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Physical Science Test 1
PSC101 Midterm
102
Physics
10/17/2011

Term
 Natural Motion
Definition
 Nature of bodies. Light objects rise and heavy objects fall.
Term
 Violent Motion
Definition
 Resulted from pushing or pulling forces.
Term
 Force
Definition
 Push or a Pull
Term
 Inertia
Definition
 Tendency to remain unchanged unless acted on by some external force.
Term
 Mass
Definition
 The quantity of matter in an object. Measure of inertia an object exhibits in response to any force acted upon it.
Term
 Weight
Definition
 The force upon an object due to gravity.
Term
 Newton's First Law of Motion
Definition
 Every object continues in a state of rest, or in a state of motion in a straight line at a constant speed, unless acted upon by a net force.
Term
 Newton's Second Law of Motion
Definition
 The acceleration produced by a net force on an object is directly proportional to the net force, is in the same direction as the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object.
Term
 Terminal Speed
Definition
 The speed at which the acceleration of a falling objects terminates when air resistance balances its weight.
Term
 Terminal Velocity
Definition
 Terminal speed when direction is specified or implied.
Term
 Interaction (Forces)
Definition
 Manual action between objects during which each object exerts an equal and opposite force on the other.
Term
 Force Pair
Definition
 The action and reaction pair of forces that occur in an interaction.
Term
 Newton's Third Law of Motion
Definition
 Whenever one object exerts  a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first.
Term
 Momentum (And Equation)
Definition
 "Inertia in motion"   Mass x Velocity
Term
 Impulse
Definition
 The product of the force acting on an object and the time during which it acts.   Impulse = Force x Time
Term
 Law of Conservation of Momentum
Definition
 In the absence of an external force, the momentum of a system remains unchanged. Hence, the momentum before an event involving only internal forces is equal to the momentum after the event: (m)(V1)=(m)(V2)
Term
 Elastic Collision
Definition
 A collision in which colliding objects rebound without lasting deformation or the generation of heat.
Term
 Inelastic Collision
Definition
 A collision in which the colliding objects become distorted, generate heat, and possibly stick together.
Term
 Energy
Definition
 The property of a system that enables it to do work.
Term
 Work (equation)
Definition
 W = (F)(d) Force x Distance
Term
 Potential Energy
Definition
 The energy that matter possesses because of its position.   Gravitation PE = mgh
Term
 Kinetic Energy
Definition
 Energy of motion.   KE = (1/2)(mv^2)
Term
 Work- Energy Theory
Definition
 The work done on an object equals the change in kinetic energy of the object.   Work = ∆KE
Term
 Law of Conservation of Energy
Definition
 Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may be transformed from one form into another, but the total amount of energy never changes.
Term
 Power
Definition
 The rate of doing work:   Power = (Work/Time)   (Rate at which energy is expended)
Term
 Machine
Definition
 A device, such as a lever or a pulley, that increases (or decreases) a force or simply changes the direction of the force.
Term
 Lever
Definition
 A simple machine consisting of a rigid rod pivoted at a fixed point called the fulcrum.
Term
 Conservation of Energy for Machines
Definition
 The work output of any machine cannot exceed the work input. In an ideal machine, where no energy is transformed into thermal energy:   Work(input) = Work(output) Fd(input) = Fd(output)
Term
 Efficiency
Definition
 The percentage of the work put into a machine that is converted into useful work output.    Efficiency = (Energy output/ Total energy Input)
Term
 Law of Universal Gravitation
Definition
 Every body in the universe attracts every other body with a force that, for two bodies, is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distence separating them:  F=G(m1m2/r2)
Term
 Inverse-Square Law
Definition
 The intensity of an effect from a localized source spreads uniformly throughout the surrounding space and weakens with the inverse square of the distance:   Intensity = (1/distance2)
Term
 Weight
Definition
 The force that an object exerts on a supporting surface. Which is, often but not always, due to the force of gravity.
Term
 Weightless
Definition
 Being without a support force, as in free fall.
Term
 Projectile
Definition
 Any object that moves through the air or through space under the influence of gravity.
Term
 Parabola
Definition
 The curved path followed by a projectile under the influence of constant gravity ONLY.
Term
 Satellite
Definition
 A projectile or small celestial body that orbits a larger celestial body.
Term
 Ellipse
Definition
 The oval path followed by a satellite. The sum of the distances from any point on the path to two points called foci is a constant. When the foci are together at one point, the ellipse is a circle. As the foci get farther apart, the ellipse becomes more eccentric.
