Velocity is a vector quantity, so you must state its magnitude & direction.
Term
 Why are graphs an important tool for studying uniform motion ?
Definition
 Graphs are an important tool for studying uniform motion. They show the relationship between two variables and provide a visual representation of the motion.
Term
 Someone studying an objects motion would keep track of both the _____ & _______ to determine velocity.
Definition
 Someone studying an objects motion would keep track of both the speed & direction to determine the velocity.
Term
 Someone studying an objects motion would keep track of both the speed & direction to determine the ________.
Definition
 Someone studying an objects motion would keep track of both the speed & direction to determine the velocity.
Term
 TRUE OR FALSEMotion is not uniform, when objects increase and decrease velocity.
Definition
 TRUE.Motion is not uniform, when objects increase and decrease velocity.
Term
 What is one difference between a scalar and a vector quantity?
Definition
 Speed is a scalar quantity, where as velocity is a vector quantity.A scalar quantity is one that only indicates "how much" (the magnitude) of the quantity. A vector quantity indicates "how much" (the magnitude) and the direction of the quantity.
Term
 What are two examples of scalar quantities ?
Definition
 Speed & Distance.
Term
 What are two examples of vector quantities ?
Definition
 Velocity & Displacement.
Term
 The change in velocity during a specific time interval is called ____________.
Definition
 The change in velocity during a specific time interval is called acceleration.
Term
 What is the simplest type of motion ?
Definition
 Uniform motion is the simplest type of motion.
Term
 What is the most common type of motion ?
Definition
 Acceleration motion is the most common type of motion.
Term
 Like velocity, acceleration is a _______ quantity, so you must determine both its __________ & _________.
Definition
 Like velocity, acceleration is a vector quantity, so you must determine both its magnitude & direction.
Term
 Why are different types of acceleration possible ?
Definition
 Different types of acceleration are possible because both the magnitude and direction of velocity can change.
Term
 When an object is speeding up, the __________ of its velocity is increasing.
Definition
 When an object is speeding up, the magnitude of its velocity is increasing.
Term
 When an object is speeding up, the magnitude of its velocity is _________.
Definition
 When an object is speeding up, the magnitude of its velocity is increasing.
Term
 When an object is speeding up, the magnitude of its _______ is increasing.
Definition
 When an object is speeding up, the magnitude of its velocity is increasing.
Term
 When an object is slowing down, the magnitude of its velocity is _________.
Definition
 When an object is slowing down, the magnitude of the velocity is decreasing.
Term
 When an object is slowing down, the ___________ of the velocity is decreasing.
Definition
 When an object is slowing down, the magnitude of the velocity is decreasing.
Term
 When an object is slowing down, the magnitude of the _______ is decreasing.
Definition
 When an object is slowing down, the magnitude of the velocity is decreasing.
Term
 What are the two ways positive acceleration occurs ?
Definition
 1) When the change in both the magnitude of the velocity and the direction are positive.2) When the change in both the magnitude of the velocity and the direction are negative.
Term
 What are the two ways negative acceleration occurs ?
Definition
 1) When the change in the magnitude of the velocity is negative while the direction is positive.2) When the change in the magnitude of the velocity is positive while the direction is negative.
Term
 What is the formula for acceleration ?
Definition
 Acceleration = change in velocity/time interval.
Term
 The line of best fit for an object traveling with uniform motion was shown to be a straight line. Why was this.
Definition
 The line of best fir for an object traveling with uniform motion was shown to be a straight line because the velocity was uniform.
Term
 What is the line best fit for accelerated motion ?
Definition
 The line best fir for accelerated motion is a smooth curve.
Term
 A graph has an increasing slope, what does this indicate ?
Definition
 A graph has an increasing slope, this indicates positive acceleration.
Term
 A graph has a decreasing slope, what does this indicate ?
Definition
 A graph has a decreasing slope, which indicates negative acceleration.
Term
 A graph has an increasing slope, what does this indicate ?
