# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Physics Comp
2013
210
Physics
Not Applicable
12/15/2012

Term
 Margin of Error
Definition
 Smallest division a measuring device has.
Term
 Velocity
Definition
 Rate in change in displacement. v=Δx/Δt OR Units are m/s. v=vf-vi
Term
 Speed
Definition
 How fast an object is moving. s=d/Δt Units are m/s.
Term
 Vectors
Definition
 Include magnitude, units, and a direction.
Term
 Scalars
Definition
 Include magnitude and units.
Term
 Slope
Definition
 Rise over run. m=Δy/Δx
Term
 Area Under the Curve
Definition
 Finds less complicated graph numbers. Base * Height
Term
 Units
Definition
 Tell what we are measuring.
Term
 Magnitude
Definition
 Actual number recorded/found. Doesn't mean anything without units.
Term
 Unit Multiplier
Definition
 Fractions with units in the numerator and equivalent units in the denominator.
Term
 Displacement Equation
Definition
 Δx= xf-xi
Term
 Physical Quantity
Definition
 Anything that can be measured.
Term
 SI Units
Definition
 Units based on a base-ten system used throughout the world except The United States. 7 base units, the rest are derived from those.
Term
 Prefix
Definition
 Letters added to the front of a base unit to increase or decrease the power.
Term
 Qualitative Measurment
Definition
 A measurment without numbers.
Term
 Quantitative Measurment
Definition
 A measurment with only numbers.
Term
 Precise
Definition
 Close to other guesses.
Term
 Accurate
Definition
 Close to the actual target.
Term
 Motion
Definition
 When position changes relative to a reference point.
Term
 Instantaneous Velocity
Definition
 The velocity over an instant.
Term
 Average Velocity
Definition
 The velocity over a certain time period.
Term
 Uniform Motion
Definition
 Motion which occurs at a constant velocity.
Term
 Distance
Definition
 The total amount traveled. Units are meters.
Term
 Displacement
Definition
 The shortest distance from Point A to Point B. Units are meters.
Term
 At Rest
Definition
 0 m/s
Term
 Hypothesis
Definition
 An educated guess; Generally If...then... statement; Testable
Term
 Position
Definition
 Where something is relative to a reference point. Symbol is x.
Term
 Acceleration
Definition
 Change in velocity over time. a=Δv/Δt Units are m/s/s.
Term
 Reference Point
Definition
 A still object to compare how far/fast another moves.
Term
 Δ
Definition
 Change
Term
 Watt
Definition
 Units for Power.
Term
 Work
Definition
 When a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force.
Term
 Power
Definition
 The rate at which work is done.
Term
 Machine
Definition
 A device created to made work easier.
Term
 Joule
Definition
 Units for work. Equal to one Newton-Meter.
Term
 Energy
Definition
 The ability to do work.
Term
 W=FxD
Definition
 The equation for work.
Term
 P=W/T
Definition
 The equation for power.
Term
Definition
 How many times a machine multiplies force. Fout/Fin
Term
 Work Input
Definition
 The work done on a machine.
Term
 Work Output
Definition
 The amount of work done by a machine.
Term
 Mechanical Effeicency
Definition
 Comparision of machines' input and output. Wout/Win
Term
 Lever
Definition
 A simple Machine consisting of a piviot and a point. (See-saw)
Term
 Inclined Plane
Definition
 A simple Machine which is a slanted surface.
Term
 Wedge
Definition
 A moving double inclined plane. Also a simple machine.
Term
 Thermal/heat energy
Definition
 The total energy of the motion of particles which make up an object.
Term
 Mechanical energy
Definition
 Energy which causes an object to move or preserved energy.
Term
 Kinectic energy
Definition
 The energy of motion of an object.
Term
 Potential energy
Definition
 The energy which may be converted into motion.
Term
 The Law of Conservation of Energy
Definition
 Energy can't be created or destroyed, but can be transformed from one form to another.
