# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Physic Termonolgy
Match the definition to the correct term
33
Physics
01/23/2009

Term
 Atwood's machine
Definition
 A weight-and-pulley system devised to measure the acceleration due to gravity at Earth's surface by measuring the net acceleration of a set of weights of known mass around a frictionless pulley.
Term
Definition
 The number of items in a sample of a substance which is equal to the number of atoms or molecules in a sample of an ideal gas which is at standard temperature and pressure.
Term
 Boyle's Law
Definition
 The product of the pressure and the volume of an ideal gas at constant temperature is a constant.
Term
 Brownian motion
Definition
 The continuous random motion of solid microscopic particles when suspended in a fluid medium due to the consequence of ongoing bombardment by atoms and molecules.
Term
 Charles' law
Definition
 The volume of an ideal gas at constant pressure is proportional to the thermodynamic temperature of that gas.
Term
 Coulomb's law
Definition
 The primary law for electrostatics, analogous to NEWTON'S LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION. It states that the force between two point charges is proportional to the algebraic product of their respective charges as well as proportional to the inverse square of the distance between them.
Term
 Dalton's law of partial pressures
Definition
 The total pressure of a mixture of ideal gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of its components; that is, the sum of the pressures that each component would exert if it were present alone and occupied the same volume as the mixture.
Term
 Doppler Effect
Definition
 Waves emitted by a moving object as received by an observer will be blueshifted (compressed) if approaching, redshifted (elongated) if receding. It occurs both in sound as well as electromagnetic phenomena, although it takes on different forms in each.
Term
Definition
 The electric charge carried by one mole of electrons (or singly-ionized ions). It is equal to the product of Avogadro constant and the (absolute value of the) charge on an electron.
Term
 Fermat's principle
Definition
 The principle that states the path taken by a ray of light between any two points in a system is always the path that takes the least time.
Term
 Hooke's law
Definition
 The stress applied to any solid is proportional to the strain it porduces within the elastic limit for that solid. The constant of that proportionality is the Young modulus of elasticity for that substance.
Term
 Hubble's law
Definition
 A relationship discovered between distance and radial velocity. The further away a galaxy is away from is, the faster it is receding away from us. The cause is interpreted as the expansion of spacetime itself.
Term
 Ideal gas laws
Definition
 Boyle's law and Charles' law.
Term
 Lyman series
Definition
 The series which describes the emission spectrum of hydrogen when electrons are jumping to the ground state. All of the lines are in the ultraviolet.
Term
 Meissner effect
Definition
 The decrease of the magnetic flux within a superconducting metal when it is cooled below the transition temperature. That is, superconducting materials reflect magnetic fields.
Term
 Newton's First Law of Motion
Definition
 A body continues in its state of constant velocity (which may be zero) unless it is acted upon by an external force.
Term
 Newton's Second Law of Motion
Definition
 For an unbalanced force acting on a body, the acceleration produced is proportional to the force impressed; the constant of proportionality is the inertial mass of the body.
Term
 Newton's Third Law of Motion
Definition
 In a system where no external forces are present, every action force is always opposed by an equal and opposite reaction force.
Term
 Null experiment
Definition
 An experiment which, after being executed, yields no result. Null experiments are just as meaningful as non-null experiments; if current theory predicts an observable effect (or predicts there should be no observable effect), and experimentation (within the required accuracy) does not yield said effect, then the null experiment has told us something about our theory.
Term
 Occam's razor (or Ockham)
Definition
 The suggestion that the simpler a theory is, the better. If two theories predict phenomena to the same accuracy, then the one which is simpler is the better one.
Term
 Ohm's law
Definition
 The ration of the potential difference between the ends of a conductor to the current flowing through it is constant; the constant of proportionality is called the resistance, and is different for different materials.
Term
 Pascal's principle
Definition
 Pressure applied to an enclosed imcompressible static fluid is transmitted undiminished to all parts of the fluid.
Term
 Planck constant
Definition
 The fundamental constant equal to the ratio of the energy of a quantum of energy to its frequency.
Term
 Reflection law
Definition
 For a wavefront travelling through a boundary between two media, the first with a refractive index of n1, and the other with one of n2, the angle of incidence theta is related to the angle of refraction phi by n1 sin theta = n2 sin phi.
Term
 Stefan-Boltzmann constant
Definition
 The constant of proportionality present in the Stefan-Boltzmann law.
Term
 Stefan-Boltzmann law
Definition
 The radiated power P (rate of emission of electromagnetic energy) of a hot body is proportional to the radiating surface area, A, and the fourth power of the thermodynamic temperature, T.
Term
 Superconductivity
Definition
 The phenomena by which, at sufficiently low temperatures, a conductor can conduct charge with zero resistance.
Term
 First Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 The change in internal energy of a system is the sum of the heat transferred to or from the system and the work done on or by the system.
Term
 Second Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 The entropy - a measure of the unavailability of a system's energy to do useful work - of a closed system tends to increase with time.
Term
 Third Law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 For changes involving only perfect crystalline solids at absolute zero, the change of the total entropy is zero.
Term
 Zeroth law of Thermodynamics
Definition
 If two bodies are each in thermal equilibrium with a third body, then all three bodies are in thermal equilibrium with each other.
Term
 Uncertainty principle
Definition
 A principle, central to quantum mechanics, which states that two complementary parameters (such as position and momentum, energy and time, or angular momentuma dn angular displacement) cannot both be known to infinite accuracy; the more you know about one, the less you know about the other.
Term
 Weiss constant
Definition
 A characteristic constant dependent on the material, used in calculating the susceptibility of paramganetic materials.
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