# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Physics Final
Extra Credit flash cards for Ms. Rawson
38
Physics
03/28/2006

Term
 Velocity
Definition
 Distance/Time + Direction
Term
 Speed
Definition
 Distance/Time
Term
 Slope
Definition
 rise/runThe steepness also tells you the slope.
Term
 Acceleration
Definition
 Final Velocity-Initial Velocity------------------------------- TimeUnits: meters/seconds squared
Term
 Force
Definition
 Forces are pushes or pulls.Force= mass x acceleration(This is also Newton's 2nd Law)
Term
 Weight
Definition
 Weight is a measure of the force of gravity on an object.Weight= mass x acceleration due to gravityUnits: Newtons
Term
 Momentum
Definition
 Momentum= Mass x VelocityUnits: kg x m/sThe Law of Conservation of Momentum says that the total momentum of the objects that interact does not change. This is unless the objects are acted upon by an outside force.
Term
 Pressure
Definition
 Pressure= Force/areaUnits: Pascals There is pressure in fluids, which is the pressure of all of the molecules added together.
Term
 Density
Definition
 Density= Mass/volumeAn object that is more dense that the fluid in which it's immersed sinks, and an object that is less dense than the fluid in which it's immersed floats.
Term
 Work
Definition
 Work= Force x DistanceUnits: JoulesIn order for you to do work on an object, the object must move some distance as a result of your force, and the force you exert must be in the same direction as the object's motion.
Term
Definition
Term
 Kinetic Energy
Definition
 Kinetic Energy= mass x velocity squared/2Units:JoulesKinetic energy is the energy of a moving object.
Term
 Gravitational Potential Energy
Definition
 Weight x heightThe gravitational potential energy an object has is equal to the work done to lift it.
Term
 Power
Definition
 Power= Work/timeUnits: WattsA kilowatt is 1000 watts.
Term
 motion
Definition
 An object is in motion when its distance from another object is changing. A reference point is an object used for comparison to see if something is in motion.
Term
 plates and the Theory of Plate Tectonics
Definition
 The upper layer of Earth consists of more than a dozen pieces called plates. The Theory of Plate Tectonics says that Earth's plates move ever so slowly in various directions.
Term
 graphing acceleration
Definition
 A straight line shows that the acceleration is constant. This is a linear relationship.A curved line shows that the acceleration varies each second. This is a nonlinear relationship.
Term
 Unbalanced/balanced forces
Definition
 Unbalanced forces acting on an object will change the object's motion.Balanced forces, or equal forces acting on one object from opposite directions, will not change the object's motion.
Term
 Inertia/ Newton's 1st Law
Definition
 Inertia is the tendency of an object to resist change in its motion.Newton's first Law says that objects at rest will stay at rest, and objects in motion will stay in motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
Term
 Newton's 3rd Law
Definition
 Newton's Third Law says that if one object exerts a force on another object, then the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first object.
Term
 Friction
Definition
 Friction is the force that one surface exerts on another when the two rub against each other.Friction's strength depends on the types of surfaces and how hard the two rub against each other.
Term
 Gravity
Definition
 Gravity is the force that pulls objects towards each other.The acceleration due to gravity near Earth is 9.8m/s. An object is in free fall when the only force acting on it is gravity.The Law of Universal Gravitation says that the force of gravity acts between all objects in the universe.
Term
 Satellites and Centripetal Force
Definition
 A satellite is something that orbits another object in space.A force that causes an object to move in a circle is a centripetal force.
Term
 Pressure in elevation and depth
Definition
 Air pressure decreases as elevation increases.Water pressure increases as depth increases.
Term
 Pascal's principle and hydraulics
Definition
 Pascal's Principle: When force is applied to a confined fluid, an increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid.A hydraulic system multiplies a force by applying the force to a small surface area. The increased pressure transmits to another part of the fluid, which pushes on a larger area.
Term
 Archimedes' Principle and buoyant forces
Definition
 Archimedes' Principle says that the buoyant force on an object is equal to teh weight of the fluid displaced.The buoyant force acts upwards, so it makes objects feel lighter.
Term
 Bernoulli's Principle
Definition
 Bernoulli's principle says that the pressure exerted by moving fluid is less that the pressure of the surrounding fluid.This explains the lift in an airplane.
Term
 machines
Definition
 A machine is a device with which you can do work in a way that is easier or more effective.Machines make work easier by changing the amount of input force required, the distance over which you exert your force, or the direction in which you exert your force.
Term
 levers
Definition
 Mechanical advantage:Distance from fulcrum to input force/distance from fulcrum to output forceA lever is a rigid bar that is free to pivot on a fixed point, the fulcrum.It increases the effect of the input force and it changes the direction of the exerted force.
Term
 Wedges
Definition
 Less input force is required to do the same work.A wedge is a device that is thick at one end and tapers to a thin edge at the other end.
Term
 Inclined Planes
Definition
 An inclined plane is a flat, slanted surface.Mechanical advantage: Length/heightIt allows you to exert your force over a longer distance, using less force.
Term
 Pulleys
Definition
 A pulley is a grooved wheel with a rope or chain wrapped around it.Fixed pulleys change the direction of the input force and has a I.M.A. of 1.Moveable pulleys increase the exerted force and has a I.M.A. of 2.Pulley systems have an I.M.A. equal to the sections of rope that support it.
Term
 Wheels and axles
Definition
 A wheel and axle is made of two circular objects that are fastened together and rotate a common axis.Mechanical advantage: Radius of wheel/ radius of axle
Term
 Screws
Definition
 Screws are inclined planes wrapped around a cylinder.The closer together the threads are, the higher the mechanical advantage.
Term
 Machines in the Human Body
Definition
 Levers in the body consist of bones and muscles. Joints are the fulcrums.Incisor teeth are wedges, as they cut through the food we eat.
Term
 Potential energy
Definition
 Potential energy is stored and held in readiness, and it has the potential to do work.
Term
 Different Forms of Energy
Definition
 Mechanical energy has to do with motion or position.Thermal energy is the total energy of the particles in something.Chemical energy is stored in chemical bonds.Electric energy is in electric charges.Electromagnetic energy travels in waves, and occurs in light & others.Nuclear energy is in the nucleus.
Term
 Fossil fuels
Definition
 Fossil fuels are fuels that were formed millions of years ago, and they contain energy from the sun.Some fossil fuels are coal, petroleum, and natural gases.
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