# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Physics Final Exam Vocabulary
Honors Physics Vocabulary
119
Physics
06/06/2008

Term
 Fact
Definition
 A close agreement by competent observers of a sweries of observers of the same phenomenon.
Term
 Hypothesis
Definition
 An educated guess; a reasonable explanation of an observation of experimental result that is not fully accepted as factual until tested over and over again by experiment.
Term
 Law
Definition
 A general hypothesis or statement about the relationship of number of quanities that has been tested over and over again and has not been contradicted.  Also known as principal.
Term
 Scientific Method
Definition
 An orderly method for gaining, organizing and applying new knowledge.
Term
 Theory
Definition
 A synthesis of a large body of information that encompasses well tested and verified hypotheses about certain aspects of the natural world.
Term
 Speed
Definition
 How fast something moves.  The distance traveled per unit of time.
Term
 Acceleration
Definition
 The rate at which velocity changes with time; the change in velocity may be in magnitude or direction or both.
Term
 Velocity
Definition
 The speed of an object and specification of its direction of motion.
Term
 Free Fall
Definition
 Motion under the influence of gravity only.
Term
 Vector
Definition
 The quantity that has both magnitude and direction.
Term
 Scalar
Definition
 A quantity that has magnitude but not direction.
Term
 Resultant
Definition
 The net result of a combination of two or more vectors.
Term
 Projectile
Definition
 Any object that moves through the air or through space under the influence of gravity.
Term
 Parabola
Definition
 The curved path followed by a projectile under the influence of gravity only.
Term
 Linear speed
Definition
 The distance moved per unit of time.  Also called speed.
Term
 Tangential Speed
Definition
 The linear speed along the curved path.
Term
 Rotational Speed
Definition
 The number of rotations or revolutions per unit of time; often measured in rotations or revolutions per second or per minute.
Term
 Inertia
Definition
 The property of things to resist changes in motion.
Term
 Mass
Definition
 The quantity of matter in an object.  More specifically, it is the measure of the inertia or sluggishness that an object exibits in response to any effort made to start it, stop it, deflect it, or change its state of motion in any way.
Term
 Weight
Definition
 The force due to gravity on an object.
Term
 Kilogram
Definition
 The fundamental SI unit of mass.
Term
 Newton
Definition
 The SI unit of force.
Term
 Volume
Definition
 The quantity of space an object occupies.
Term
 Force
Definition
 Any influence that can cause an object to be accelerated.  Measured in Newtons.
Term
 Friction
Definition
 The resistive force that opposses the motion or attempted motion of an object past another with which it is in contact or through a fluid.
Term
 Equilibrium
Definition
 The state of an object or system of objects for which any impressed forces cancel to zero and no acceleration occurs.
Term
 Terminal Speed
Definition
 The speed at which the acceleration of a falling object terminates because air resistance balances its weight.
Term
 Momentum
Definition
 The product of the mass of an object and its velocity; inertia in motion
Term
 Impulse
Definition
 The product of the force acting on an object and the time during which it acts.  In an interation, impulses are equal and opposite.
Term
 Conservation of Momentum
Definition
 When no external net force acts on an object or system of objects, no change of momentum takes place.  Hence, the momentum before equals the momentum after.
Term
 Elastic Collision
Definition
 A collision in which colliding objects rebound without lasting deformation or the generation of heat.
Term
 Inelastic Collision
Definition
 A collision in which the colliding objects become distroted, generate heat and possibly stick together.
Term
 Work
Definition
 The product of the force and the distance through which a body acted on by the force moves. w=fd
Term
 Power
Definition
 The time rate of work. p=w/t
Term
 Energy
Definition
 The property of a system that enables it to do work.
Term
 Potential Energy
Definition
 The energy that a body possesses because of its position.
Term
 Kinetic Energy
Definition
 Energy of motion quantified by the relationship. ke=1/2mv^2
Term
 Conservation of Energy
Definition
 Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may be transformed from one form into another but the total amount of energy never changes.
Term
 Work-Energy Theorem
Definition
 The work done on an object is equal to the energy gained by the object. work=change in KE
Term
 Rotational Inertia
Definition
 THe property of an object that measures the resistance of any change in its state of rotation.
