Shared Flashcard Set

Physical Geo-1
N/A
101
Geography
Undergraduate 3
09/13/2012

Cards Return to Set Details

Term
 Components of a system
Definition
 -flows of energy and/or matter-a boundary separating the contents of the system from the external environment-internal transformation
Term
 Give an example of what is not true about systems
Definition
 when outpout is greater than input, storage will increase
Term
 Body temp increases, you sweat. Is this positive or negative?
Definition
 Negative
Term
 What is not caused by the rotation of earth?
Definition
 wind
Term
 The angular distance along a parallel between the prime meridian and a given point on the globe is the ___ of that point
Definition
 longitude (angle!)
Term
 A north-south line on the earth's surface that connects the poles is a ..
Definition
 meridian
Term
 The _______ Solstice occurs when the subsolar point is at 23.5 degrees south
Definition
 December Solstice
Term
 The article circle is at 66.5 degrees N experiences 24 hours of day in the ______
Definition
 june solstice
Term
 Meridians of longitude are all parallel to each other and parallels of latitude intersect at the poles
Definition
 FALSEmeridians of longitude intersect at polesparallels of latitude are parallel
Term
 Radius of the Earth
Definition
 64000 km
Term
 What coordinate does NOT represent a point that actually exists on the earth
Definition
 109 N and 85 E.
Term
 Latitude is from...
Definition
 0-90 degrees North to South
Term
 What is equilibrium?
Definition
 A state of balance between opposing forcesA tendency of a system to vary around a stable average condition
Term
 When someone describes an idea or theory it means that..
Definition
 it is a unifying concept that predicts and helps to explain a broad range of evidence
Term
 What sphere intersects all of the others?
Definition
 Biosphere
Term
 The imaginary straight line that runs through the center of the earth?
Definition
 uhhh
Term
 An east-west circle on the Earth's surface that lies in a plan parallel to the equator is a...
Definition
 parallel
Term
 The angular distance along a meridian between the equator and a given point is the ______
Definition
 latitude
Term
 Earth rotates ___ degrees in 1 hour
Definition
 15
Term
 Seasons are primarily the result of
Definition
 the tilt of the earth's axis
Term
 A great circle is ___ to the circum. of the earth
Definition
 equal
Term
 A system of parallels and meridians that are superimposed on the earth's surface on a globe or map is...
Definition
 geographic grid
Term
 The earthâ€™s axis is
Definition
 23.5 degrees away from the perpendicular to the plane of the eliptic
Term
 One degree of latitude (measured along a meridian) represents pretty much the same distance anywhere on the earth's surface, but one degree of longitude (measured along a parallel) represents different distances on the surface depending on the latitude where the measurement is made. True or false?
Definition
 true
Term
 Which of the following is not a great circle or part of a great circle?
Definition
 Tropic of Cancer
Term
 Which of the following is an accurate projection with respect to shape, size and direction?
Definition
 No such thing... bitch!
Term
 Eratosthenes figured out a way to do what?
Definition
 Estimate the earth's circumference
Term
 Why is water considered such an important part of the earth system?
Definition
 ...all of the above are true
Term
 What is the plane of the ecliptic?
Definition
 the plane defined by the earth's orbit around the sun
Term
 What is the highest latitude at which the sun is ever seen directly overhead in either hemisphere?
Definition
 23.5 degrees
Term
 If the earth's diameter were only half as large as it is now, how many degrees of latitude would separate the equator from the North Pole?
Definition
 90
Term
 On which of the following dates is the sun directly overhead at noon on the equator?
Definition
 March 21
Term
 Dec. 22
Definition
 (None of the above).. Dec. 21st
Term
 When does everywhere experience 12hrs day and 12hrs of night?
Definition
 Sept 22nd
Term
 How high is the sun in the sky on June 21 at latitude 75 degrees South?
Definition
 the sun is not above the horizon
Term
 The earh reaches periphelion at?
Definition
 Jan 3
Term
 What has the shortest wavelength?
Definition
 gamma rays
Term
 With increasing temperature, what happens to the emission of radiant energy?
Definition
 the amount emitted increases and the wavelength becomes shorter
Term
 The max intensity of solar radiation occurs in what part of the electromagnetic spectrum?
Definition
 visible
Term
 The earth emits mainly.... radiation
Definition
 infared
Term
 shortwave radiation includes..
