# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Physics Vocabulary
Physics Vocabulary
147
Physics
05/15/2012

Term
 Amplitude
Definition
 In any periodic motion, the maximum distance an onject moves from equilibrium
Term
 Ammeter
Definition
 A low-resistance device connected in series that is used to measure the electric current in any branch or part of a circuit
Term
 antinode
Definition
 the point with the largest displacement when two wave pulses meet
Term
 achromatic lens
Definition
 a combination of two or more lenses with different indices of refraction (such as a concave lens with a convex lens) that is used to minimize a cromatic aberration
Term
 ampere
Definition
 a flow of electric charge, or electric current, equal to one coulomb per second
Term
 beat
Definition
 the oscillation of wave amplitude that results from the superposition of two sound waves with almost identical frequencies
Term
 battery
Definition
 a device made up of several galvanic cells connected together that converts chemical energy to electric energy
Term
 conduction
Definition
 the process by which kinetic energy is transferred when particles collide
Term
 convection
Definition
 a type of thermal energy transfer that occurs from the motion of fluid in liquid or gas that is caused by differences in temperature
Term
 convex mirror
Definition
 a mirror that reflects light from its outwardly curving surface and produces an upright, reduced, virtual image
Term
 convex lens
Definition
 a converging lens, thicker at its center than at its edges, that refracts parallel light rays so the rays meet at a point when surrounded by material with a lower index of refraction; can produce a smaller, inverted, real image, or a larger, upright, virtual image
Term
 chromatic aberration
Definition
 a spherical lens defect in which light passing through a lens is focused at different points, causing an object viewed through a lens to seem to be ringed without color
Term
 consonance
Definition
 a pleasant set of pitches
Term
 concave lens
Definition
 a diverging lens, thinner at its middle than at its edges, that spreads out light rays passing though it when surrounded by material with a lower index of refraction; produces a smaller, virtual, upright image
Term
 crest
Definition
 the high point of a wave
Term
 closed-pipe resonator
Definition
 a resonating tube with one end closed to air; its resonant frequencies are odd-numbered multiples of the fundamental
Term
 complementary colors
Definition
 a color of light, which wen combined with another color of light, produces white light
Term
 concave mirror
Definition
 a mirror that reflects light from its inwardly curving surface and can produce either an upright, virtual image or an inverted real image
Term
 critical angle
Definition
 the certain angle of incidence in which the refracted light ray lies along the boundary between two media
Term
 conductor
Definition
 a material, such as copper, through which a charge will move easily
Term
 charging by induction
Definition
 the process of charging an object without touching it, which can be accomplished by bringing a charged object close to a neutral object, causing separation of charges, then separating the object to be charged, trapping opposite but equal charges
Term
 charging by conduction
Definition
 the process of charging a neutral object by touching it with a charged object
Term
 Coulomb's law
Definition
 states that the force between two charges varies directly with the product of their charge and inversely with the square of the distance between them
Term
 coulomb
Definition
 the SI standard unit of charge; one coulomb, C, is the magnitude of the charge of 6.24 x 10^18 electrons or protons
Term
 capacitor
Definition
 an electric device used to store charge that is made up of two conductors separated by an insulator
Term
 capacitance
Definition
 the ratio of an object's stored charge to its electric potential difference
Term
 conventional current
Definition
 a flow of positive charges that move from higher potential to lower potential
Term
 combination series-parrallel circuit
Definition
 a complex electric circuit that includes both series and parallel branches
Term
 dissonance
Definition
 an unpleasant, jarring set of pitches
Term
 domain
Definition
 a very small group, usually 10-1000 u, that is formed when the magnetic fields of the electrons in a group of neighboring atoms are aligned in the same direction
Term
 Doppler Effect
Definition
 the change in the frequency of sound caused by the movement of either the source, the sector, or both the detector and the source
Term
 diffuse reflection
Definition
 a scattered, fuzzy reflection produced by a rough surface
Term
 diffraction
Definition
 the bending of light around a barrier
Term
 diffraction pattern
Definition
 a pattern on a screen of constructive and destructive interference of Huygens' wavelets
Term
 diffraction grating
Definition
 a device consisting of large numbers of single slits that are quite close together, diffract light, and form a diffraction pattern that is an overlap of single-slit diffraction patterns; can be used to precisely measure light wavelength or to separate light of different wavelengths
Term
 entropy
Definition
 a measure of the disorder in a system
Term
 equivalent resistance
Definition
 for resistors in a series, is the sum of all the individual resistances
Term
 electromagnet
Definition
 a magnet created when current flows through a wire coil
Term
 electric motor
Definition
