# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Physics First Chapter 8
Physical Properties of Matter
41
Physics
11/29/2007

Term
 physical properties
Definition
 characteristics of matter that you can see through direct observation color, texture, density, phase
Term
 chemical properties
Definition
 characteristics of matter that can only be observed when one substance changes into a different substance
Term
 physical change
Definition
 any change in the size, shape, color, etc. which does not change the identity of the substance physical changes are reversible cuttingpainting
Term
 chemical change
Definition
 a change in which the substance becomes an entirely different substance chemical changes are not reversible rusting burning
Term
 the formula for density
Definition
 D = m / v D = densitym = massv = volume
Term
 the density of water
Definition
 1 g / ml 1 g / cc 1 g / cm3
Term
 the two factors that determine density
Definition
 1. the mass of each atom or molecule 2. how tightly the atoms and molecules are packed together
Term
 two arrangements of atoms and molecules in a solid
Definition
 crystalline  or  amorphous
Term
 crystalline solids
Definition
 particles are arranged in an orderly, repeating pattern; very organized! salts, minerals, and metals
Term
 amorphous solids
Definition
 particles are arranged randomly rubberwaxglassplatic
Term
 strength of an object depends on 2 factors
Definition
 1. How much does the object bend or deform when force is applied?2. How much force can the object take before it breaks?
Term
 stress
Definition
 the ratio of force acting through the material divided by a cross-section area affected by the force OR the application of force to a specific area of an object
Term
 pascal
Definition
 the metric unit for stress
Term
 tensile strength
Definition
 how much stress in pulling or tension a material can stand before it breaks
Term
 elasticity
Definition
 a solid's ability to be stretched and then return to its original size think of a rubber band
Term
 brittleness
Definition
 the tendency of a solid to crack or brek when forces are applied think of a glass cup
Term
 bending
Definition
 the tendency of a solid to change shape when stress is applied, rather than break think of a twist tie
Term
 thermal expansion
Definition
 when a solid is heated, the kinetic energy in the vibration of the atoms and molecules increases the increased vibration makes the atoms and molecules take up more space, so the solid expands a little
Term
 Put the phases of matter in order of most dense to least dense
Definition
 solid  liquid gas
Term
 buoyancy
Definition
 the measure of the upward force a fluid exerts on an immersed object think floating
Term
 Archimedes' Principle
Definition
 the weight of the water displaced by an object is equalto the buoyancy force
Term
 objects float
Definition
 if the buoyant force is greater than the weight of the object
Term
 objects sink
Definition
 if the buoyant force is less than the weight of the object
Term
 pressure
Definition
 a force applied to a fluid instead of stress
Term
 pressure increases in water
Definition
 the deeper you go in the water
Term
 we are not crushed by atmospheric pressure
Definition
 the pressure of air in our lungs is the same as the pressure outside us
Term
 Bournoulli's Principle
Definition
 height, pressure, and speed are related by energy conservation remember the water flowing out of the hole in the jug it slowed down when pressure decreased it slowed down when the water level dropped
Term
 viscosity
Definition
 the property of fluids that causes friction it refers to the fact that thick liquids flow slowly and thin liquids flow more quickly
Term
 molasses in January
Definition
 high viscosity because cold makes the molasses thicker, so it flows more slowly
Term
 formula for Boyle's Law
Definition
 P1V1 = P2V2
Term
 key point of Boyle's law
Definition
 pressure up - volume down volume up - pressure down
Term
 class example of Boyle's Law
Definition
 when you push on the plunger, the liquid in the plunder decreases
Term
 key point of Gay-Lussac's Law
Definition
 temperature up - pressure up pressure up - temperature up
Term
 in class example of Gay-Lussac's Law
Definition
 a can with 15 ml of water was heated to boiling when the can was put into cold water, it was crushed the rapid decrease in temperature caused a rapid decrease in the pressure inside the can, so the outside pressure crushed it
Term
 tire pressure in winter
Definition
 goes down because cold air reduces the air pressure in the tire
Term
 tire pressure in summer
Definition
 increases because the heat increases the pressure inside the tire
Term
 key point of Charles' Law
Definition
 increase temperature - increase volume decrease temperature - decrease volume
Term
 in class example of Charles' Law
Definition
 heat up a flask with a balloon over the top as the air in the flask becomes hot, the balloon expands when the flask cools down, the balloon is 'sucked' inside the flask
Term
 relative humidity
Definition
 how much water vapor is in the air compared to how much water vapor the air can hold
Term
 at 100% humidity
Definition
 the air can hold no more water
Term
 in the summer you feel sticky
Definition
 the relative humidity is high and your sweat cannot evaporate to cool you
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