Definition
 A graph has an increasing slope, this indicates positive acceleration.
Term
 A graph has a decreasing slope, what does this indicate ?
Definition
 A graph has a decreasing slope, which indicates negative acceleration.
Term
 A graph has an increasing slope, what does this indicate ?
Definition
 A graph has an increasing slope, this indicates positive acceleration.
Term
 A graph has a decreasing slope, what does this indicate ?
Definition
 A graph has a decreasing slope, which indicates negative acceleration.
Term
Definition
 The question of why objects exhibit uniform or accelerated motion puzzled philosophers and scientists for centuries.
Term
 Who described the important relationships between forces and motion ? When did he do it ?
Definition
 It wasn't until the 1600's that Isaac Newton described the important relationship between forces and motion
Term
 What did Isaac Newton describe in the 1600's.
Definition
 It wasn't until the 1600's that Isaac Newton described the important relationship between forces and motion
Term
 A ball at rest on a billiard table will _______ __ _____.
Definition
 A ball at rest on a billiard table will remain at rest.
Term
 Why doesn't a ball at rest on a billiard table stay at rest ?
Definition
 It does not move because all forces acting on it are balanced.
Term
 _____ is defined as a push or a pull on an object.
Definition
 Force is defined as a push or a pull on an object.
Term
 What is Force measured in ?
Definition
 Force is measured in Newtons.
Term
 When will a resting ball move ?
Definition
 The resting ball will only move when an unbalanced force is applied to it through a distance.
Term
 When is there an unbalanced force.
Definition
 There is an unbalanced force, when the force acting in one direction is greater than the force acting in the opposite direction.
Term
 What happens when a cue comes in contact with the ball ?
Definition
 If a person hits a stationary ball with a cue, he or she used energy to apply the force. The energy was transferred from the person to the ball through the cue. The ball then gained energy and, as a result, acquired a change in motion.
Term
 Once an object is in motion, it tend to remain in motion, moving at a constant speed in a straight line. What happens if an unbalanced force is applied ?
Definition
 On an object is in motion, it tends to remain in motion, moving at a constant speed in a straight line. However, if an unbalanced force is applied to the moving ball, it will either speed up or slow down (accelerate). If the unbalanced force is applied in the same direction as the ball's motion, the ball will speed up.
Term
 Why does a ball move, when hit by a cue ?
Definition
 The person applying the force to the ball transfers energy to the ball. If the unbalanced force, such as friction between the table and the ball, is applied in the direction opposite to the direction of the ball's motion, the ball will slow down. Without such a resistive force, the ball would tend to keep moving.
Term
 In the absence of any external unbalanced forces, what do objects tend to do ?
Definition
 In the absence of any external unbalanced forces, such as resistive forces, all objects tend to maintain uniform motion or stay at rest.
Term
 Is energy input required to maintain uniform motion ?
Definition
 An object in motion will stay in motion, and no energy input is required to maintain uniform motion.
Term
 What happens when an unbalanced force is applied to an object ?
Definition
 If an unbalanced force is applied to an object, energy is transferred to the object. This causes a change in the motion of the object.
Term
 Can you explain the movement of energy when putting a cork in a bottle of wine ?
Definition
 The person must apply a force to turn the cork borer and, in process, the person uses up energy. This energy is transferred to the cork and the cork borer and results in a change in temperature.
Term
 Whenever a force moves an object through a distance that is on the direction of the force, then _____ is done on the object.
Definition
 Whenever a force moves an object through a distance that is on the direction of the force, then work is done on the object.
Term
 What is the formula for calculating work ?
Definition
 Work = force x distance the object travels.W = Fd
Term
 What is the formula for calculating Joules ?
Definition
 joule = newton x metre
Term
Definition
 In physics, work is a very specific term and has a more specific meaning than its everyday meaning.
Term
 What are the three conditions for work to be done ?