 an apparatus that converts electric energy into rotational kinetic energy
Term
 electrostatics
Definition
 the study of electric charges that can be collected and held in one place
Term
 elementary charge
Definition
 the magnitude of the charge of an electron
Term
 electric field
Definition
 the field that exists around any charged object; produces forces that can do work, transferring energy from the field to another charged object
Term
 electric field lines
Definition
 lines that provide a picture of an electric field, indicate the field's strength by the spacing between the lines, never cross, and are directed toad negative charges and away from positive charges
Term
 electric potential difference
Definition
 the charge in potential energy per unit charge in an electric field
Term
 electric current
Definition
 a flow of charged particles
Term
 electric circuit
Definition
 a closed loop or pathway that allows electric charges to flow
Term
 equipotential
Definition
 the electric potential difference of zero between two or more positions in an electric field
Term
 electroscope
Definition
 a device that is used to detect electric charges and consists of a metal knob connected by a metal stem to two thin metal leaves
Term
 farsightedness
Definition
 a vision defect in which a person can not see close objects clearly because images are focused behind the retina; can be corrected with a convex lens
Term
 first right-hand rule
Definition
 a method used to determine the direction of a magnetic field relative to the direction of conventional current
Term
 fundamental
Definition
 for a musical instrument, the lowest frequency of sound that will resonate
Term
 focal point
Definition
 the point where incident light rays that are parallel to the principal axis converge after reflecting from the mirror
Term
 focal length
Definition
 the position of the focal point with respect to the mirror along the principal axis
Term
 grounding
Definition
 the process of removing excess charge by touching an object to earth
Term
 galvanometer
Definition
 a device that is used to measure very small currents; can be used as a voltmeter or an ammeter
Term
 heat
Definition
 energy transferred between two objects in contact with one another and always flows from the hotter object to the cooler object
Term
 heat of fusion
Definition
 the amount go heat required to change 1 kg of a substance from a solid state to a liquid state at its melting point
Term
 heat engine
Definition
 a device that continuously converts thermal energy to mechanical energy; requires a high-temperature thermal energy source, a low-temperature receptacle (a sink), and away to convert the thermal energy into work
Term
 Hooke's law
Definition
 states that the force acting on a spring is directly proportional to the amount that the spring is stretched
Term
 heat of vaporization
Definition
 the amount of heat required to change 1 kg of a substance form a liquid state to a gaseous state at its boiling point
Term
 harmonics
Definition
 higher frequencies, which are odd-numbered multiples of the fundamental frequency; giver certain musical instruments their own unique timbre
Term
 heat
Definition
 energy transferred between two objects in contact with one another and always flows from the hotter object to the cooler object
Term
 heat of fusion
Definition
 the amount go heat required to change 1 kg of a substance from a solid state to a liquid state at its melting point
Term
 heat engine
Definition
 a device that continuously converts thermal energy to mechanical energy; requires a high-temperature thermal energy source, a low-temperature receptacle (a sink), and away to convert the thermal energy into work
Term
 Hooke's law
Definition
 states that the force acting on a spring is directly proportional to the amount that the spring is stretched
Term
 heat of vaporization
Definition
 the amount of heat required to change 1 kg of a substance form a liquid state to a gaseous state at its boiling point
Term
 harmonics
Definition
 higher frequencies, which are odd-numbered multiples of the fundamental frequency; giver certain musical instruments their own unique timbre
Term
 index of refraction
Definition
 for a medium, is the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in that medium
Term
 illuminance
Definition
 the rate at which light strikes a surface, or falls on a unit area; is a measured in lumens per square meter, lm/m62, or lux, lx.
Term
 interference
Definition
 results from the superposition of two or more waves; can be constructive (wave displacements in the same direction) or destructive (waves with equal but opposite amplitudes)
Term
 incident wave
Definition
 a wave that strikes a boundary between two media
Term
 illuminated source
Definition
 an object, such as the moon, hat becomes visible as a result of the light reflecting ogg it
Term
 insulator
Definition
 a material, such as glass, through which a charge will not move easily
Term
 kilowatt-hour
Definition
 an energy unit used by electric companies to measure energy sales: 1 kWh is equal to 1000 watts, W, delivered continuously for 3600 s (1 h).
Term
 law of reflection
Definition
 states that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of selection. States that the angle a reflected ray makes, as measured from the normal to a reflective surface, equals the angle the incident ray makes, as measured from the same normal
Term
 luminous flux
Definition
 the rate at which light energy is emitted from a luminous source; is measured in lumens, lm.
