# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Physics Final Exam
Vocab
36
Physics
05/31/2008

Term
 Conventional Current
Definition
 A flow of positive charges that move from higher potential to lower potential
Term
 Electric Circuit
Definition
 Any closed loop or conducting path allowing electric charges to flow
Term
 Resistance
Definition
 A property that determines how much current will flow; equal to voltage divided by current
Term
 Resistor
Definition
 A device with a specific resistance; may be made of long, thin wires; graphite; or semiconductors and often is used to control the current in circuits or parts of circuits
Term
 Parallel Connection
Definition
 A type of connection in which the circuit component and the voltmeter are aligned parallel to one another in the circuit and there are two or more current paths to follow (the potential difference across the voltmeter equals the potential difference across the circuit element)
Term
 Series Connection
Definition
 A connection with only one current path
Term
 Superconductor
Definition
 A material with zero resistance
Term
 Ampere
Definition
 A flow of electric charge, or electric current, equal to one coulomb per second (1C/s)
Term
 Kilowatt-hour
Definition
 1000 watts delivered continuously for one hour, or 3.6x10^6
Term
 Parallel Circuit
Definition
 A type of electric circuit in which there are several current paths; its total current is equal to the sum of the currents in the individual branches, and if any branch is opened, the current in the other branches remains unchanged
Term
 Voltmeter
Definition
 A high-resistance device used to measure the voltage drop across any portion of a circuit and is connected in parallel with the part of the circuit being measured
Term
 Ground Fault Interrupter (GFI)
Definition
 A device that contains an electronic circuit that detects small current differences caused by an extra current path; it opens the circuit, prevents electrocution, and often is required as a safety measure
Term
 Fuse
Definition
 A short piece of metal that acts as a safety device in an electric circuit by melting and stopping the current from flowing if a dangerously high current passes through the circuit
Term
 Equivalent Resistance
Definition
 For resistors in a series, is the sum of all the individual resistances
Term
 Circuit Breaker
Definition
 An automatic switch that acts as a safety device in an electric circuit by opening and stopping the current flow when too much current flows through a circuit
Term
 Battery
Definition
 A device made up of several galvanic cells connected together that converts chemical energy to electric energy
Term
 Ammeter
Definition
 A low-resistance device connected in series that is used to measure the electric current in any part of a circuit
Term
 Electrostatics
Definition
 The study of electric charges that can be collected and held in one place
Term
 Neutral
Definition
 When the positive charge of the nucleus equals the negative charge of the surrounding electrons
Term
 Insulator
Definition
 A material through which a charge will not move easily
Term
 Conductor
Definition
 A material that allows charges to move about easily
Term
 Electroscope
Definition
 A device used to determine charge. Consists of a metal knob connected by a metal stem to two thin pieces of metal foil, called leaves
Term
 Charging by Conduction
Definition
 Charging a neutral body by touching it with a charged body
Term
 Charging by Induction
Definition
 The process of charging an object without touching it, by bringing a charged object close to a neutral object, causing a separation of charges, then separating the object to be charged, trapping opposite but equal charges
Term
 Grounding
Definition
 The process of connecting a body to Earth to eliminate excess charge
Term
 Coulomb's Law
Definition
 The magnitude of the force between two charges is proportional to the magnitude of the charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
Term
 Coulomb
Definition
 The SI standard unit of charge; the magnitude of the charge of 6.24x10^18 electrons or protons
Term
 Elementary Charge
Definition
 The magnitude of the charge of an electron
Term
 Electric Field
Definition
 The field that exists around any charged object; produces forces that can do work, transferring energy from the field to another charged object
Term
 Electric Field Line
Definition
 Lines that provide a picture of an electric field, indicate the field's strength by the spacing between the lines, never cross, and are directed toward negative charges and away from positive charges
Term
 Electric Potential Difference
Definition
 The change in potential energy per unit charge in an electric field; change in voltage
Term
 Volt
Definition
 The unit equal to one joule per coulomb, 1 J/C
Term
 Equipotential
Definition
 Whenever the electric potential difference between two or more positions is zero
Term
 Capacitor
Definition
 An electric device used to store charge that is made up of two conductors separated by an insulator
Term
 Capacitance
Definition
 The ratio of an object's stored charge to its electric potential difference
Term
 Electric Current
Definition
 A flow of charged particles
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