Definition
 There are three conditions for work to be done on an object. 1) There must be movement. 2) There must be force.3) The force and the distance the object travels must be in the same direction.
Term
 When a _____ is applied to move an object through a ________, work is done on the object.
Definition
 When a force is applied to move an object through a distance, work is done on the object.
Term
 How do you calculate work input ?
Definition
 W = Fd
Term
 An object will gain energy as a result of work done on the object, what is this energy called ?
Definition
 An object gains energy as a result of work done on the object. This energy is called energy output or work output.
Term
 In the absence of any outside forces, such as friction, the total work input should (be less than/equal/be more than) the total work output.
Definition
 In the absence of any outside forces, such as friction, the total work input should equal the total work output.
Term
 TRUE OR FALSE. If a body has energy, then the body can do work by transferring the energy to another object.
Definition
 TRUE.If a body has energy, then the body can do work by transferring the energy to another object.
Term
 _______ is the ability to do work.
Definition
 Energy is the ability to do work.
Term
 Are work and energy the same thing ?
Definition
 Yes, work and energy are actually the same thing. If a body does work on an object, then the body doing the work loses energy, and the object that has work done to it, gains energy.
Term
 Change in energy = ____.
Definition
 Change in energy = work.
Term
 ΔE = _.
Definition
 ΔE = W.
Term
 _______ __ ______ = work.
Definition
 Change in energy = work.
Term
 Δ_ = W.
Definition
 ΔE = W
Term
 What is force ?
Definition
 Force = Push or pull applied to an object; measured in newtons.
Term
 Why did the idea of energy elude early scientists ?
Definition
 The idea of energy eluded early scientists because energy is a very difficult concept to define.
Term
 When wood burns, the energy in the cellulose molecules is released, turning to heat. What is this evidence of ?
Definition
 When wood burns, the energy in the cellulose molecules is released, turning to heat. This is evidence that there is energy in a chemical reaction. and that this energy can be converted to heat.
Term
 ________ ______ is the potential energy stored in the chemical bonds of compounds.
Definition
 Chemical Energy is the potential energy stored in the chemical bonds of compounds.
Term
 Just in case you care,
Definition
 The food you eat contains chemical energy that the body uses to do work in the cells.
Term
 ___________, or _________ ______, is the work done by moving charges.
Definition
 Electricity, or electrical energy, is the work done by moving charges.
Term
 What is The Volta Pile ?
Definition
 The Volta Pile - the first battery - was invented by Italian Physicist Alessandro Volta.
Term
 What is The Volta Pile made of ?
Definition
 The Volta Pile is made of stacked layers of two different metals such as copper and silver, with moistened paper sandwiched between each layer. If a wire is connected from either end of the stack to an external circuit, the Volta Pile can produce a constant electric current.
Term
 What does The Volta Pile provide evidence of ?
Definition
 The Volta Pile provides evidence of a connection between chemical energy and electrical energy.
Term
 If you hold a magnet above iron filings, the filings move toward the magnet. What does this indicate ?
Definition
 If you hold a magnet above iron fillings, the fillings move toward the magnet, indicating that magnetism is a form of energy.
Term
 What did Danish physicist & philosopher Hans Oersted discover in 1820 ?
Definition
 That an electrical current in a wire could produce magnetic effects. By accident, he passed a metal wire that had a current passing through it over a compass. As he did this, he noticed that the compass needle moved. The change in the needle's position showed that electricity can produce magnetism. This discovery led to the invention of the electromagnet.
Term
 What did Michael Faraday discover in London, England in 1831 ?
Definition
 While Oersted showed that electricity can produce magnetism, Michael Faraday showed that the reverse can happen. He moved a magnet through a coil of wire and observed that this cause an electric current to flow through the wire.
Term
 In 1821, what did Estonian-German physicist Thomas Seebeck do ?