Term
 luminous source
Definition
 an object, such as the sun or an incandescent lamp, that emits light
Term
 longitudinal wave
Definition
 a mechanical wave in which the disturbance is in the same direction, or parallel to, the direction of wave motion.
Term
 loudness
Definition
 sound intensity as sensed by the ear and interpreted by the brain; depends mainly on the pressure wave's amplitude
Term
 magnetic field
Definition
 the area around a magnet, or around any current-carrying wire or coil of wire, where a magnetic force exists
Term
 magnetic flux
Definition
 the number of magnetic field lines that pass through a surface
Term
 decibel
Definition
 the unit of measurement for sound level; also can describe the power and intensity of sound waves
Term
 dispersion
Definition
 the separation of white light into a spectrum of colors by such means as a glass prism or water droplets in the atmosphere
Term
 node
Definition
 the stationary pint where two equal wave pulses meet and are in the same location, having a displacement of zero
Term
 normal
Definition
 the line in a ray diagram that shows the direction of the barrier and is drawn at a right angle, or perpendicular to the barrier
Term
 nearsightedness
Definition
 a vision defect in which a person cannot see distant objects clearly because images are focused in front of the retina; can be corrected with a concave lens
Term
 neutral
Definition
 an atom whose positively charged nucleus exactly balances the negative charge of the surrounding electrons
Term
 magnification
Definition
 the amount that an image is enlarged or reduced in size relative to the object
Term
 lens
Definition
 a piece of transparent material, such as glass or plastic, that is used to focus light and form an image
Term
 frequency
Definition
 the number of complete oscillations that a wave makes each second; is measured in hertz, hz
Term
 opaque
Definition
 a medium that absorbs light and reflects some light rather than transmitting it, preventing objects from being seen through it.
Term
 open-pipe resonator
Definition
 A resonating tube with both ends open that also will resonate with a sound source; its resonant frequencies are whole-number multiples of the fundamental
Term
 periodic motion
Definition
 any motion that repeats in a regular cycle
Term
 periodic wave
Definition
 a mechanical wave that moves up and down at the same rate
Term
 pitch
Definition
 the highness or lowness of a sound wave, which depends on the frequency of vibration
Term
 primary color
Definition
 red, green, blue, which can be combined to form white light and mixed in pairs to produce secondary colors: yellow, cyan and magenta
Term
 primary pigment
Definition
 cyan, magenta and yellow, each of which absorbs one primary color from white light and reflects two primary colors; can be iced in pairs to produce the secondary pignuts: red green and blue
Term
 principal axis
Definition
 a straight line perpendicular to the surface of a mirror that divides the mirror in half
Term
 principle of superposition
Definition
 states that the displacement of a medium caused by two or more waves is the algebraic sum of the displacements of the individual waves.
Term
 parallel circuit
Definition
 a type of electric circuit in which there are several current paths; its total current is equal to the sum of the currents in the individual branches, and if any branch is opened, the current in the other branches remind unchanged
Term
 period
Definition
 in any periodic motion, the amount of time required for an object to repeat one complete cycle of motion
Term
 pendulum
Definition
 a device that can be demonstrate simple harmonic motion when its bob (a massive ball or weight), suspended by a string or light rod, is pulled to one side and released, causing it to swing back and forth.
Term
 polarization
Definition
 light whose waves oscillate only in a single plan.For a magnet, describes the property of having two distance, opposite ends, one of which is a north seeking pole and the other of which is a south-seeking pole.
Term
 plane mirror
Definition
 a flat, smooth surface from which light is reflected by regular reflection, producing a virtual image that is the same size as the object, has the same orientation, and is the same distance from the mirror as the object
Term
 parallel connection
Definition
 a type of connection in which the circuit component and the voltmeter are aligned parallel to one another in the circuit, the potential difference across the circuit element, and there are two or more current paths to follow
Term
 resonance
Definition
 a special form of simple harmonic motion that occurs when small forces are applied at regular intervals to an oscillating or vibrating object and the amplitude of the vibration increases
Term
 reflected wave
Definition
 an erect or inverted returning wave that results from some of the energy of the incident wave's pulse being reflected backward
Term
 ray model of light
Definition
 a model that represents light as a ray that travels in a straight path, whose direction can be changed only by putting an obstruction in the path
Term
 ray
Definition
 a line that can show the direction a wave is traveling and is drawn at a right angle to a wave's crest
Term
 refraction
Definition
 the change in direction of waves at the boundary between two different media
Term
Definition
 the thermal transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves through the vacuum of space
Term
 resistance
Definition
 a property that determines how much current will flow; equal to voltage divided by current
Term
 resistor
Definition
 a device with a specific resistance; may be made of long thin words; graphite; or semiconductors and often is used to control the current in circuits or parts of the circuits
Term
 real image
Definition
 an inverted optical image that is smaller than the object and is formed by the converging of light rays
Term
 specific heat
Definition
 the amount of energy that must be added to a material to raise the temperature of a unit mass by one temperature unit; is measured in j/kg * k
Term
 surface wave
Definition
 a mechanical wave in which the particles move both parallel and perpendicular to the direction of wave motion
Term
 specular reflection
Definition
 a reflection produced by a smooth surface in which parallel light rays are reflected in parallel
Term
 simple harmonic motion
Definition
 a motion that occurs when the resorting force on an object is directly proportional to the objects displacement from equilibrium
Term
 secondary color
Definition
 yellow, cyan, and magenta, each of which is produced by combining two primary colors
Term
 secondary pigment
Definition
 red, green, and blue, each of which absorbs two primary colors from white light and reflects one primary color; can be produced by mixing airs of cyan, magenta, and yellow pigments
Term
 spherical aberration
Definition
 the image defect of a spherical mirror that does to allow parallel light rays far from the principal axis to converge at the focal point, and produces an image that is fuzzy, not sharp.
