# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Physics test 1
Physics test definitions
25
Physics
09/18/2011

Term
 Unit
Definition
 is a definite magnitude of a physical quantity, defined and adopted by convention and/or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same physical quantity.
Term
 Dimension
Definition
 the minimum number of coordinates needed to specify each point within it
Term
 Fundamental Dimension
Definition
 technique used in the physical sciences and engineering to reduce physical properties, such as acceleration, viscosity, energy, and others, to their fundamental dimensions of length (L), mass (M), and time (T).
Term
 Derived Dimension
Definition
Term
 Scalar
Definition
 a quantity which is independent of specific classes of coordinate systems
Term
 Vector
Definition
 a geometric object that has both a magnitude (or length) and direction
Term
 Vector
Definition
 A vector or the magnitude of a vector from the initial position to a subsequent position assumed by a body
Term
 Path Length
Definition
 he distance that light (UV/VIS) travels through a sample in an analytical cell.
Term
 Average velocity
Definition
 the displacement divided by the time
Term
 Instantaneous velocity
Definition
 the velocity of an object at any given instan
Term
 Average speed
Definition
 the total distance traveled divided by the total time elapsed.
Term
 Average Acceleration
Definition
 Acceleration measured over a finite time interval
Term
 Instantaneous acceleration
Definition
 Tells how much further an object will travel, and in what direction, in the next second.
Term
 Magnitude
Definition
 Magnitude defines the value of an object, such as the magnitude of velocity would be speed. Magnitude of a vector would be size. Always positive.
Term
 Galileo's idea of inertia
Definition
 *Inertia is the tendency of matter to resist changes in its velocity.*An object will not change its velocity on its own.*Pushes, or pulls, from the outside are necessary to change an object's velocity.*Once at rest, an object will stay at rest all on its own.*Galileo discovered this by placing a ball between 2 inclines. as high as the ball rises on one side it will the same side.
Term
 Quantity of Motion
Definition
 The quantity of motion is the measure of the same, arise from the velocity and quantity of matter conjointly.
Term
 NEWTON
Definition
 *discovered the theory of gravity after watching an apple fall in the orchard.*Throughout his life Newton continued research into a wide range of subjects including mathematics, optics, astronomy and alchemy.*lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics*built the first practical reflecting telescope[
Term
 Galileo
Definition
 * “Father of Modern Science"*Galileo made improvements to the newly invented telescope and eventually managed to make a telescope with 32x magnification*Along with making contributions to the development of a universal clock, Galileo also created a military compass and a thermometer.*Pope Urban VIII granted Galileo permission to write Dialogue Concerning Two Chief World Systems as long as he treated both the Sun-centered and the Earth-centered systems as theories. After it was written, the Pope felt that Galileo had defended Copernicus too strongly and Galileo was called to face the Inquisition. Confessing his guilt in order to secure a lighter punishment, Galileo was put under house arrest.*Studied Leaning Tower of Pisa (Dropping cannon balls)
Term
 Aristotle
Definition
 *a tutor to the king’s son, the future Alexander the Great.*He was one of the first to systematize philosophy and science.*thought that heavy objects fall faster than light objects in proportion to weight
Term
 SI Unit system
Definition
 Metric system of measurement adopted by most technical industries throughout the world.
Term
Definition
 A=Ax+AyTo graph place the tail of the second vector at the point of the first vector. (the point is not the arrow side)
Term
 Terminal Velocity
Definition
 A free-falling object achieves its terminal velocity when the downward force of gravity (Fg) equals the upward force of drag (Fd). This causes the net force on the object to be zero, resulting in an acceleration of zero.*Fnet=ma
Term
 Projectile Motion
Definition
 occurs when an object is given an initial velocity and then follows a path determined entirely by the effect of a constant gravitational force.*trajectory= parabola
Term
 Newtons law of motion
Definition
 I. Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it.II. The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector.*III. For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Term
 Types of friction
Definition
 Dry friction resists relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry friction is subdivided into static friction between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic friction between moving surfaces.Fluid friction describes the friction between layers within a viscous fluid that are moving relative to each other.Lubricated friction is a case of fluid friction where a fluid separates two solid surfaces.Skin friction is a component of drag, the force resisting the motion of a solid body through a fluid.Internal friction is the force resisting motion between the elements making up a solid material while it undergoes deformation.
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