Definition
 Thomas Seebeck took a strip of one type of metal and joined its ends to a strip of another type of metal to form a loop. He heated one of the junctions of the two metals and kept the other cold. The difference in temperature between the junctions caused the electrons inside the metal to move, producing an electrical current. The magnetic field created by the current caused a compass needle to move. This experiment was evidence that heat could be converted into electricity.
Term
 What did Thomas Edison do in the late 1800's ? What did this show ?
Definition
 The invention of the light bulb by Thomas Edison in the late 1800's showed that heat and light are two forms of energy that could be produced from electricity.
Term
 What did Henri Becquerel observe in France in 1896 ? What did it lead to?
Definition
 In France in 1896, Henri Becquerel observed that certain atoms spontaneously disintegrate, and in the process, emit radiation or radiant energy. This led to the development of a new source of energy, nuclear energy.
Term
 ________ _____ is the potential energy stored in the nucleus of an atom.
Definition
 Nuclear Energy is the potential energy stored in the nucleus of an atom.
Term
 When is nuclear energy released ?
Definition
 Nuclear Energy is the potential energy stored in the nucleus of an atom. When the nucleus of an atom is split (nuclear fission) or when the nuclei of two atoms combine (nuclear fusion), this energy is released.
Term
 What is nuclear fission ?
Definition
 Nuclear fission, is the splitting of an atom.
Term
 What is nuclear fusion ?
Definition
 Nuclear fusion, is the combining of the nuclei of two atoms.
Term
 What is the sun's source of energy ?
Definition
 Once the secrets of nuclear fission and fusion reactions were discovered, scientists then understood that these reactions must be the source of energy in the Sun.
Term
 _____ ______ results from a hydrogen-hydrogen nuclear fusion reaction with the release of nuclear energy. The radiant energy travels to Earth as electromagnetic radiation. It is converted to other forms of energy, such as heat.
Definition
 Solar energy results from a hydrogen-hydrogen nuclear fusion reaction with the release of nuclear energy. The radiant energy travels to Earth as electromagnetic radiation. It is converted to other forms of energy, such as heat.
Term
 What are the two types of energy that can be observed in nature ?
Definition
 1) Flowing water, wind, or any object in motion could be made to do work because of its motion, and thus has kinetic energy.2) An object raised above Earth's surface has the potential to do work, because of its position, and thus has gravitational potential energy.
Term
 The sum of the energy of motion and position is known as _________ _____.
Definition
 The sum of the energy of motion and position is know as mechanical energy.
Term
 The relation of heat to atomic motion was largely forgotten until the _____.
Definition
 The relation of heat to atomic motion was largely forgotten until the 1700's.
Term
 ______________, a science dealing with the study of the interrelationships of heat, work and energy.
Definition
 Thermodynamics, a science dealing with the study of the interrelationships of heat, work and energy.
Term
 The transfer of thermal energy from a hot object to a cold object is defined as ____.
Definition
 The transfer of thermal energy from a hot object to a cold object is defined as heat.
Term
 Who was the first person to realize that heat and mechanical energy were related.
Definition
 American Benjamin Thompson discovered this in 1800. After this discovery scientists started to realize that heat and mechanical energy were different types of energy that could be converted from one to another.
Term
 What did English physicist Thomas Young link together in 1807 ?
Definition
 Thomas Young linked mechanical energy to Leibniz's theory of kinetic and potential energy in moving objects. While Leibniz thought an object had either kinetic or potential energy, Young correctly suggested that mechanical energy combined both kinetic and potential energy.
Term
 What did the French engineer Sadi Carnot discover ?
Definition
 He discovered that the transformation of heat into mechanical energy could only occur when thermal energy flows from a hot object to a cool object. He also discovered that in his process some heat is always lost. He determined the laws of heat efficiency of heat engines.
Term
 TRUE OR FALSE. BY 1720, it was widely accepted that heat was not a physical substance.
Definition
 FALSE.By 1840, it was widely accepted that heat was not a physical substance.
