# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Physics First Chapter 7
Temperature, Energy, and Matter
36
Physics
11/28/2007

## Additional Physics Flashcards

Term
 the formula for density
Definition
 D = m / v
Term
 element
Definition
 a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means examples could be any of the elements of the periodic table
Term
 mass
Definition
 the amount of matter that makes up an object
Term
 atom
Definition
 the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical identity of the element
Term
 compound
Definition
 a substance that contains two or more different elements chemically joined examples could bewater - H2Osalt - NaClcarbon dioxide - CO2
Term
 molecule
Definition
 a group of two or more atoms joined together by chemical bonds the atoms can be of the same element or of different elements Cl2 is a molecule     H20 is a molecule
Term
 mixture
Definition
 contains more than one kind of atom, molecule, or compound. Examples of  mixtures are soda, lemonade, pizza.
Term
 temperature
Definition
 a measure of the average kinetic energy of individual atoms
Term
 How do you measure temperature?
Definition
 in degrees Fahrenheitin degrees Celsiusin Kelvin
Term
 What are the freezing and boiling points in Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin?
Definition
 Fahrenheit  32oF  212oFCelsius  0oC  100oCKelvin  273K  373K
Term
 thermometer
Definition
 an instrument that measures temperature
Term
 What is the formula to convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit?
Definition
 TF = (9/5 TC) + 32
Term
 What is the formula to convert from Fahrenheit to Celsius?
Definition
 TC = 5/9 * (TF - 32)
Term
 Name the 4 phases of matter and their characteristics.
Definition
 Solid - no flow, keeps shape, keeps volumeLiquid - flows, changes shape, keeps volumeGas - flows, changes shape, changes volumePlasma - hot, on the sun, in lightning
Term
 intermolecular forces
Definition
 the attraction between molecules This attraction is changed by temperature. High temperatures weaken the intermolecular forces. Low temperatures strengthen the forces.
Term
 melting
Definition
 a physical change from a solid to a liquid
Term
 evaporation
Definition
 a physical change from a liquid to a gas
Term
 boiling
Definition
 evaporation that occurs under the surface of a liquid
Term
 absolute zero
Definition
 a temperature at which molecules have no kinetic energy
Term
 thermal energy
Definition
 the sum of all the kinetic energy of the atoms or molecules
Term
 heat
Definition
 the flow of thermal energy, from hot to cold
Term
 joule
Definition
 the metric unit for measuring heat
Term
 calorie
Definition
 the quantity of heat needed to increase the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1oC
Term
 Btu
Definition
 British thermal unit - used to measure heat produced by heating systems and removed by cooling systems
Term
 specific heat
Definition
 a property of a substance that tells us how much heat is needed to raise the temperature of 1kg of the substance
Term
 What does a low specific heat mean?
Definition
 The substance heats up and cools down quickly. A good example would be metals.
Term
 What does a high specific heat mean?
Definition
 The substance heats up and cools down slowly. A good example would be water.
Term
 Name 3 types of heat transfer.
Definition
Term
 Define conduction and give an example.
Definition
 the transfer of heat by direct contact shaking handshot cocoa makes the spoon hot
Term
 Define convection and give one example.
Definition
 the transfer of heat through the motion of liquids and gases refrigerators, ovens, dryers, radiators
Term
 Define thermal radiation and give an example.
Definition
 electromagnetic waves produced by objects sunshinein - door lighting
Term
 thermal equilibrium
Definition
 during heat transfer, both objects become the same temperature so heat no longer flows
Term
 thermal conductor  give an example
Definition
 those materials that conduct heat easily metals
Term
 thermal insulator give an example
Definition
 those materials that conduct heat poorly styrofoam wood plastic
Term
 Can thermal radiation travel through outer space?
Definition
 Yes - because no matter is necessary to transfer the thermal radiation.
Term
 Can convection and conduction work in outer space?
Definition
 No, because matter is necessary to transfer heat via conduction and convection.
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