# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Physics 1st Semester
Prentice Hall Physics Chapters 1 + 11-13
83
Physics
01/23/2012

Term
 Scientific Method
Definition
 An organized plan for gathering, organizing, and communicating information GOAL: To solve a problem or to better understand an observed event
Term
 Observation
Definition
 Information that you obtain through your senses. Repeatable observations: facts
Term
 Hypothesis
Definition
 Proposed answer to a question, must be testable
Term
 Manipulated Variable
Definition
 Variable that causes the change in another, Independent
Term
 Responding Variable
Definition
 Variable that changes in response to the manipulated variable
Term
 Controlled Experiment
Definition
 Experiment in which only one variable, the manipulated. Used to examine relationship between between independent and dependent variable. All others are kept constant, or controlled
Term
 Conclusion
Definition
 statement that shows data that will support or falsify your hypothesis
Term
 Scientific Theory
Definition
 Well-tested explanation for a set of observations or experimental results; never proved: become stronger or revised/replaced
Term
 Scientific Law
Definition
 Statement that summarizes a pattern in nature, describes an observed pattern in nature without explaining it. The explanation is provided by a theory
Term
 Model
Definition
 Representation of an object or evernt, make it easier to understand things too difficult (big or small) to observe directly
Term
 Scientific notation
Definition
 digit between 1 and 10 that makes large or small numbers easier to work with. used for sig figs and lots of zeroes
Term
 SI, International System of Units
Definition
 revised edition of metric system, international set of units
Term
 SI Base Units
Definition
 .
Term
 Derived Units
Definition
 specific combos of base units
Term
 SI Prefixes
Definition
 .
Term
 Density
Definition
 Density = Mass/Volume
Term
 Precision
Definition
 How exact a measurement is, limited by least precise in calculation
Term
 Accuracy
Definition
 Closeness of a measurement to actualy value
Term
 Thermometer
Definition
 measure temperatureC=5/9(F-32.0)F=9/5(C)+32.0K=C+273
Term
 Slope
Definition
 Rise/RunChange in y/change in x
Term
 Direct Proportion
Definition
 relationship where two variables are constant, when one gets bigger the other gets bigger
Term
 Inverse Proportion
Definition
 relationship where product of the variables are constant, when one gets bigger the other gets smaller
Term
 Conversion Factor
Definition
 ratio of equivalent measurements used to convert between units (exact numbers, infinite sig figs)
Term
 Frame of Reference
Definition
 system of objects that aren't moving with respect to one another, needed to describe motion accurately
Term
 Relative Motion
Definition
 movement in relation to a frame of reference
Term
 Distance
Definition
 length of path between two points, Meter/kilometer/centimeter/etc.
Term
 Displacement
Definition
 Direction from the starting point and the length of a straight line from start to end points
Term
 Vector
Definition
 quantity that has magnitude and direction, represented with arrows
Term
 Magnitude
Definition
 size, length, amount (weight, etc.)
Term
Definition
 Same directions: add, Opposite directions: subtract
Term
 Resultant Vector
Definition
 Vector sum or two or more vectors, vectors not on straight line
Term
 Speed
Definition
 ratio of distance to amount of time
Term
 Average Speed
Definition
 Speed computed for entire durationTotal distance/Total time
Term
 Instantaneous Speed
Definition
 rate at which an object is moving at a given moment in time; how fast its changing at a specific instant; speedometer
Term
 Distance-Time Graph
Definition
 describes motion: slope is speed (change in distance/change in speedSteeper slope: higher speed
Term
 Velocity
Definition
 description of both speed and direction of motion; vector
Term
 Acceleration
Definition
 Rate at which velocity changes (vector), changes in speed, direction, or both (m/s^2)
Term
 Free Fall
Definition
 movement of an object toward Earth solely because of gravity
Term
 Acceleration due to Gravity
Definition
 9.8 m/s^2
Term
 Constant Acceleration
Definition
 steady change in velocity, changes at a constant rate
Term
 Acceleration: formula
Definition
 Change in velocity/total time(final velocity- initial velocity)/t
Term
 Speed-time Graph
Definition
 Slope: accelerationconstant negative acceleration (negative slope) decreases speed
Term
 Linear GraphNonlinear graph
Definition
 straight linenot curved line
Term
 Accelerated Motion on Distance-time graph
Definition
 curved line (nonlinear) because speed is increasing so slope is increasing (accelerating)
Term
 Force
Definition