Term
 Potential Energy Equation
Definition
 Pe=mgh
Term
 Kinetic Energy Equation
Definition
 KE=1/2 mv2
Term
 Temperature
Definition
 Measure of KE in molecules. Kelvins.
Term
 Inertia
Definition
 The tendency of an object to remain in its original state of motion.
Term
 Newton's First Law
Definition
 An object in motion will remain in motion unless acted on by an unbalanced force. An object at rest will remain at rest unless acted on by an unbalanced force.
Term
 Newton's Second Law
Definition
 F=MA
Term
 Newton's Third Law
Definition
 For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Term
 Weight/ Gravitational force
Definition
 The force of gravity; Mass times gravity; NOT mass. G=mg
Term
 Acceleration due to Gravity
Definition
 -9.8m/s/s
Term
 Inference
Definition
 Something guessed based on observations.
Term
 Observation
Definition
 Something that can be recorded based on the five senses.
Term
 Free Body Diagram
Definition
 A stetch to determine the net force and the direction of the forces.
Term
 Net Force
Definition
Term
 Normal Force
Definition
 The surface; perpendicular to object; doesn't cause acceleration because it cancels out the force of gravity.
Term
 Balanced forces
Definition
 Forces that are not caused by humans; forces which cancel out.
Term
 Applied Forces
Definition
 Forces made by humans/ man-related events
Term
 Tension Force
Definition
 Rope/wire forces
Term
 Spring Force
Definition
 Spring Forces (no, not the season)
Term
 Scientific Notation
Definition
 Used for extremely small or large numbers Ex: 6.98x107= 69800000.
Term
 Scientific Method
Definition
 A way to accurately measure a certain event in nature.
Term
 Equalibrium
Definition
 Forces which cancel each other out.
Term
 Friction Force
Definition
 A force cause by two objects rubbing together.
Term
 Force
Definition
 A push or pull. Units are Newtons.
Term
 Mass Units
Definition
 Kilograms
Term
 Momentum
Definition
 Mass times velocity. Kilograms times Meters per Seconds
Term
 Watt
Definition
 Units for Power.
Term
 Work
Definition
 When a force causes an object to move in the direction of the force.
Term
 Power
Definition
 The rate at which work is done.
Term
 Machine
Definition
 A device created to made work easier.
Term
 Joule
Definition
 Units for work. Equal to one Newton-Meter.
Term
 Energy
Definition
 The ability to do work.
Term
 W=FxD
Definition
 The equation for work.
Term
 P=W/T
Definition
 The equation for power.
Term
 Stationary Object
Definition
 An object not in motion.
Term
 Constant Velocity
Definition
 No change in velocity (no acceleration).
Term
 Resultant
Definition
 The single vector whose affect is the same as all the individual vectors acting together.
Term
 Component
Definition
 The x and y of a vector.
Term
 Balanced Forces
Definition
 Forces which cancel each other out.
Term
 Coefficient of Friction
Definition
 A number which tells how "sticky" a surface is.
Term
 Inversely Proportional
Definition
 If one number goes up, the other goes down.
Term
 Directly Proportional
Definition
 If one number goes up, the other also goes up.
Term
 Action-Reaction Pair
Definition
 Two objects which exert equal forces on each other.
Term
 Free Fall
Definition
 An object is falling and the only force acting on it is gravity.
Term
 Gravitational Fields
Definition
 A region in space in which an object experiences forces.
Term
 Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
Definition
 Every object with mass attracts other objects with mass along a line with force.
Term
 Equation for Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation
Definition
 G=km1m2/r2
Term
 Projectile
Definition
 An object in the sky.
Term
 Trajectory
Definition
 The path an object takes as it moves through space.
Term
 Parabola
Definition
 A curve.
Term
 System
Definition
 All of the objects working together in a group.
Term
 Newton's Second Law in Term of Momentum
Definition
 Fnet=p/t
Term
 Impulse
Definition
 Change in momentum.