Term
 Torque
Definition
 The product of force and lever arm distance which tends to produce rotation.
Term
 Center of Mass
Definition
 The average position of mass or the single point associated with an object where all its mass can be considered to be concentrated.
Term
 Center of Gravity
Definition
 The average position of weight.
Term
 Centripetal Force
Definition
 The center seeking force that causes an object to follow a circular path.
Term
 Centrifugal Force
Definition
 An apparent outward force due to rotation.
Term
 Angular Momentum
Definition
 The product of a body's rotational intertia and rotational velocity.
Term
 Conservation of Angular Momentum
Definition
 When no external torque acts on an object or a system of objects, no change of angular momentum takes place.
Term
 Kepler's Laws
Definition
 1. Each planet moves in an elliptical orbit with the sun at one focus. 2.  The line from the sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas of space in equal time intervals. 3.  The squares of the times of revolution are proportional to the cubes of their average distances from the sun.
Term
 Law of Universal Gravity
Definition
 Everybody in the universe attracts every other body with a force that for two bodys is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance seperating them. f= Gm1m2/d2
Term
 Weightlessness
Definition
 A condition encountered in free fall where in a support force is lacking.
Term
 Gravitational Field
Definition
 The influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself.
Term
 Satellite
Definition
 A projectile or small celestial body that orbits a larger celestial body.
Term
 Ellipse
Definition
 An oval path followed by a satellite.
Term
 Escape Speed
Definition
 The speed that a projectile, space probe, or similar object must reach to escape the gravitational force of a planet.
Term
 Atom
Definition
 The smallest particle of an element that has all the elements chemical properties.
Term
 Molecule
Definition
 The smallest particle of any substance that has all the substances chemical properties.
Term
 Mixture
Definition
 Substances mixed together without combining chemically.
Term
 Atomic Number
Definition
 A number designated an atom which is the same number of protons in the nucleus.
Term
 Density
Definition
 The mass of a substance per unit of volume.
Term
 Elasticity
Definition
 The property of a material wherein it changes shape when a deforming force acts on it and returns to its original shape.
Term
 Hooke's Law
Definition
 The amount of stretch or compression and object can under go without being unable to return to its original shape.
Term
 Scaling
Definition
 The study of how size affects the relationships among weight, strength and surface.
Term
 Pressure
Definition
 The ratio of force the the area over which that force is distributed Pressure = force/area
Term
 Bouyant Force
Definition
 The net upward force that a fluid exerts on an immersed object
Term
 Archimedes Principle
Definition
 An immersed body is bouyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.
Term
 Principle of Flotation
Definition
 A floating object displaces a weight of fluid equal to its own weight.
Term
 Pascal's Principal
Definition
 The pressure applied to a motionless fluid confined in a container is transmitted undiminished throughout the fluid.
Term
 Atmospheric Pressure
Definition
 The pressure exerted against bodies immersed in the atmosphere.
Term
 Barometer
Definition
 Any device that measures atmospheric pressure.
Term
 Bernoulli's Principle
Definition
 The pressure in a fluid moving steadily without friction or outside energy input decreases when the fluid velocity increases.
Term
 Temperature
Definition
 A measure of the averae translational kinetic energy per molecule in a substance.
Term
 Absolute Zero
Definition
 The lowest possible temperature that a substance may have.
Term
 Heat
Definition
 The neergy that flows from a stbstance of higher temperature to a substance of lower temperature.
Term
 Internal Energy
Definition
 The total of all molecular energies, kinetic pluspotential, that are internal to a substance.
Term
 Specific Heat
Definition
 The quantity of heat per unit mass required to raise the temperature of a substance by 1 Celcius degree.
Term
 Conduction
Definition
 The transfer of heat energy by molecular and electron collissions within a substance.
Term
 Convection
Definition
 The trasnfer of heat energy in a gas or liquid by means of currents in the heated fluid.
Term
Definition
 The transfer of energy at the speed of light by means of electromagnetic waves.
Term
 Newton's Law of Cooling
Definition
 The rate of loss ofheat from an object is proportional to the temperature difference between the object and its surroundings.