 push or pull that acts on an object; can cause motion or acceleration by changing speed or direction; respresent with an arrow for direction and strength(magnitude)
Term
 Newton
Definition
 N: 1 kg x m/s^2
Term
 Net force
Definition
 overall force after all forces are combined
Term
 Balanced Forces
Definition
 net force is zero, no change in motion, everything cancels
Term
 Unbalanced forces
Definition
 object accelerates
Term
 Friction
Definition
 force that opposed the motion of objects that touch as they move past each other
Term
 Static Friction
Definition
 Friction that acts on objects that aren't moving
Term
 Sliding Friction
Definition
 Force that opposed the direction of motion of an object as it slides over an surface; AFTER static is overcome; weaker than static
Term
 Rolling Friction
Definition
 Change in shape when a round object rolls across a surface causes this. 100-1000x weaker than static/sliding
Term
 Fluid Friction
Definition
 Opposed the motion of an object through a fluid, as motion gets faster- friction increases
Term
 Gravity
Definition
 Force that acts between any two masses, attractive force that pulls objects together; acts over large distances and downward toward center of Earth (YOUR WEIGHT)
Term
 Support/ Normal Force
Definition
 Force that opposed Gravity
Term
 Air Resistance
Definition
 fluid friction in the air, opposite of motion of falling objects and slows acceleration
Term
 Terminal Velocity
Definition
 Constant velocity of falling object when air resistance equals gravity
Term
 Projectile Motion
Definition
 curved path cuz of intial forward velocity and downward vertical force of gravity; but balls strike ground and accelerates and the same time/rate
Term
 Newton's First Law
Definition
 State of motion of an object does not change as long as the net force is zero; unless unbalanced forces act object's motion does not change; Law of Inertia
Term
 Inertia
Definition
 tendency of an object to resist a change in motion
Term
 Newton's 2nd Law
Definition
 A = F/m or F = mam/s^2 = N/kg
Term
 Mass
Definition
 measure of inertia of an object and depends on amount of matter (stuff) in an object
Term
 Weight
Definition
 force of gravity acting on an objectw=mgN = kg(m/s^2)
Term
 Newton's 3rd Law
Definition
 Whenever one object exerts a force on a 2nd object, the 2nd exerts an equal but opposite force on the first object
Term
 Action and Reaction Forces
Definition
 Does not always cause motion, DO NOT cancel out because they do not act on the same object
Term
 Momentum
Definition
 Momentum (kg x m/s) = mass (kg) x velocity (m/s)Large mass or velocity = large momentum and harder to stop
Term
 Law of Conservation of Momentum
Definition
 In a closed system, total momentum does not change, forces and objects cant enter or leaveloss of momentum in one object= gain in another
Term
 Pressure
Definition
 result of force distributed over an areaForce/ Area (N/m^2=PASCAL)
Term
 Fluid
Definition
 substance that takes shape of container: gas, liquids
Term
 Water Pressure (Fluids)
Definition
 increases as depth increases, pressure at any depth is constant, exerted equally in all directions; depends on type of fluid and depth only
Term
 Air Pressure
Definition
 decreases as altitude increases
Term
 Pascal's Principle
Definition
 change in pressure at any point is transmitted equally and unchanged in all directions
Term
 Hydraulic System
Definition
 device that uses pressurized fluid acting on different-sized pistons to change a force. Pressure stays the smae while output force gets bigger cuz same pressure and bigger area = more force
Term
 Bernoulli's Principle
Definition
 as speed of a fluid increases, pressure decreases
Term
 lift
Definition
 pressure difference on top and below te wing creating an upward force
Term
 Buoyancy
Definition
 the ability of a fluid to exert an upward force on an object placed in it; results in the apparent loss of weight of an object in fluid
Term
 buoyant force
Definition
 upward force opposing gravity acting on an object submerged in a liquid; net upward force cuz all other forces cancel.
Term
 Archimedes' Principle
Definition
 buoyant force acting on an object ais equal to the weight of the fluid displaced
Term
 if object is more dense than fluid, sinks, VICE VERSA
Definition
 if buoyant force is less than object, sinks. more or equal: floats/suspended
Term
 Suspended
Definition
 float any level: Object has the same density as fluid and buoyant force equals weight of object
Term
 Sinking
Definition
 Weight is greater than buoyant force, or denser.If hull breaks, displaces less water so buoyant force weaker
Term
 Floating
Definition
 hul displaces lots of water so buoyant force greater than weight. Or object is less dense than fluid
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