Term
 Conservation of Momentum
Definition
 Momentum is conserved in isolated systems.
Term
 Elastic Collision
Definition
 When after a collision, the two objects bounce off of each other.
Term
 Inelastic Collision
Definition
 When after a collision, the two objects stick together.
Term
 Equation for Total Momentum
Definition
 P1V1i=P1V1f
Term
 Equation for Impulse
Definition
 p=ft
Term
 Work-Energy Theorem
Definition
 Net work on a system equals change in kinetic energy.
Term
 Total Energy Equation
Definition
 TE=KE+PE
Term
 Heat
Definition
 Transfer of thermal energy.
Term
 Thermal Equilibrium
Definition
 When there is no heat gradient between two objects.
Term
 Heat Capacity
Definition
 Amount of heat needed to change the temperature of an object.
Term
 Convection
Definition
 When heat travels from one part of an object to another.
Term
 Conduction
Definition
 When the heat source and heat sink are connected.
Term
Definition
 When electromagnetic waves carry heat.
Term
 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 If a=b and b=c, then a=c
Term
 First Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 Conservation of energy
Term
 Second Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 Disorder in the universe always increases. (Entropy)
Term
 Third Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 Absolute zero is the coldest temperature and molecules stop moving at this temperature.
Term
 Medium
Definition
Term
 Oscillation
Definition
 Periodic motion
Term
 Wave
Definition
 A periodic, continuous disturbance that consists of a train of pulses.
Term
 Transverse Wave
Definition
 The movement of particles is perpendicular to the motion of the wave.
Term
 Peak
Definition
 The highest point on a wave.
Term
 Trough
Definition
 The lowest point on a wave.
Term
 Amplitude
Definition
 The maximum displacement of a particle from its equilibrium point.
Term
 Wavelength
Definition
 The distance between two peaks.
Term
 Node
Definition
 Zero or equilibrium
Term
 Period
Definition
 How long it takes for two peaks to pass a certain point.
Term
 Frequency
Definition
 The number of peaks that pass through a point in one second.
Term
 Wave Speed
Definition
 How fast the wave moves.
Term
 Longitudinal Wave
Definition
 When the particles move parallel to the wave.
Term
 Compression
Definition
 Where the particles are closest together.
Term
 Rarefaction
Definition
 Where the particles are farthest apart.
Term
 Constructive Interference
Definition
 When two waves combine into a larger wave.
Term
 Destructive Interference
Definition
 When two waves combine into a smaller wave.
Term
 Superposition
Definition
 Two waves combining to form a new wave.
Term
 Equation for Period
Definition
 T=1/f
Term
 Equation for Wave Speed
Definition
 v=wavelength*frequency
Term
 Sound
Definition
 A pressure wave that can be sensed by an ear.
Term
 Pitch
Definition
 The frequency of sound waves.
Term
 Infrasonic
Definition
 Frequency below human hearing range.
Term
 Ultrasonic
Definition
 Frequency above human hearing range.
Term
 Sound Quality
Definition
 The shape of a sound wave.
Term
 Loudness
Definition
 The amplitude of a sound wave.
Term
 Speed of Sound
Definition
 344m/s
Term
 Echo
Definition
 The reflection of a sound wave.
Term
 Reverberation
Definition
 the overlap of many echoes.
Term
 Intensity
Definition
 Energy per area transmitted by a sound per second.
Term
 Harmonic
Definition
 The frequency at which standing waves can be made.
Term
 Natural Frequency
Definition
 The frequency at which objects tend to vibrate at when hit. AKA fundamental frequency.
Term
 Resonance
Definition
 The tendency of an object to vibrate at the maximum amplitude.
Term
 Equation for Intensity
Definition
 Intensity=Power/Area
Term
 Light
Definition
Term
 Speed of Light
Definition
 3x108m/s
Term
 Color
Definition
 The perception people have of certain wavelengths.
