# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Physical Science
Chapters 4-5
121
Physics
10/15/2011

Term
 4-2 On the Celsius Tempature Scale a. zero means there is not temperature b. 80° is twaice as hot as 40° c. the number related to the boiling and freezing of water d. there are more degrees than on the Fahrenheit scale
Definition
 The numbers related to the boiling and freezing of water
Term
 4-3. Interal energy refers to the a. translation kinetic energy of gas molecules b. total potential and kinetic energy of the molecules c. total vibration , rotational, and translationl kinetic energy of molecules. d. average of all types of kinetic energy of the gas molecules
Definition
 b. total potential and kinetic energy of the molecules
Term
 4-6. The specific heat of copper is 0.093 cal/gCO, and the specif heat of aluminum is 0.22 cal/gCQThe same amount of energy applied to equal masses, say, 50.0 g of copper and aluminum,will result ina. a higher temperature for copper.b. a higher temperature lor aluminum.c. the same temperature for each metal.d. unknown results.
Definition
 a. a higher temperature for copper
Term
 4-7. The specific heat of water is 1.00 , and the specific heat of ice is 0.500 callgCn The same amount of energy applied to equal masses, say, 50.0 g of water and ice, will result in (assume the ice does not melt)a. a greater temperature increase for the water.b. a greater temperature increase for the ice.c. the same temperature increase for each.d. unknown results.
Definition
 b. a greater temperature increase for the ice.
Term
 4-8. The transfer of heat that takes by the movement of groups of molecules with higher kinetic energy isa. conduction.b. convection.c. radiation.d. sublimation.
Definition
 B. Convection
Term
 4-11. The evaporation of water cools the surroundings. and the condensation of this vapora. does nothing.b. warms the surroundings.c. increases the value of the latent heat of vaporization.d. decreases the value of the latent heat of vaporization.
Definition
 b. warms the surroundings
Term
 4-12. The heat involved in the change of phase from solid ice to liquid water is calleda. latent heat of vaporization.b. latent heat of fusion.c. latent heat of condensation.d. none of the above.
Definition
 b. latent heat of fusion
Term
 4-13. The energy supplied to a system in the form of heat, minus the work done by the system, equal to the change in internal energy. This statement describes thea. first law of thermodynamics.b. second law of thermodynamics.c. third law of thermodynamics.
Definition
 a. first law of thermodynamics.
Term
 4-14. If you want to move heat from a region of cooler temperature to a region of warmer temperature, you must supply energy. This is described by thea. first law of thermodynamics.b. second law of thermodynamics.c. third law of thermodynamics.
Definition
 b. second law of thermodynamics.
Term
 4-15. More molecules are returning to the liqUid state than are leaving the liquid state. This process is calleda. boiling.b. freezing.c. condensation.d. melting.
Definition
 c. condensation.
Term
 4-16. The temperature of a gas is proportional to thea. average velocity of the gas molecules.b. internal potential energy of the gas.c. number of gas molecules in a sample.d. average kinetic energy of the gas molecules.
Definition
 d. average kinetic energy of the gas molecules.
Term
 4-18. Using the Kelvin temperature scale, the freezing point of water is correctly written asa. 0 K.b. 0°Kc. 273 K.d. 273°K
Definition
 C. 273 K.
Term
 The specific heat of soil is 0.20 kcal/kgC°, and the specific heat water is 1.00 kcal/kgC°. This means that if 1 kg of soil and 1 kg of water each receives 1 kcal of energy, ideally.a. the water will be warmer than the soil by O.SeC.b. the soil will be 4°C wanner than the water.c. the soil will be SoC warmer than the water.d. the water will warm by l°e. and the soil will warm by 0.2'
Definition
 b. the soil will be 4°C wanner than the water.
Term
 4-22. Latent heat is "hidden" because ita. goes into or comes out of internal energy.b. is a fluid (caloric) that cannot be sensed.c. does not actually exist.d. is a form of internal kinetic energy.
Definition
 a. goes into or comes out of internal energy.
Term
 4-23. As a solid undergoes a phase change to a liquid, ita. releases heat while remaining at a constant temperature.b. absorbs heat while remaining at a constant temperature.c. releases heat as the temperature decreases.d. absorbs heat as the temperature increases.
Definition
 b. absorbs heat while remaining at a constant temperature.