Term
 Greenhouse Effect
Definition
 The heating effect of a medium such as glass or the earth's atmosphere.
Term
 Evaporation
Definition
 The change of phaseat the surface of a liquid as it passes to the gaseous phase.
Term
 Condensation
Definition
 The change of phase from gas to liquid; the opposite of evaporation.
Term
 Boiling
Definition
 A rapid evaporation the takes place within the liquid as well as its surface.
Term
 Regelation
Definition
 The process of melting under pressure and the subsequent refreezing when the pressure is removed.
Term
 Thermodynamics
Definition
 The study of heat and its transformation to different forms of energy.
Term
 1st Law of Thernodynamics
Definition
 The heat added to a system equals its increase in internal energy plus the external work it does on its environment.
Term
 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 Thermal energy never spontaneously flows from a cold object to a hot object.  Also, no machine can be completely efficient in converting heat to work.
Term
 Ideal Efficiency
Definition
 = Thot - Tcold______________ Thot
Term
Definition
 A process, often of fast expansion of compression, wherein not heat enters or leaves a system.
Term
 Heat Engine
Definition
 A device that uses heat as input and supplies mechanical work as output.
Term
 Entropy
Definition
 A measure of the disorder of a system.
Term
 Amplitude
Definition
 For a wave in vibration, the maximum displacement on either side of the equilibrium position.
Term
 Sine Wave
Definition
 A wave form traced by single harmonic motion.
Term
 Wavelength
Definition
 The distance between successive crests, troughs, or identical parts of a wave.
Term
 Frequency
Definition
 The number of vibrations per unit time.
Term
 Hertz
Definition
 the SI unit of frequency.
Term
 Period
Definition
 The time in which a vibration is completed.
Term
 Wave Speed
Definition
 The speed with which waves pass a particular point
Term
 Transverse Wave
Definition
 A wave in which the vibrations is in a direction perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels.
Term
 Longitudinal Wave
Definition
 A wave in which the medium vibrates in a direction parallel to the direction in which the wave travels.
Term
 Interference Pattern
Definition
 The pattern formed by superposition of different sets of waves that produces reinforcement in some places and cancellation in others.
Term
 Doppler Effect
Definition
 The shift in received frequency due to motion of vibrating source toward or away from a receiver.
Term
 Shock Wave
Definition
 The cone-shaped wave made by an object moving at supersonic speed through a fluid.
Term
 Sonic Boom
Definition
 The loud sound resulting from the incidence of a shock wave.
Term
 Ultrasonic
Definition
 Describes a sound that has a frequency too high to be heard by the human ear.
Term
 Compression
Definition
 Condensed region of the medium through which a longitudinal wave travels.
Term
 Rarefaction
Definition
 Region of lessened pressure of the medium through which a longitudinal wave travels.
Term
 Resonance
Definition
 The response of a body when a forcing frequency matches its natural frequency.
Term
 Electrostatics - Electricity
Definition
 The study of electric charge at rest.
Term
 Conductor
Definition
 Any material having free charged particles that easily flow through it when an electric force acts on them.
Term
 Insulator
Definition
 A material without free charged particles and through which charge does not easily flow.
Term
 Electric Field
Definition
 Force per unit charge and is a storehouse of electric energy. About a charge point, it decreases with distance according to the inverse equare law. Between oppositely charged parallel plates, it is uniform
Term
 Potential Difference
Definition
 The difference in voltage between two points, measured in volts
Term
 Current
Definition
 The flow of electric charge that transports energy from one place to another.
Term
 Resistance
Definition
 Resistance of a material to the flow of electric charge through it.
Term
 Ohm's Law
Definition
 The statement that the current in a circuit varies in direct proportion to the potential difference or voltage and inversely with resistance.
Term
 Electric Power
Definition
 The rate of energy transfer, or the rate of doing work. =Current x Voltage
Term
 Series
Definition
 An electric circuit with devices connected in such a way that the electric current is the same through each of them.
Term
 Parallel
Definition
 An electric ciucuit with two or more devices connected in such a way that the same voltage acts across each one and are all independent of each other.
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