Definition
 visible, uv, near infared
Term
 If the sun was cooler...
Definition
 more radiation would be infared
Term
 Solar Constant?
Definition
 the rate at which solar energy approaching the earth passes through a unit surface area above the earth's atmosphere per unit time
Term
 Which latitude receives the highest daily maximum (i.e. maximum for any single day, not average daily) amount of insolation over the course of the year?
Definition
 the poles
Term
 Latitudes closer to the equator than about 40 degrees have a surplus of net radiation when averaged over the year. What happens to that surplus energy?
Definition
 it drives the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean surface, which carry surplus energy toward higher latitudes in the form of latent and sensible heat
Term
 What controls annual variation of insolation at the top of the atmosphere for any given latitude?
Definition
 variations in the angle of incidence of the sun's rays and in the duration of daylight
Term
 Daily net radiation averaged over the course of the year is highest where?
Definition
 equatorial latitudes
Term
 What is the third-most abundant gas in the atmosphere?
Definition
 Argon
Term
 In which layer of the atmosphere does temperature RISE with INCREASING altitude?
Definition
 stratosphere
Term
 Tropopause
Definition
 boundary between tropo and strato
Term
 Normal lapse rate is the average rate of decline of atmospheric pressure in the troposphere with increasing altitude; environmental lapse rate is the rate that would be observed at a specific place and time.
Definition
 false
Term
 Atmospheric pressure at sea level is
Definition
 1013.2 millibars
Term
 What are we actually measuring when we measure atmospheric pressure?
Definition
 atmospheric pressure is the weight of the column of air above a specific point, per unit of surface area
Term
 Which of the following best describes how atmospheric pressure changes with increasing altitude?
Definition
 within the first 10 miles above the surface, atmospheric pressure drops to about 10% of the atmospheric pressure at sea level and then continues to drop even further at higher altitudes
Term
 The change in pressure per kilometer of altitude in the atmosphere is the same no matter where in the atmosphere you measure that change
Definition
 FALSEE
Term
 What is the correct explanation for the observed trend in temperature of the stratosphere?
Definition
 temperature increases with altitude because the ozone layer in the stratosphere absorbs ultraviolet radiation, which in turn heats the air and raises the temperature
Term
 Which of the following pictures best represents the trend of atmospheric temperature (horizontal axis) with increasing altitude (vertical axis) from the surface to an altitude of about 120 km?
Definition
 zig zag
Term
 Which of the choices in the previous question best represents the trend of atmospheric pressure with increasing altitude?
Definition
 downward curve
Term
 Which of the following is most commonly responsible for a visible buildup of pollutants and smog in the lower atmosphere?
Definition
 temp inversion
Term
 Why does the Antarctic ozone hole typically develop and reach its maximum extent from September into early October?
Definition
 chlorine ions derived from CFC emissions are trapped by ice crystals in polar stratospheric clouds through the winter; the ice crystals then melt in spring, releasing Cl ions to react with ozone molecules
Term
 anthropogenic pollutants
Definition
 carbon monoxide nitrogen oxide ozone SO2
Term
 Which of the following statements is NOT true?
Definition
 Despite efforts to regulate sources of air pollution there has been no improvement at all in the acid precipitation problem in the eastern U.S. over the last several decades
Term
 Aerosols are
Definition
 extremely small particles suspended in the airassociated with both natural and anthropogenic sources of atmospheric pollutionpotentially dangerous to human health, especially at the smallest sizes
Term
 If the sun were cooler than it is
Definition
 More of the sun's incoming radiation would be infared
Term
 The Earth's albedo is
Definition
 31%
Term
 What process is responsible for the sky being blue and sunsets are yellow?
Definition
 Scattering
Term
 What has the lowest albedo?
Definition
 Forest
Term
 What quantity is calculated by summing insolation and downward longwave radiation, then subtracting reflected shortwave and emitted upward longwave radiation?
Definition
 net radiation
Term
 What fraction of shortwave radiation reaching the earth is returned to space as longwave radiation?
Definition
 a little more than two thirds
Term
 The sky as seen from the daylit side of the moon is black; this is not true on the earth because of what process?
Definition
 Scattering (it's always fucking scattering!)