Term
 4-25. The work that a heat engine is able to accomplish is ideally equivalent to thea. difference between the heat supplied and theheat rejected.b. heat that was produced in the cyclec. heat that appears in the exhaust gases.d. sum total of the heat input and the heat output.
Definition
 a. difference between the heat supplied and the heat rejected.
Term
 4-27. Which of the following contains the most heat?a. A bucket of water at O°C.b. A barrel of water at O°C.c. Neither contains any heat since the temperature is zero.d. Both have the same amount of heat.
Definition
 b. A barrel of water at O°C.
Term
 4-28. Any tiime a temperature difference occurs. you can expect a cold to move to where it is warmer, such as cold moving into a warm house.a warm house during the winter.b. heat movement from any higher-temperature region.c. no energy movement unless it is hot enough, such as the red-hot heating element on a stove.
Definition
 b. heat movement from any higher-temperature region.
Term
 4-30. The specific  heat of copper is roughly three times as great as the specitic heat of gold, Which of the following is true for equal masses of copper and gold?a. If the same amount of heat is the copper will becomehotter.b. Copper heats up three times as f.ast as gold.c. A piece stores three times as much heat at the sametemperature.d. The temperature is three times that
Definition
 c. A piece stores three times as much heat at the same temperature.
Term
 4-34.Radiation is the only method of heat transfer that can take place in aa. solid.b. liquid.c. gas.d. vacuum.
Definition
 d. vacuum.
Term
 4-36. When you add heat to a substance, its temperaturea. always increases.b. sometimes decreases.c. might stay the same.d. might go up or down, depending on the temperature.
Definition
 c. might stay the same.
Term
 4-38. At temperatures above freeZing, the evaporation rate can equal the condensation rate only ata. very high air temperatures,b. mild temperatures.c. low temperatures.d. any temperature.
Definition
 d. any temperature.
Term
 40. vVhich of the following has the greatest value for liquid water?a. Latent heat of fusion.b. Latent heat of vaporizationc. Both are equivalentd. None of the above is correct.
Definition
 b. Latent heat of vaporization
Term
 4- 43. The heat deatb of the universe in the future is when the universe is supposed toa. have a high temperature that will kill all living thingsb. have a high temperature that will vaporize all matter in it.c. freeze at a uniform low temperature.d. use up the universal supply of entropy.
Definition
 c. freeze at a uniform low temperature.
Term
 5-L A back·and·forth motion that repeats itselfis aa, spring,b, vibration,c. wave.d. pulse,
Definition
 b, vibration,
Term
 2, The number of vibrations that occur in 1 s is calleda, a period.b. frequency,c. amplitnde,d. sinusoidal.
Definition
 b. frequency,
Term
 5-3. Frequency is measured in units ofa. time.b. cycles.c. hertz.d. avis.
Definition
 c. hertz.
Term
 5-4. The maximum displacement from rest to the crest or from rest to the trough of a wave is calleda. wavelength.b. period.c. equilibrium position.d. amplitude.
Definition
 d. amplitude.
Term
 5-5. A wave with motion perpendicular to the direction that the wave is moving is classified as aa. longitudinal wave.b. transverse wave.c. water wave.d. compression wave.
Definition
 b. transverse wave.
Term
 5-6. Your brain interprets a frequency as a sound with a certaina. speed.b. loudness.c. pitch.d. harmonic.
Definition
 c. pitch.
Term
 5-7. Sound waves with frequencies greater than 20,000 Hz area. infrasonic waves.b. supersonic waves.c. ultrasonic waves.d. impossible.
Definition
 c. ultrasonic waves.
Term
 5-8. Generally, sounds travel faster ina. solids.b. liquids.c. gases.d. vacuums.
Definition
 a. solids.
Term
 5-9. Sounds travel faster ina. warmer air.b. cooler air.c. Temperature does not influence the speed of sound.d. a vacuum
Definition
 a. warmer air.
Term
 5-10. The bending of a wave front between boundaries isa. reflection.b. reverberation.c. refraction.d. dispersion.
Definition
 c. refraction.
Term
 5-11. A reflected sound that reaches the ear within 0.1 s after the original sound results ina. an echo.b. reverberation.c. refraction.d. confusion.
Definition
 b. reverberation.
