# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Physics Chapter 1 and 2
34
Physics
09/03/2015

Term
 Mass (and how it's measured)
Definition
 Anything that occupies space and has mass (measured in Kilograms)
Term
 Weight
Definition
 The force exerted on a body under the influence of gravity
Term
 Atom
Definition
 Smallest particle of an element that can't be divided or broken by chemical means
Term
 Energy (and how it's measured)
Definition
 The ability to do work (measured in joules)
Term
 Atomic number (Z #)
Definition
 Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Term
 Atomic mass number
Definition
 Equals number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
Term
 Isotope
Definition
 An atom that has gained or lost an electron, making the number of neutrons differ from the number of protons
Term
 Octet rule
Definition
 Atoms with 8 electrons in their outer shell are considered inert and chemically stable
Term
 Binding energy
Definition
 The strength of attachment of an electron to the nucleus is called _____________
Term
 Valence electrons
Definition
 Electrons in the outer-most shell that determine capability of combining with other atoms to form compounds.
Term
 Potential energy
Definition
 The ability to do work by virtue of position
Term
 Electromagnetic energy
Definition
 Type of energy in x-rays, radio waves, microwaves, and visible light.
Term
Definition
 Oscillating electric and magnetic fields that travel in a vacuum with the velocity of light. Includes x-rays, gamma rays, and some nonionizing radiation (such as ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and radio waves).
Term
 Electricity
Definition
 Form of energy created by the activity of electrons and other subatomic particles in motion.
Term
 Wavelength
Definition
 Distance between similar points on a sine wave; the length of one cycle.
Term
 Frequency
Definition
 Number of cycles or wavelengths of a simple harmonic motion per unit time. Expressed in Hertz (Hz)
Term
 Einstein's theory of relativity
Definition
 The strangest property associated with matter and energy is that they are interchangeable, a characteristic first described by Albert Einstein in his famous theory of relativity. This mass-energy equivalence serves as the basis for the atomic bomb, nuclear power plants, and certain nuclear medicine imaging modalities.
Term
 Nucleus
Definition
 Made up of protons and neutrons, together form nucleons. Electrons orbit the nucleus
Term
 Chemical bonds
Definition
 Atoms combine with each other to form compounds
Term
 Two major branches of natural science
Definition
 Physical science - non-living matterBiological science - living matter
Term
 Molecule
Definition
 Two or more atoms combined chemically
Term
 Ionization
Definition
 Removal of an orbital electron from an atom.
Term
 3 basic subatomic particles
Definition
 Protons, neutrons and electrons
Term
 2n squared
Definition
 Amount of electrons that can potentially be in a shell
Term
 Periodic table
Definition
 Horizontal rows list # of valence electrons for the element
Term
 5 types of energy
Definition
 Chemical energy, heat, electrical energy, nuclear energy and electromagnetic energy
Term
 Standard units of measurements have been devised by scientists to describe quantities of _____________
Definition
 Mass, length and time
Term
 Substance
Definition
 Material that has definite and constant composition:Simple (elements)- Cannot be broken down into simpler substances by normal meansComplex (compound) - can be broken down by water or air
Term
 Mixtures
Definition
 Combination of two or more substances. Ex. air=oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen
Term
 Orbital electrons
Definition
 Shell (energy level) - determined by electrons distance from the nucleus - K,L,M,N,O,P and Q
Term
 Electron binding energy
Definition
 Amount of energy needed to remove the electron from the shells.
Term
 Amplitude
Definition
 Intensity of the wave as defined by its maximum height
Term
 Frequency and wavelength are _________ proportional
Definition
 Inversely
Term
 Photon energy and frequency are ________ proportional
Definition
 Directly
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