Term
 The bending of light rays as they pass through a gas or a liquid is called
Definition
 refraction
Term
 Transmission of heat energy between one material substance and another by direct contact, or from one part of an object to another, is ___________.
Definition
 conduction
Term
 Heat energy transmitted by a moving fluid, particularly through vertical currents caused by heating, is called
Definition
 convection
Term
 the amount of energy leaving the earth's surface as latent heat is equal to the amount of shortwave radiation absorbed at the earth's surface.. T/F?
Definition
 FALSE!
Term
 T/F? some SW that was absorbed by the earth's surface is emitted upward by the surface as shortwave radiation
Definition
 False
Term
 Which is the least efficient means of transmitting heat energy?
Definition
 conduction (conductors touching ;b)
Term
 Which of the following is likely to have the highest emission of sensible heat on an annual basis?
Definition
 hot ass places.. subtropical deserts (i.e. close to the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn)
Term
 True or false?large-scale motions of the atmosphere and oceans are driven by the imbalance between latitudinal regions with energy surpluses and others with energy deficits
Definition
 true
Term
 C-> F equationF--> C equationA temperature of 20 degrees Celsuis is equivalent to
Definition
 C1.8-32F-32/1.868F
Term
 How do clouds affect the earth's radiation balance?
Definition
 Reflect incoming SWAbsorb LW from EarthRe-emit abosrbed longwave ..Net Albedo and GreenhouseALL!
Term
 maximum daily temperature usually occurs at least a couple of hours after maximum insolationTrue or False?
Definition
 True
Term
 Daily max of temperature occurs when in relation to net radiation
Definition
 temperature continues to rise as long as net radiation is positive and begins to decline when net radiation becomes negative
Term
 At what time of day do we usually experience minimum daily temperature?
Definition
 at or shortly after dawn
Term
 Latitudes closer to the equator than about 40 degrees have a surplus of net radiation when averaged over the year. What happens to that surplus energy?
Definition
 it drives the circulation of the atmosphere and ocean surface, which carry surplus energy toward higher latitudes in the form of latent and sensible heat
Term
 Temperature more than about 30 cm below the ground surface
Definition
 experiences almost no temperature change during a typical daily cycle of heating and cooling at the surface.
Term
 True or false? higher amounts of sensible heat emitted in rural areas than in urban areas explains typical observed differences in temperatures between urban and rural areas
Definition
 False
Term
 Temperatures at maritime locations tend to be milder than at continental locations because
Definition
 Water has a high specific heatSolar energy can penetrateVertical mixing ;)more of solar radiation is obsorbed by water bodies
Term
 When isotherms are closer together on a map there is
Definition
 large temperature gradient
Term
 Cooling of the land surface on a clear night may cause _____ by just before dawn.
Definition
 temperature inversion..LID!
Term
 Temperature differences between equatorial and polar latitudes
Definition
 winter.
Term
 If the earth had no oceans,
Definition
 seasonal temperature variations would be much larger than they are now
Term
 T/FIsotherms over land shift toward the equator in winter and toward the poles in summer.
Definition
 true
Term
 T/FSeasonal isotherm shifts toward the poles or equator are greater over the oceans than they are over land.
Definition
 False
Term
 Why are isotherms generally more irregular in the northern hemisphere and more concentric and simple in the southern hemisphere?
Definition
 the southern hemisphere is mostly covered by oceans with a continent on the pole, whereas the northern hemisphere has ocean at the pole but has continents alternating with oceans through most of the hemisphere
Term
 The annual cycle of temperature variation near an east-coast location in the midlatitudes
Definition
 is fairly similar to the pattern observed at a continental location and not as mild as the pattern observed at a west-coast location
Term
 Where on the globe would you expect to see the largest annual range of temperatures?
Definition
 over the high-latitude continental interiors
Term
 T/F?According to NASA, nine of the ten warmest years on record have happened since 2000 and 2012 is likely to be the warmest year on record.
Definition
 True
Term
 What happens to the annual cycle of temperature with increasing latitude?
Definition
 temps get coolerseasonal variations become more pronouncedTemps contrast
Term
 What makes the wind blow?
Definition
 differences in atmospheric pressure between one location and another.
Term
 Contour lines on a map representing location with = atmospheric pressure are called
Definition
 isobars
Term
 What do we call the circulation of air parallel to the isobars around a low or a high in the atmosphere?
Definition
 geostraphic wind
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