Term
 5-12. The wave front of a refracted sound bends towarda. warmer air.b. cooler air.c. the sky, no matter what the air temperature.d. the surface of Earth, no matter what the air temperature
Definition
 b. cooler air.
Term
 5-13. Two in-phase sound waves with the same amplitude and frequency arrive at the same place at the same time, resulting ina. higher frequency.b. refraction.c. a new sound wave with greater amplitude.d. reflection.
Definition
 c. a new sound wave with greater amplitude.
Term
 5-14. Two out of-phase sound waves with the same amplitude and frequiency arrive at the same place at the same time, resulting ina. a beat.b. cancellation of the two sound waves.c. a lower frequency.d. the bouncing of one wave.
Definition
 b. cancellation of the two sound waves.
Term
 5-15. Two sound waves of equal amplitude with slightly different frequiencies will result ina. an echo.b. the Doppler effect.c. alternation of loudness of sound known as beats. d. two separate sounds
Definition
 c. alternation o floudness of sound known as beats.
Term
 5-16. Two sound waves of unequal amplitudes with different frequencies will result ina. an echo.b. the Doppler effect.c. alternation of loudness known as beats.d. two separate sounds.
Definition
 d. two separate sounds.
Term
 5-17. The energy of a sound wave is proportional to the rate of energy transferred to an area perpendicular to the waves, which is calledthe sounda. intensityb. loudness.c. amplitude.d. decibel.
Definition
 a. intensity
Term
 18. A decibel noise level of 40 would be most likely founda. during a calm day in the forest.b. on a typical day in the library.c. in heavy street traffic.d. next 10 a pneumatic drill.
Definition
 b. on a typical day in the library.
Term
 5-19. A resonant condition occurs whena. an external force matches a natural frequency.b. a beat is heard.e. two out-of-phase waves have the same frequency.d. a pure tone is created.
Definition
 An external Force matches a natural frequency
Term
 5-20. The fundamental frequency of a string is thea. shortest wavelength harmonic possible on the string.b. longest standing wave that can fit on the string.c. highest frequency possible on the string.d. shortest wavelength that can fit on the string.
Definition
 Longest standing wave that can fit on the string.
Term
 5-21. The fundamental on a vibrating string is what part ofa wavelength?a. 1/4b. 1/2e. 1d. 2
Definition
 1/2
Term
 5-22. Higher resonant frequencies that occur at the same time as the fundamental frequency are calleda. standing waves.b. confined waves.e. oscillations.d. overtones.
Definition
 Overtones.
Term
 5-23. A moving source of sound or a moving observer experiences the apparent shift frequency in calleda. fundamental frequencyb. Doppler effect.c. wave front effect.d. shock waves.
Definition
 Doppler effect.
Term
 5-24. Does the Doppler effect occcur when the observer is moving and the source of sound is staitionay?a. Yes, the effect is the same.b. No, the source must bec. Yes, but the change of pitch effects is reversed in this case.
Definition
 Yes, the effect is the same.
Term
 25. A rocket traveling at three times the speed of sound is traveling ata. sonic speed.b. Mach speed.c. Mach 3.d. subsonic speed.
Definition
 Mach 3
Term
 5-26. A longitudinal mechanical wave causes particles of a material to movea. back and forth in the same direction the wave is moving.b. perpendicular to the direction the wave is moving.c. in a circular motion in the direction the wave is moving.d. in a circular motion opposite the direction the wave is moving.
Definition
 Back and forth in the same direction the wave is moving.
Term
 5-27. A transverse mechanical wave causes particles of a material to movea. hack and forth in the same direction the wave is moving.b. perpendicular to the direction the wave is moving.c. in a circular motion in the direction the wave is moving.d. in a circular motion opposite the direction the wave is moving.
Definition
 perpendicular to the direction the wave is moving.
Term
 5-28. Transverse mechanical waves will move only througha. solids.h. liquids.c. gases.d. All of the above are correct.
Definition
 solids.
Term
 5-29. Longitudinal mechanical waves will move only througha. solids.b. liquids.c. gases.d. All of the above are correct.
Definition
 All of the above are correct
Term
 5-30. A pulse of jammed-together molecules that quickly moves awayfrom a vibrating objecta. is called a condensation.b. causes an increased air pressure when it reaches an object.c. has a greater density than the surrounding air.d. All of the above are correct.
Definition
 All of the above are correct.