Term
 Escape Speed (And Equation)
Definition
 The speed that a projectile, space probe, or similar object must reach to escape the gravitational influence of Earth or of another celestial body to which it is attracted.   v = √(2GM/d)
Term
 Speed of a Satellite in Circular Orbit (Equation)
Definition
 V = Root(GM/d)
Term
 Density (And Weight Density)
Definition
 Matter per unit volume   Density = (Mass/Volume)   Weight Density = (Weight/Volume)
Term
 Pressure (And Liquid Pressure Eq.)
Definition
 The ratio of force to the area over which that force is distributed.   Pressure = (Force/Area)   Liquid Pressure = (Weight Density x Depth)
Term
 Buoyant Force
Definition
 The net upward force that a fluid exerts on an immersed object.
Term
 Archimedes' Principle
Definition
 An immersed body is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces (For both liquids and gases)
Term
 Principle of Flotation
Definition
 A floating object displaces a weight of fluid equal to its own weight.
Term
 Boyle's Law
Definition
 The product of pressure and volume is a constant for a given mass of confined gas regardless of changes in either pressure or volume individually, so long as temperature remains unchanged.   P1V1 = P2V2
Term
 Atmospheric Pressure
Definition
 The pressure exerted against bodies immersed in the atmosphere resulting from the weight of air pressing down from above. At sea level, atmospheric pressure is about 101 kPa.
Term
 Barometer
Definition
 Device that measures atmospheric pressure.
Term
 Pascal's Principle
Definition
 A change in pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid at rest is transmitted undiminished to all point in the fluid.
Term
 Bernoulli's Principle
Definition
 The pressure in a fluid moving steadily without friction of outside energy input decreases when the fluid velocity increases.
Term
 Temperature
Definition
 A measure of the hotness or coldness of substances, related to the average kinetic energy per molecule in a substance, measured in degrees celsius, degrees fahrenheit, or kelvin.
Term
 Absolute Zero
Definition
 The theoretical temperature at which a substance possess not kinetic energy.
Term
 Thermal Energy
Definition
 The total energy (kinetic plus potential) of the submicroscopic particles that make up a substance.
Term
 Heat
Definition
 The thermal energy that flows from a substance of higher temperature to a substance of lower temperature, commonly measured in calories or joules.
Term
 Thermodynamics
Definition
 The study of heat and its transformation to different forms of energy.
Term
 First Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 A restatement of the law of energy conservation, usually as it applies to systems involving changes in temperature: Whenever heat flows into or out of a system, the gain or loss of thermal energy equals the amount of heat transferred.
Term
 The Second Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 Heat never spontaneously flows from a cold substance to a hot substance. Also, in natural processes, high-quality energy tends to transform into lower-quality energy--order tends to disorder.
Term
 Third Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 No system can reach absolute zero!!!
Term
 Entropy (And Equation)
Definition
 The measure of energy dispersal of a system. Whenever energy freely transforms from one form to another, the direction of transformation is toward a state of greater disorder and, therefore, toward one of greater entropy. ∆S = ∆Q/T   Increase in entropy is equal to the amount of heat added to the system divided by the temperature at which the heat is added.
Term
 Equation for Change in Temperature (Ex: Hot water added to colder water)
Definition
 Cm1∆T1 = Cm2∆T2   Q=cm∆T (Heat transferred = Specific heat x mass x temp)
Term
 Conduction
Definition
 The transfer of internal energy by molecular and electronic collisions within a substance (especially a solid).
Term
 Convection
Definition
 The transfer of internal energy in a gas or a liquid by means of currents in the heated fluid. The fluid flows, carrying energy with it.
Term
Definition
 The transfer of energy by means of electromagnetic waves.
Term
Definition
 The radiant energy emitted by Earth
Term
 Newton's Law of Cooling
Definition
 The rate of loss of internal energy from an object is proportional to the temperature difference between the object and its surroundings.   Rate of Cooling ~ ∆T
Term
 Evaporation
Definition
 The change of phase at the surface of a liquid as it passes to the gaseous phase.
Term
 Sublimation
Definition
 The change of phase directly from solid to gas, bypassing the liquid phase.
Term
 Condensation
Definition
 The change of phase from gas to liquid the opposite of evaporation. Warming of the liquid results.
Term
 Boiling
Definition
 A rapid state of evaporation that takes place within the liquid as well as at its surface. As with evaporation, cooling of the liquid results.
Term
 Melting
Definition
 The process of changing phase from solid to liquid, as from ice to water.
Term
 Freezing
Definition
 The process of changing phase from liquid to solid as from water to ice.