Term
 TRUE OR FALSE.Sometimes, the force applied to an object is being used not to change the motion of the object, but to oppose another force acting on the object.
Definition
 TRUE.Sometimes, the force applied to an object is being used not to change the motion of the object, but to oppose another force acting on the object.
Term
 An object may store energy because of its position relative to some other subject. It is called _______ ______ because it has the potential to do work.
Definition
 An object may store energy because of its position relative to some other subject. It is called potential energy because it has the potential to do work.
Term
 There are several types of potential energy, what does the type of potential energy depend on?
Definition
 The are several types of potential energy. The type of potential energy depends on how the energy is stored.
Term
 What is the difference between mass & weight?
Definition
 Mass (m) is a scalar quantity and is measured in kilograms (kg). The weight of the object (W→) is a vector quantity.
Term
 What is weight the measurement of?
Definition
 Weight is a measure of the force of gravitational attraction on an object in newtons (N).
Term
 Does the mass of an object ever change? Does the weight of an object ever change?
Definition
 The mass of an object does not change because the amount of matter the object possess is constant. However, the weight of an object depends on the acceleration due to gravity (g→), and this value changes, so the weight of an object can change.
Term
 What equation determine the weight of an object from its mass ?
Definition
 (W→) = m(g→).
Term
 TRUE OR FALSE.If no energy is lost, then the initial work done should equal the elastic potential energy.
Definition
 TRUE.If no energy is lost, then the initial work done should equal the elastic potential energy.
Term
 What is the value of acceleration due to gravity near the surface ?
Definition
 9.81 m/s².
Term
 The energy found in chemicals is a form of ________ energy.
Definition
 The energy found in chemicals is a form of potential energy. This energy is stored in the bonds of chemical compounds. When a chemical change takes place, the positions of electric charges are altered and energy is released.
Term
 Any substance that can be used to do work through a chemical reaction has _________ ______.
Definition
 Any substance that can be used to do work though a chemical reaction has potential energy. Ex. The potential energy of fossil fuels such as gasoline is only released when the gasoline undergoes a chemical combustion reaction.
Term
 ______ was the first physical quantity to be associated with the concept of energy.
Definition
 Motion was the first physical quantity to be associated with the concept of energy.
Term
 The type of energy associated with the motion of an object is called _______ ______.
Definition
 The type of energy associated with the motion of an object is called kinetic energy.
Term
 What is the formula for kinetic energy ?
Definition
 Kinetic energy = 1/2 (mass of the object)(speed)² .
Term
 TRUE OR FALSEWhen energy is transferred to an object, in can cause a change in both kinetic and potential energy simultaneously.
Definition
 TRUE.When energy is transferred to an object, in can cause a change in both kinetic and potential energy simultaneously. Ex. A ball thrown upward has kinetic energy because of tis motion, and also has potential energy because of its position above the surface of Earth.
Term
 Since kinetic and potential energy are so closely related in many situations involving energy transfers, they are combined as a general type of energy called _________ ______, which is defined as the energy due to the motion and position of an object.
Definition
 Since kinetic and potential energy are so closely related in many situations involving energy transfers, they are combined as a general type of energy called mechanical energy, which is defined as the energy due to the motion and position of an object.
Term
 What is the formula for mechanical energy ?
Definition
 Mechanical energy = kinetic energy + potential energy
Term
 _______ ______ can be converted into kinetic energy which can be converted into _________ ______.
Definition
 Potential energy can be converted into kinetic energy, which can be converted into potential energy.
Term
 What is the law of conservation of energy ?
Definition
 The law of conservation of energy states that the total amount of energy in a given situation remains constant. Energy can be converted from one form to another but the total amount of energy never changes. Thus, the total amount of mechanical energy remains constant. In the absence of outside forces, kinetic energy may be converted to potential energy and vice-versa, without loss, so that the total amount of mechanical energy always remains constant.
Term
 What law is fundamental is situations involving mechanical energy ?
Definition
 The law of conservation of energy.
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