Term
 5-31. The characteristic of a wave that is responsible for what you interpret as pitch is the wavea. amplitude.b. shapec. frequency d. height
Definition
 Frequency
Term
 5-32. Sound waves travel faster ina. solids as compared to liquids.b. liquids as compared to gases.c. warm air as compared to cooler air.d. All of the above are correct.
Definition
 All of the above are correct
Term
 5-33. The difference between an echo and a reverberation isa. an echo is a reflected sound; reverberation is not.b. the time interval between the original sound and thereflected sound.c. the amplitude of an echo is much greater.d. reverberation comes from acoustical speakers, echoes come from cliffs and walls.
Definition
 Reverberation comes from acoustical speakers, echoes come from cliffs and walls.
Term
 5-34. Sound interference is necessary to produce the phenomenon known asa. resonance.b. decibels.c. beats.d. reverberation.
Definition
 beats.
Term
 5-35. The fundamental frequency of a standing wave on a string hasa. one node and one antinode.b. one node and two antinodes.c. two nodes and one antinode.d. two nodes and two antinodes.
Definition
 Two nodes and one antinode
Term
 5-36. An observer on the ground will hear a sonic boom from an airplane traveling faster than the speed of sounda. only when the plane breaks the sound barrier.b. as the plane is approachingc. when the plane is directly overheadd. after the plane has passed by
Definition
 After the plane has passed by
Term
 5-37. What comment is true about the statement that "the human ear hears sounds originating from vibrating objects with a frequency between 20 and 20,000 Hz"?a. This is true only at room temperature.b. About 95 percent hear in this range, while some hear outsidethe average limits.c. This varies, with females frequencies hearing above 20,000 Hz.d. Very few people hear this whole range, which decreaseswith age.
Definition
 Very few people hear this whole range, which decreases with age.
Term
 38. A sound wave that moves through the air isa. actually a tiny sound that the ear magnifiesb. pulses of increased and decreased air pressure.c. a transverse wave that carries information about a sound.d. a combination oflongitudinal and transverse wavepatterns.
Definition
 Pulses of increased and decreased air pressure.
Term
 5-39. During a track and field meet, the time difference between seeing the smoke from a starter's gun and hearing the bang would be lessa. on a warmer day.b. on a cooler day.e. if a more powerful shell were used.d. if a less powerful shell were used.
Definition
 On a warmer day.
Term
 5-40. What is changed by destructive interference of a sound wave?a. Frequencyb. Phasec. 40. What is changed by destructive interference of a soundwave?a. Frequencyb. Phasec. Amplituded. Wavelengthd. Wavelength
Definition
 Amplitude
Term
 5-41. An airplane pilot hears a slow beat from the two engines of his plane. He increases the speed of the right engine and now  hears a slower beat. What should the pilot now do to eliminate the beat?a. Increase the speed of the left engine.b. Decrease the speed of the right engine.c. Increase the speed of both engines.d. Increase the speed of the right engine.
Definition
 Increase the speed of the right engine.
Term
 5-42. Resonance occurs when an external force matches thea. interference frequency.b. decibel frequency.c. beat frequencyd. natural frequency.
Definition
 beat frequency.
Term
 5-43. The sound quality is different for the same-pitch note produced by two different musical instruments, but you are able to recognize the basic note because of the samea. harmonics.b. fundamental frequency.c. node positions.d. standing waves.
Definition
 Fundamental frequency.
Term
 5-44. What happens if the source of a sound is moving toward you at a high rate of speed?a. The sound will be traveling faster th,m from a stationary source.h. The sound ,yill be moving faster only in the direction of travel.c. You will hear a higher frequency but people in the source will not.d. All observers in all directions will hear a higher frequency.
Definition
 You will hear a higher frequency but people in the source will not.
Term
 5-45. What happens if you are moving at a high rate of speed towardsome people standing next to a stationary source of a sound? You will heara. a higher frequency than the people you are approaching willhear.b. the same frequency as the people you are approaching willhear.c. the smne frequency as when you and the source are not moving.d. higher frequency, as will all observers in all directions.
Definition
 a higher frequency than the people you are approaching will
Term
 Newton's First Law of Motion
Definition
 states that in order for the motion of an object to change, a force must act upon it, a concept generally called inertia.
