# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Physical Science- 2008 8th grade physics exam!
physical science 1st semester vocab
86
Physics
12/13/2008

Term
 rate of change in velocity
Definition
 acceleration
Term
 formula for acceleration
Definition
 a= vf-vi          tOR a=(delta)v   t
Term
 push or pull that has potential to cause acceleration
Definition
 force
Term
 causes acceleration
Definition
 unbalanced force
Term
 causes no acceleration
Definition
 balanced forces
Term
 sum of all forces acting on an object
Definition
 net forces
Term
 force between two objects in contact with each other that opposes motion
Definition
 friction
Term
 when both objects are still
Definition
 static friction
Term
 when either one or both of the objects is moving
Definition
 kinetic friction
Term
 What are the 3 types of kinetic friction?
Definition
 A. sliding frictionB. rolling frictionC. fluid friction
Term
 the distance traveled by an object divided by the time interval during which the motion occured
Definition
 speed
Term
 the speed of an object in a particular direction
Definition
 velocity
Term
 the formula for velocity
Definition
 v=d    t
Term
 the change in position of an object
Definition
 displacement
Term
 an object's change in postion relative to a reference point
Definition
 motion
Term
 tells what will happen under certain conditions without explaining why
Definition
 scientific law
Term
 how is a scientific law different from a scientific theory?
Definition
 a scientic theory explains what happened and explains whya scientific law tellw what will happen without explaining why
Term
 what are the three laws of motion?
Definition
 1st- inertia2nd- law of unbalanced forces3rd- action/reaction
Term
 the tendency of moving objecs to keep moving or an object at rest to remain at rest (the property of matter related to its mass)
Definition
 inertia
Term
 what is the formula for force
Definition
 F=ma
Term
 what is the unit for force?
Definition
 newton (N)
Term
 the second law says that one newton is.....
Definition
 1 N= the amount of force required to cause an object with a mass of 1 kg to accelerate at 1m/s2
Term
 1 N=?(unit)
Definition
 1 kg x 1m/s2 OR kg x ms2
Term
 F=G m1-m2       d2 what are the two factors of gravity in this equation?
Definition
 F=G m1-m2 = mass of objects                     d2 = distance between objects the mass and distances of the objects are the two factors of gravity
Term
 force that exists between all matter
Definition
 gravity
Term
 what is the constant velocity of gravity on Earth?
Definition
 9.8 m/s2
Term
 motion of a body when only gravity is acting on it
Definition
 free fall
Term
 anything with no air
Definition
 vaccum
Term
 maximum velocityon falling objects when air resistance and gravity balance
Definition
 terminal velocity
Term
 Does an increase in surface area increase or decrease air resistance?
Definition
 it increases air resistance
Term
 one object moving around another is:
Definition
 orbital motion
Term
 what are two factors of orbital motion
Definition
 1.inertia 2.gravity
Term
 the motion of an object that has 2 forces acting on it (horizontal and vertical)(and the two forces are entirely independent of each other)
Definition
 projectile motion
Term
 for every action foce there is an equal and opposite reaction foce
Definition
 3rd law of motion
Term
 what is the formula for momentum?
Definition
 p=mv
Term
 what is the unit for momentum?
Definition
 kg x m s
Term
 when momentum is transferred from one object to another, but cannot be created or destroyed
Definition
 law of conservation of momentum
Term
 makes work seem easier by increasing distance over which force is applied or by changing the direction of the force
Definition
 machine
Term
 tells how much force or distance is changed
Definition
Term
 what is the formula for mechanical advantage?
Definition
 MA= di = fo        do   fi
Term
 what are the two classes of simple machines?
Definition
 1.levers2.inclined planes
Term
 rigid arm that moves around a fixed point called a fulcrum
Definition
 levers
Term
 how many classes of levers are there?
Definition
 3
Term
 which lever class has the fulcrum in the middle, the resistance force is the output, and the input force is on each end? (an example is a see saw)
Definition
 1st class
Term
 which lever class has the resistance force in the middle, and the fulcrum on one end? (example is wheelbarrow)
Definition
 2
Term
 which lever class has the input force in the middle and the fulcrum at one end? (example is broom)
Definition
 3
Term
 what are two modification of levers?
Definition
 1.wheel and axle2.pulley
Term
 what is an example of an inclined plane?
Definition
 ramp
Term
 what is an example of 2 inclined planes back to back?
Definition
 wedge
Term
 what is an example of an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder?
Definition
 screw
Term
 what are the 6 types of simple machines?
Definition
 1.levers2.wheel and axle3.pulley4.inclined plane5.wedge6.screw
Term
 Is the input of a machine what you do or what the machine does?
Definition
 input=what you dooutput=what the machine does
Term
 the transfer of energy to a body by the application of a force that causes the body to move in the direction of the force
Definition
 work
Term
 a quantity that measures the rate at which work is done or energy is transformed
Definition
 power
Term
 a quanitity that measures how much a machine multiplies force or distance
Definition
Term
 one of the six basic types of machines which are the basics for all other forms of machines
Definition
 simple machine
Term
 a machine made of more than one simple machine
Definition
 compound machine
Term
 push or pull with potential to cause acceleration
Definition
 force
Term
 force that creates motion
Definition
 work
Term
 something with potential to do work
Definition
 energy
Term
 the energy of motion
Definition
 kinetic energy
Term
 what is the formula for kinetic energy?
Definition
 KE=1mv22
Term
 stored energy
Definition
 potential energy
Term
 energy stored in the form of chemical bonds (and is it potential or kinetic)
Definition
 -chemical energy-potential energy
Term
 energy stored in the nucleus of an atom (and is it potential or kinetic)
Definition
 -nuclear energy-potential energy
Term
 what is the formula for potential energy?
Definition
 GPE=mgh
Term
 potential energy that an object has because of its' position
Definition
 gravitational potential energy
Term
 when energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be changed from one form to another
Definition
 law of conservation of energy
Term
 sum of KE and GPE in a large scale system and is energy that is available to do work or effect change
Definition
Term
 measure of how much of the work you put into a machine is converted to useful work out
Definition
 efficiency
Term
 what is the formula for efficiency?
Definition
 E= wo x 100%wi
Term
 average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance
Definition
 temperature
Term
 transfer of KE from a warmer substance to a cooler one until equilibrium
Definition
 heat
Term
 the sum of all of the KE in an object
Definition
 thermal energy
Term
 a measurement based on the boilng and freezing points of water
Definition
 celsius
Term
 a measurement based on absoulte zero
Definition
 kelvin
Term
 the temperature at which motion stops
Definition
 absolute zero
Term
 what are the three methods of heat transfer?
Definition
Term
 -has direct molecular contact-must have a medium
Definition
 conduction
Term
 what is a good conductor?
Definition
 metals
Term
 -transfer of heat energy through a fluid(a liquid or a gas) due to density differences-warm particles spread apart because they are moving fster and rise; once they cool off, they clump together and sink
Definition
 convection
Term
 -the movement of energy through waves-can move through a vaccum
Definition
Term
 substance that detects heat transfer
Definition
 insulator
Term
 amount of energy required to add to a substance to raise its temp. by 1 degree Celsius
Definition
 specific heat
Term
 what is the formula for specific heat?
Definition
 delta Q= m x delta T x C'
Term
 as most substances increase in temp. the particles move faster, separate, volume increases
Definition
 thermal expansion
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