Term
 Selective Reflection
Definition
 Only certain frequencies are reflected.
Term
 Selective Transmission
Definition
 Only certain frequencies are transmitted.
Term
 Primary Color
Definition
 Red, Green, and Blue. Add together to make white.
Term
 Complementary Color
Definition
 Yellow, Magenta, Cyan.
Term
 Light Ray
Definition
 Arrows that show light paths.
Term
 Fermat's Principle
Definition
 Light rays take the path of least time.
Term
 Incident Ray
Definition
 The incoming ray.
Term
 Reflected Ray
Definition
 The outgoing ray.
Term
 Law of Reflection
Definition
 Incident Ray=Reflected ray
Term
 Specular Reflection
Definition
 Smooth surfaces allow parallel ray deflection.
Term
 Diffuse Reflection
Definition
 Bumpy surfaces make uneven deflection.
Term
 Refraction
Definition
 Bending of light due to change in speed.
Term
 Critical Angle
Definition
 The incident angle is 90 degrees.
Term
 Total Internal Reflection
Definition
 When light is reflected back into mediums because incident angles are larger than critical angles.
Term
 Dispersion
Definition
 When different light wavelengths diverge.
Term
 Image
Definition
 Representation of an object formed by mirrors or lenses.
Term
 Real Image
Definition
 Inverted images on screens.
Term
 Virtual Image
Definition
 Upright images unable to be on screens.
Term
 Lens
Definition
 A transparent material that can take rays and converge or diverge them.
Term
 Converging Lens
Definition
 Thicker in the middle.
Term
 Diverging Lens
Definition
 Thicker at the edges.
Term
 Meniscus
Definition
 The middle of the lens.
Term
 Focus
Definition
 The point at which the light rays meet.
Term
 Focal Length
Definition
 The distance between the lens and focus.
Term
 Electrostatics
Definition
 The study of non-moving charges.
Term
 Electric Charge
Definition
 Mutual attraction or repulsion between electrons and protons.
Term
 Electric Force
Definition
 A push or pull charges have on each other.
Term
 Conservation of Charge
Definition
 Charge is conserved.
Term
 Coulomb's Law
Definition
 F=kQ1Q2/r2
Term
 Electric Field
Definition
 A collection of charges that "give rise to vectors" in a region of space.
Term
 Test Charge
Definition
 A sample charge placed on a field map.
Term
 Electric Potential Energy
Definition
 The energy a charge has due to position.
Term
 Electrical Potential
Definition
 The electrical PE a positive test charge would have.
Term
 Conductor
Definition
 Charges freely move around.
Term
 Insulator
Definition
 Charges cannot move around.
Term
 Induction
Definition
 Placing a conductor in a field.
Term
 Circuit Diagram
Definition
 A drawing using symbols to represent an actual circuit.
Term
 Electrical Circuit
Definition
 A circuit with components.
Term
 Series Circuit
Definition
 Where there is one path.
Term
 Parallel Circuit
Definition
 Where there is more than one possible path.
Term
 Potential Difference/Voltage
Definition
 The difference in electrical potential energy per unit charge between two points.
Term
 Resistor
Definition
 A device that resists charge.
Term
 Component
Definition
 A part of an electrical circuit
Term
 Ohm's Law
Definition
 V=IR
Term
 Current
Definition
 The rate at which charges move past certain points.
Term
 DC
Definition
 Direct Current. One direction.
Term
 AC
Definition
 Alternating current. Switches direction.
Term
 Resistance
Definition
 Slowing down of current.
Term
 Capacitance
Definition
 The charge per volt stored.
Term
 Capacitor
Definition
 Device to store energy.
Term
 Magnet
Definition
 An object with aligned domains that exerts a non-contact force.
Term
 Magnetic Field
Definition
 A region in space where a magnet will experience a force.
Term
 Magnetic Domain
Definition
 A group of arrows in a magnet.
Term
 Electromagnet
Definition
 A wire that causes a magnetic field.
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