Term
 Snell's law of refraction
Definition
 states that the product of the index of refraction of a medium and the sine of the angle of incidence equals the product of the index of refraction of a second medium and the sine of the angle of refraction
Term
 series circuit
Definition
 a type of electric circuit in which all current travels though each device and is the same everywhere; is current is equal to the potential difference divided by the equivalent resistance
Term
 solenoid
Definition
 a long coil of wire with many loops; fields from each loop add to the fields of the other loops, creating a greater total field strength
Term
 standing wave
Definition
 a wave that appears to be standing still, produced by the interference of two traveling wave s moving in the opposite direction
Term
 sound wave
Definition
 a pressure variation transmitted though matter as a longitudinal wave; it reflects and interferes and has frequency, wavelength, and speed, and amplitude.
Term
 sound level
Definition
 a logarithmic scale that measures amplitudes; depends on the ratio of the pressure variation of a particular sound wave to the pressure variation in the most faintly heard sound; unit of measurement is the decibel, dB.
Term
 short circuit
Definition
 occurs when a very low resistance circuit is formed, causing a very large current that could easily start a fire from overheated wires
Term
 series connection
Definition
 a type of connection in which there is only a single current path
Term
 superconductor
Definition
 a material with zero resistance that can conduct electricity without a loss of energy
Term
 second right-hand rule
Definition
 a method used to determine the direction of the field produced by an electromagnet, relative to the flow of conventional current
Term
 total internal reflection
Definition
 occurs when light traveling though an area with a higher index of refraction to an area with a lower index of refraction hits a boundary at an angle that exceeds the critical angle and all light reflects back into the area with the higher index of refraction
Term
 thermal equilibrium
Definition
 the state in which the rate of energy flow between two objects is equal and the objects are at the same temperature
Term
 transverse wave
Definition
 a mechanical wave that vibrates perpendicular to the direction of the wave's motion
Term
 trough
Definition
 the low point of a wave
Term
 third right-hand rule
Definition
 a method that can be used to determine the direction of the force on a current carrying wire in a magnetic field
Term
 translucent
Definition
 a medium that transmit light and also can reflect a fraction of the light, but does not allow objets to be seen clearly through it
Term
 transparent
Definition
 a medium that transmit light and also can reflect a fraction of the light, allowing objects to be seen clearly through it
Term
 thin-lens equation
Definition
 states that the inverse of the focal length of a spherical lens equals the sum of the inverses of the image position and the object position
Term
 thin-film interference
Definition
 a phenomenon in which a spectrum of colors is produced due to the constructive and destructive interference of light waves reflected in a thin film
Term
 wavelength
Definition
 the shortest distance between points where the wave pattern repeats itself, such as from crest to crest or from trough to trough
Term
 wave front
Definition
 a line representing the crest of a wave in two dimensions that can show the wavelength but not the amplitude, of the wave when drawn to scale
Term
 virtual image
Definition
 the image formed of diverging light rays, is always on the opposite side of the mirror from the object
Term
 voltage divider
Definition
 a series circuit that is used to produce a voltage source of desired magnitude from a higher-voltage battery; often is used with sensors such as photo resistors
Term
 wave
Definition
 a disturbance that carries energy through matter or space; transfers energy without transferring matter
Term
 voltmeter
Definition
 a high-resistance device used to measure the voltage drop across any portion or combination of portions of a circuit and is connected in parallel with the part of the circuit being measured
Term
 wave pulse
Definition
 a single disturbance or pulse that travels through a medium
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