Term
 Heat of Fusion
Definition
 The amount of energy needed to change any substance from solid to liquid (and vice versa). For water, this is 334 J/g (or 80 cal/gram)
Term
 Heat of Vaporization
Definition
 The amount of energy required to change any substance from liquid to gas (and vice versa). For water, this is 2256 J/g (or 540 cal/g)
Term
 Coulomb's Law
Definition
 The relationship among electrical force, charge and distance. If the charges are alike in sign, the force is repelling; if the charges are unlike, the force is attractive.   [image]
Term
 Coulomb (Unit)
Definition
 SI unit of electrical charge. One coulomb (C) is equal in magnitude to the total charge of 6.25 x 1018 electrons.
Term
 Electrically Polarized
Definition
 Term applied to an atom or molecule in which the charges are aligned so that one side has a slight excess of positive charge and the other side a slight excess of negative charge.
Term
 Electric Field
Definition
 Defined as force per unit charge. About a charged point, the field decreases with distance according to the inverse-square law. Btwn oppositely charged parallel plates, the electric field is uniform.
Term
 Electrical Potential Energy
Definition
 The energy a charge possesses by virtue of its location in an electric field.
Term
 Electrical Potential
Definition
 The electric potential energy per amount of charge, measured in volts. AKA Voltage.
Term
 Conductor
Definition
 Any material having free charged particles that easily flow through it when an electric force acts on them.
Term
 Potential Difference
Definition
 The difference in potential between two points, measured in volts. AKA Voltage Difference.
Term
 Electric Current
Definition
 The flow of electric charge that transports energy from one place to another.
Term
 Ampere
Definition
 The unit of electric current the rate of flow of 1 C of charge per second.
Term
 Direct Current (DC)
Definition
 An electric current flowing in one direction only.
Term
 Alternating Current (AC)
Definition
 Electric current that repeatedly reverses its direction; the electric charges vibrate about relatively fixed points.   (60 Hz in the US)
Term
 Electrical Resistance
Definition
 The property of a material that resists the flow of an electric current through it. It is measured in Ohms. (Ω)
Term
 Ohm's Law (Eq.)
Definition
 Current = (Voltage/Resistance)
Term
 Series Circuit
Definition
 An electric circuit with devices connected so that the same electric current flows through each of them.
Term
 Parallel Circuit
Definition
 An electric circuit with two or more devices connected so that the same voltage acts across each one, and any single one completes the circuit independently of the others.
Term
 Magnetic Force (2 Types)
Definition
 (1) Btwn magnets, it's the attraction of unlike magnetic poles and the repulsion like magnetic poles. (2) Btwn a magnetic field and a moving charge, it is a deflecting force due to the motion of the charge: the deflecting force is perpendicular to the velocity of the charge and perpendicular to the magnetic field lines. This force is greatest when the charge moves perpendicular to the field lines and is smallest wen it moves parallel.
Term
 Magnetic Field
Definition
 The region of magnetic influence around a magnetic pole or a moving charged particle.
Term
 Magnetic Domains
Definition
 Clustered regions of aligned magnetic atoms. When these regions themselves are aligned with one another, the substance containing them is a magnet.
Term
 Electromagnet
Definition
 A magnet whose field is produced by an electric current. It is usually in the form of a wire coil with a piece of iron inside the coil.
Term
 Electromagnetic Induction
Definition
 The induction of voltage when a magnetic field changes with time. If the magnetic field within a closed loop changes in any way, a voltage is induced in the loop.    Voltage Induced~(number of loops x Magnetic Field Change/ Time)
Term
Definition
 The law of electromagnetic induction, in which the induced voltage in a coil is proportional to the number of loops multiplied by the rate at which the magnetic field changes within those loops.
Term
 Generator
Definition
 An electromagnetic induction device that produces electric current by rotating a coil within a stationary magnetic field.
Term
 Transformer
Definition
 A device for transferring electric power from one coil of wire to another by means of electromagnetic induction. Two Different Coils.   (Primary Voltage/# of Primary Turns) = (Secondary Voltage/ # of Secondary Turns)
Term
 Force of Interaction Btwn Magnetic Poles (Eq.)
Definition
 F = (P1P2/d2)   P1 and P2 represent magnetic pole strengths and d represents the distance between the poles.
Term
 Infrasonic Waves
Definition
 Waves with frequency below 20 Hz
Term
 Ultrasonic Waves
Definition
 Waves with frequency above 20,000 Hz
Term
 Reverberation
Definition
 Sound due to multiple reflections.
Term
 Refraction
Definition
 Sound continues through a medium and bends.
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