# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Physical Science Mid Term
Vocab and notes from chapters 1-5
69
Physics
12/09/2010

Term
 Science
Definition
 A method of learning and communicating information about the natural world
Term
 Three Main Categories of Science
Definition
 Life,Earth,Physical
Term
 Hypothesis
Definition
 A possible explanation for a problem using what you know and what you observe (an educated guess)
Term
 Experiment
Definition
 Tests the effect of one thing on another using controlled conditions
Term
 Variable
Definition
 A quantity that can have more than one value
Term
 Dependent Variable
Definition
 A variable that changes according to the changes in other variables
Term
 Independent Variable
Definition
 The variable you change to see how it affects the dependent variable
Term
 Constant
Definition
 A factor that does not change when other variables change
Term
 Control
Definition
 The standard by which the test result can be compared (a person in a pain reliever experiment that receives no reliever)
Term
 Bias
Definition
 When a scientist changes an the experiment to prove his hypothesis right
Term
 Model
Definition
 A model represents an idea, event or object to help people better understand it
Term
 Theory
Definition
 An explanation of things or events based on knowledge gained from observations
Term
 Scientific Law
Definition
 A statement in nature that has been proved to happen all the time
Term
 Technology
Definition
 The application of science to help people
Term
 Standard
Definition
 An exact quantity that people agree to compare measurements (metric and customary systems)
Term
 Distance
Definition
 Describes how far an object moves
Term
 Displacement
Definition
 The distance and direction of an objects change in position from the starting point
Term
 Speed
Definition
 The distance and object travels per unit time (d/t)
Term
 Constant Speed
Definition
 Speed that doesn't change
Term
 Changing Speed
Definition
 Speed that changes
Term
 Average Speed
Definition
 The total distance traveled divided by the total time traveled
Term
 Instantaneous Speed
Definition
 The speed at a given point in time
Term
 Velocity
Definition
 Speed and direction of an object
Term
 Acceleration
Definition
 The rate of change in velocity
Term
 Force
Definition
 A push or a pull on an object
Term
 Net Force
Definition
 the overall force of an object when two or more forces are acting on one object
Term
 Balanced Force
Definition
 When two forces equal forces are pushing on the same object in opposite directions
Term
 Unbalanced Force
Definition
 Two unequal forces pushing on an object in opposite directions
Term
 Inertia
Definition
 The tendency of an object to resist any change in motion
Term
 Newtons 1st Law
Definition
 An object moving at constant velocity keeps moving at that velocity unless acted upon by an unbalanced force
Term
 Volume
Definition
 The amount of space occupied by an object
Term
 Mass
Definition
 The quantity of matter in an object
Term
 Density
Definition
 The mass per unit volume of a material (m/v)
Term
 Temperature
Definition
 The measurement of the average kinetic energy of all the particles in an object
Term
 Graph
Definition
 A visual display of information or data
Term
 Newtons 2nd Law
Definition
 The acceleration of an object is in the same direction as the net force on the object
Term
 Friction
Definition
 The force that opposes the sliding motion of two surfaces that are touching each other
Term
 Static Friction
Definition
 The frictional force that PREVENTS two surfaces from sliding past each other
Term
 Sliding Friction
Definition
 The frictional force that OPPOSES the motion of two surfaces sliding past each other
Term
 Rolling Friction
Definition
 The frictional force between a rolling object and the surface it rolls on
Term
 Air Resistance
Definition
 Opposes the motion of objects to fall with different accelerations and different speeds
Term
 Terminal Velocity
Definition
 The highest speed a falling object will reach
Term
 Gravity
Definition
 An attractive force between any two objects that depends on the masses of the objects and the distance between them
Term
 4 Basic Forces
Definition
 Gravity, Electromagnetic, Strong Nuclear, Weak Nuclear
Term
 Weight
Definition
 The gravitational force exerted on an object
Term
 Newtons 3rd Law
Definition
 For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Term
 Momentum
Definition
 The product of mass and velocity
Term
 Energy
Definition
 The ability to perform work
Term
 Kinetic Energy
Definition
 The energy a moving object has
Term
 Potential Energy
Definition
 The energy stored by objects due to their position above earth's surface
Term
 Elastic Potential Energy
Definition
 energy stored by something that can stretch or bend
Term
 Chemical Potential Energy
Definition
 Energy stored in chemical bonds
Term
 Mechanical Energy
Definition
 The total amount of potential and kinetic energy in a system
Term
 Law of Conservation of Energy
Definition
 Energy cannot be created or destroyed only transferred
Term
 Work
Definition
 The transfer of energy that occurs when a force makes an object move
Term
 Power
Definition
 The rate at which work is done
Term
 Machine
Definition
 A device that makes doing work easier by increasing the force that can be applied to an object
Term
 Input Force
Definition
 Force applied to something
Term
 Output Force
Definition
 Force applied by something
Term
Definition
 The ratio of the input force to the output force
Term
 Efficiency
Definition
 The measure of how much energy put into a machine is changed into useful work by the machine
Term
 Simple Machine
Definition
 A machine that does work with one movement
Term
 Lever
Definition
 A bar that is free to pivot on a fixed point called a fulcrum
Term
 Pulley
Definition
 A grooved wheel with a rope, chain, or cable running along the groove
Term
 Wheel and Axle
Definition
 A simple machine consisting of a shaft attached to the center of a wheel
Term
 Inclined Plane
Definition
 A sloping surface that reduces the amount of work needed to do
Term
 Screw
Definition
 An inclined plane wrapped around a cylindrical post
Term
 Wedge
Definition
 An inclined plane with one or two sloping sides (knife)
Term
 Compound Machine
Definition
 Two or more simple machines that work together
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