Term
Resistance of a resistor = 

Definition
Resistance = pL/A
Resistance is given by the equation R=pL/A, where p is resistivity, L is the length of the resistor, and A is the crosssectional area of the resistor. 


Term

Definition


Term

Definition


Term
Gravitational Force between two objects


Definition
[image] where:
 F is the force between the masses;
 G is the gravitational constant (6.674×10^{−11} N · (m/kg)^{2});
 m_{1} is the first mass;
 m_{2} is the second mass;
 r is the distance between the centers of the masses.



Term

Definition
First law: When viewed in an inertial reference frame, an object either remains at rest or continues to move at a constant velocity, unless acted upon by a force. Fnet = ma = 0
Second law: The vector sum of the forces F on an object is equal to the mass m of that object multiplied by the acceleration vector a of the object: Fnet = ma.
Third law:When one body exerts a force on a second body, the second body simultaneously exerts a force equal in magnitude and opposite in direction on the first body.



Term
Velcocity at time t when given initial velocity, aceleration and time 

Definition


Term
Displacement when given initial velocity, aceleration, and time 

Definition
displacement: d = v_{0}t + (at^{2})/2 


Term
Velocity when given intial velocity, aceleration, and position 

Definition


Term
Components of gravity on an inclined plane 

Definition


Term

Definition
The magnitude of the centripetal force on an object of mass m moving at tangential speed v along a path with radius of curvature r is:
 [image]
where [image] is the centripetal acceleration. 


Term

Definition
 [image] [image]
where
 [image] is the torque vector and [image] is the magnitude of the torque,
 r is the position vector (a vector from the origin of the coordinate system defined to the point where the force is applied)
 F is the force vector,
 × denotes the cross product,
 θ is the angle between the force vector and the lever arm vector.



Term

Definition


Term
Gravitational potential energy 

Definition
U = mgh
mass
gravitational constant
height 


Term

Definition
[image]
k = spring constant
Δx = magnitude of displacement from equilibrium 


Term

Definition
E = U + K
Total = potential + kinetic 


Term
Conservation of mechaincal energy
VS
Nonconservative work formula 

Definition
ΔE = ΔU + ΔK = 0
W_{nonconservative} = ΔE = ΔU + ΔK 


Term

Definition
W = F • d = Fdcos(θ)
W = Work
F = magnitude of the applied force
d = magnitude of the displacement through the force applied
θ = the angle between the applied force vector and the displacement vector 


Term

Definition
W = PΔV
Find the area under the curve with P on Y axis and V on the X.
Volume constant then no work.
Gas expands, W is positive
Gas compresses, W is negative 


Term

Definition
P = W/t = ΔE/t
Power equals work over time or the change in energy over time
Unit = J/sec 


Term

Definition
W_{net} = ΔK = K_{f}  K_{i} 


Term

Definition
If a and b are distances from the fulcrum to points A and B and if force F_{A} applied to A is the input force and F_{B} exerted at B is the output, the ratio of the velocities of points A and B is given by a/b, so the ratio of the output force to the input force, or mechanical advantage, is given by
 [image]
Because the power flow is constant, the torque T_{B} and angular velocity ω_{B} of the output gear must satisfy the relation
 [image]
which yields
 [image]



Term

Definition
Efficiency = W Out/ W In
=(load)(load distance)/(effort*effort distance) 


Term

Definition


Term

Definition
The change in the linear dimension can be estimated to be:
 [image]
This equation works well as long as the linearexpansion coefficient does not change much over the change in temperature [image], and the fractional change in length is small [image]. If either of these conditions does not hold, the equation must be integrated 


Term

Definition
If we already know the expansion coefficient, then we can calculate the change in volume
 [image]
where [image] is the fractional change in volume (e.g., 0.002) and [image] is the change in temperature (50 °C). 


Term
1st law of thermodynamics 

Definition
In a noncyclic process, the change in the internal energy of a system is equal to net energy added as heat to the system minus thenet work done by the system, both being measured in mechanical units. Taking ΔU as a change in internal energy, one writes
 [image]
where Q denotes the net quantity of heat supplied to the system by its surroundings and W denotes the net work done by the system. This sign convention is implicit in Clausius' statement of the law given above. It originated with the study of heat engines that produce useful work by consumption of heat 


Term
Heat gained or lost with temp change 

Definition


Term
Heat gained or lost in phase change 

Definition


Term

Definition
ΔS = Q_{rev}/t
S is change in entrhopy
Q heat change in the process
T = temp 


Term

Definition
Mathematically, density is defined as mass divided by volume:^{[1]}
 [image]
where ρ is the density, m is the mass, and V is the volume. 


Term
Weight of a volume of fluid 

Definition
Fg = density * Volume * gravity constant
For fluids 


Term

Definition
Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of a substance to the density of a reference substance; equivalently, it is the ratio of the mass of a substance to the mass of a reference substance for the same given volume.
It can be shown that true specific gravity can be computed from different properties:
 [image]



Term

Definition


Term

Definition
The total pressure that is exerted on an object that is submerged in a fluid
Pressure = surface pressure + density*gravity acceleration*depth
P = P_{0} +ρgz 


Term

Definition
P_{gauge} = PP_{atm} = (p_{0}+ρgz)p_{atm}
ρ = density
g = acceleration due to gravity
z=depth 


Term

Definition
Seen in pistons
P = F1/A1 = F2/A2
F2=F1(A2/A1) 


Term
Archimedes Principle
Buoyancy 

Definition
F_{buoy} = ρ_{fluid}*V_{fluid displace}*g
= ρ_{fluid}*Vsubmerged*g 


Term
Poiseuille equation
Flow through a pipe 

Definition
[image]
where:
 [image] is the pressure loss
 [image] is the length of pipe
 [image] is the dynamic viscosity
 [image] is the volumetric flow rate
 [image] is the radius
 [image] is the velocity



Term

Definition
[image]
Nr is a constant
η = viscosity
density
diameter 


Term

Definition
Q = Flow rate = v_{1}A_{1} = v_{2}A_{2} 


Term

Definition


Term

Definition
In its scalar form the law is:
 [image] ,
where k_{e} is Coulomb's constant (k_{e} = 8.99×10^{9} N m^{2} C^{−2}), q_{1} and q_{2}are the signed magnitudes of the charges, the scalar r is the distance between the charges. 


Term

Definition


Term
Electrical Potential Energy 

Definition

where [image] is Coulomb's constant, r is the distance between the point charges q & Q, and q & Q are the signed values of the charges 


Term
Electrical Potential
From Potential Energy
vs
From Source Energy 

Definition


Term

Definition
ΔV = V_{b}  V_{a} = W_{ab}/q 


Term
The potential of an electric dipole 

Definition


Term

Definition


Term
Electric field on the perpendicular bisector of a dipole 

Definition
E = 1/(4∏ε_{0}) * p/r^{3} 


Term
Torque on a dipole in an electric field 

Definition


Term
Magnetic field from a
Straight Wire
vs
Loop of wire 

Definition
B = (μ_{0}I)/(2πr)
vs
B = (μ_{0}I)/(2r) 


Term
Magnetic Force on a...
Moving point charge
vs
Currentcarrying wire 

Definition
F_{b} = qvB*sin(θ)
vs
F_{b} = ILB*sin(θ) 


Term

Definition


Term

Definition