Term
 Second Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 Heat flows from objects with higher temperature to objects with cooler temperature
Term
 Newton's Third Law of Motion
Definition
 states that any time a force acts from one object to another, there is an equal force acting back on the original object. If you pull on a rope, therefore, the rope is pulling back on you as well.
Term
 Heat Pump
Definition
 Turns Work into Heat
Term
 Heat Engine
Definition
 Turns Heat into Work
Term
 Conduction
Definition
 is when heat flows through a heated solid.
Term
 Convection
Definition
 is when heated particles transfer heat to another substance, such as cooking something in boiling water.
Term
Definition
 is when heat is transferred through electromagnetic waves, such as from the sun.
Term
 condensation -
Definition
 Process gas to liquid
Term
 sublimation
Definition
 Process - solid to gas
Term
 vaporization
Definition
 Process - liquid to gas
Term
 Doppler Effect
Definition
 Approchaing - Shifted to Higher Freq Receding - Shifter to Lower Freq Supersonic Speed - Shock wave and sonic boom produced.
Term
 Doppler Effect Blue Shift
Definition
 A Shift to shorter waves as a light source approches the observer
Term
 Doppler Effect Red Shift
Definition
 A Shift to Longer waves as a light source moves away from the observer
Term
 What is Mach
Definition
 Speed of Sound
Term
 Electromatic Waves
Definition
 Transverse Consits of Vibrating Electrical and Magnetic Fields that occillate Pepperdicular to each other Speed = C=3.00X108 m/s Radio Wave 106
Term
Definition
 AM 800Khz = 8.00x105Hz FM 90.0Mhz = 9.0x107Hz Formula C/F=108m/s/1014Hz = 310-6Hz
Term
 Visible Light
Definition
 is expressed in Nano Meters NM 1nm=10-9m Range extends form approxm 400 to 700NM
Term
 Joule
Definition
 4.184 kcals
Term
 Watt
Definition
 W=J*(QH-PL)
Term
 Heat Formula
Definition
 Q=mcΔT
Term
Definition
 d=tv/2
Term
 Infrasonic
Definition
 Less than 20Hz Elephants
Term
 Audible Sound
Definition
 20Hz to 20,000Hz People
Term
 Ultrasonic
Definition
 Greater than 20KHz Bats and Dolphins
Term
Definition
 Sound Waves needs a medimun to transfer through
Term
 Refraction
Definition
 Bend of light waves
Term
 Reverbiration is
Definition
 Less than .1 second
Term
 Echo
Definition
 Is greater than .1 second
Term
 Echo Calcuation
Definition
 devide by 2
Term
 Longitudinal Wave
Definition
 Partical Motion and the waves Velocity are parallel to each other
Term
 Transverse Wave
Definition
 Partical motion and wave Velocity perpendicular to each other
Term
 Hurtz
Definition
 Hz=1/s One Hurtz = One cycle per second
Term
 Frquency
Definition
 1/T If a wave hs a Freq of f=4Hz then 4 full wave lengths will pass in one second
Term
 λ
Definition
 = one wave length in meters
Term
 Ice Point Boiling Point
Definition
 C   0°   100° F 32°   212° K 273   373    to Convert from F to K must first convert to C
Term
 Entropy
Definition
 a hypothetical tendency for the universe to attain a state of maximum homogeneity in which all matter is at a uniform temperature (heat death). Absolute 0
Term
 Evaporation
Definition
 Cooling due to change Phase
Term
 Latent Heat
Definition
 Phase transition
Term
 Temptature is
Definition
 a Measure of Hotness and Coldness
Term
 Cohesion
Definition
 Attraction force of LIKE mocueules
Term
Definition
 Attraction Force Of UNLIKE Molceules
Term
 Specific Heat Steam
Definition
 .5 cal/gC°
Term
 Specific Heat Water
Definition
 1.00 cal/gC°
Term
 Latent of Fusion
Definition
 Is the heat involved in a solid-liquid
Term
 Phase Change
Definition
 Melting or Feezing Lf 800 cal/g
Term
 Latent heat of Vaporization
Definition
 Is the heat involved in Liquid to gas phase change Lv= 540 cal/g
Term
 1st Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 The energy Supplied to a Thermodynamic system is the form of heat minus the work done
Term
 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 Heat flows from objects wiht a higher Temp to objects with cooler temps
Term
 Wavelegeth is
Definition