Term
Equation that describes the electrostatic force between two charges 

Definition
Coloumb's Law
F_{e} = kq_{1}q_{2}/r^{2}
F_{e} is the magnitude of the electric force
k is Coloumb's constant
q is the magnitude of the 2 charges
r is the distance between them
like charges will repulse and opposite charges will attract



Term
Equation that describes the strength of an electric field 

Definition
E = F_{e}/q = kQ/r^{2}
E is the electric field in N/C
F_{e} is magnitude of force felt by test charge q
Q is the source charge 


Term
Equation for electric potential energy 

Definition
U_{e}=kQq/r
U_{e} is the electric potential energy
k is coloumb's constant (9 x 10^{9})
Q is the source charge magnitude
q is the point charge magnitude
r is the distance between the two
Charges that repel each other (+/+ or /) equal a positive potential energy. Charges that attract represent a negative potential energy (as radius increases potential energy increases because U gets closer to zero) 


Term
Equation for magnetic field strength 

Definition
Straight wire, B = μ_{0}I/(2πr)
B is magnetic field strength in Tesla (T)
μ_{0} is the permeativity of free space
I is the current through the wire
r is the distance from the wire
Wire in a circle, B = μ_{0}I/(2r)
Same except r represents the radius of the circle and it calculates the magnetic field at the very center of it. 


Term
What is the right hand rule in regards to determining magnetic field direction? 

Definition
The thumb of your right hand points in the direction that current is flowing and when you wrap your hand around the wire that is the direction the magnetic field is going. 


Term

Definition
F = qvBsinΘ
F is the magnetic force
q is the magnitude of the charge
v is the velocity of the charge
B is the magnitude of the magnetic field
This means that if the charge is not moving or there is no magnetic field, there will be no magnetic force. Also, if the angle the charge is moving in relation to the field is 0 or 180 degrees (with or against the magnetic field) the force will be zero. 


Term
What is the right hand rule for determining the direction of magnetic force 

Definition
Only works for positive charges. Point your thumb in the direction of the charges movement and your fingers in the direction of the magnetic field. The direction your palm is now facing is the direction of the magnetic force. For negative charges the force will be in the opposite direction.
Magnetic force is also centripetal. The particle will move in circles. 


Term
How can you change Coulomb's law (electrostatic force) to calculate electric field, electrical potential energy and electrical potential? 

Definition
Coulomb's law: F_{e} = kq_{1}q_{2}/r^{2}
Electric field: E = F_{e}/q = kQ/r^{2}
Electrical potential energy: U = kQq/r = Fr
Electrical potential: V = kQ/r = Fr/q = U/q 


Term
What is the equation for electric field? 

Definition
Electric field: E = F_{e}/q = kQ/r^{2}



Term
What is the equation for electrical potential energy? 

Definition
Electrical potential energy: U = kQq/r = Fr



Term
What is the equation for electrical potential? 

Definition
Electrical potential: V = kQ/r = Fr/q = U/q 


Term
What are diamagnetic material? 

Definition
materials made of atomes with no unpaired electrons and have no magnetic field 


Term
What are paramagnetic materials? 

Definition
have unpaired electrons and becomeweakly magnetized in presence of an external magnetic field 


Term
What are ferromagnetic materials? 

Definition
have unpaired electrons and will become strongly magnetized in magnetic field 


Term
What determines if a nucleus will have a magnetic moment? 

Definition
A nucleus with an odd number of either protons and/or neutrons will have a nonzero magnetic moment. Any nucleus with an even number of protons and an even number of neutrons will have a magnetic moment of zero. 

