Term
Blood has 3 forms of energy:  ____ energy due to position.  _____ energy due to ____ ___ and ____ ____ commonly called ___ ____.  ___ energy due to motion. 

Definition
 gravitational  pressure aka blood pressure  kinetic 


Term
One form of energy can/cannot be transferred to another type of energy. 

Definition


Term
When blood speeds up through a narrowing, it gives up ____ energy to become ____ energy. 

Definition


Term
At the top of a oolumn filled with fluid, the ____ energy is 0, but the _____ energy, due to position, is greater at the top of the column than at the bottom. 

Definition
 pressure  gravitational 


Term
At the bottom of a column filled with fluid the ____ energy increases proportionally to the height of the column, but ____ energy decreases proportionally to the height of the column. 

Definition
 pressure  gravitational 


Term
In a column of fluid, the ____ is greater at the bottom, but this balanced by a greater ____ energy at the top. These energies balance each other so that there is no movement in the column. This is an example of how fluid does NOT always flow from high to low pressure. 

Definition
 pressure  gravitational 


Term
In a static column of fluid the sum of the ____ energy and ____ energy everywhere is always the ____, thus there is no ____. So even though the pressure throughout is different, and the gravitational energy throughout is different, their sum is always the same. 

Definition
 pressure  gravitational  same  no movement 


Term
In a supine position, there is no significant ____ ___ factor. Pressure at any point while laying flat is due to energy imparted by the ____ minus the energy ____ by ___ ____. 

Definition
 no significant gravitational hydrostatic pressure  heart  dissipated by the vascular resistance 


Term
In a supine position, the ____/____ blood pressure at the foot is close to that at the heart b/c large arteries/veins have ____ resistance. 

Definition
 arterial/venous  low
arterial pressure at heart= 100 mm Hg, foot and head 95 mm Hg.
venous pressure at heart 2 mm Hg, at foot and head 5 mm Hg. 


Term
In a static column of fluid there is __ flow but there is still a ___ ____. 

Definition


Term
There is a big ___ between a foot artery and a foot vein, so blood going from a foot artery to a foot vein gives up ____ as ____ in the microcirculation of the foot. 

Definition
 gradient  gives up pressure as heat 


Term
When there are differences in height, as there are in a standing person, the blood pressure is the sum of the ___ ___ due to the ___ ___ and the pressure due to ____. 

Definition
 driving pressure due to heart contraction  pressure due to height 


Term
deltaP across the foot is the difference between ___ pressure and ____ pressure. 

Definition
 arterial pressure  venous pressure 


Term
look at slides 6 and 7 from this lecture and make sure you know how to calculate and understand what it means. 

Definition


Term
volume of flow= ___ of flow x ___ area. 

Definition
 volume of flow= velocity of flow/cross sectional area 


Term
Blood is flowing from a moderate tube, to a smaller tube, and back into a moderate sized tube. The volume of flow is the same in all three tubes, but since the ____ ___ is much smaller in the small tube, ___ of ___ must increase in order to keep the same volume of flow. This also means that ___ energy increases a lot when going through the ___ tube. 

Definition
 cross sectional area is smaller  velocity of flow must increase to keep same volume of flow  kinetic energy increases 


Term
____ always decreases along a tube going from left to right. So flow always goes from high ___ to low ____ but does NOT always go from high pressure to low pressure. 

Definition
 Energy  high energy to low energy 


Term
blood going from a moderate tube, to a smaller tube, to another moderate tube, will have the highest kinetic energy where? Highest pressure and total energy? 

Definition
 small tube  first moderate tube 


Term
Blood vessels get smaller in some areas, so blood ___ increases, but if the pressure pushing out on these walls gets lower than it should be, you get vessel wall vibration which can break free a plaque and lead to embolism. 

Definition


Term
pressure in a small tube that has come from a moderate tube is ____ b/c of some of that pressure has transitioned into ___ energy. 

Definition


Term
The fundamental relationship between flow, pressure gradient, and resistance is represented by what equation? This assumes that there are no additional energy gradients due to ___ or ___ energy. 

Definition
F= deltaP/R
F= blood flow delta P= difference in pressure at two points along the vessel
R= hydraulic resistance to flow b/w the two points along the vessel
 no gravitational or kinetic energies accounted for in this equation 


Term
Pressure is ___ as blood flows along a ___. 

Definition


Term
In the equation F= deltaP/R, what value of R would stop flow and what pathological condition would cause this? 

Definition
 infinite R  total obstruction of an artery 


Term
Circulation is designed to maintain a nearly constant high ____ blood pressure and a nearly constant low ____ blood pressure. Thus, blood flow through all tissues can be regulated by controlling the ____ of regional vessels, especially _____. 

Definition
 arterial  venous  resistance  arterioles 


Term
equation for systemic vascular resistance: 

Definition
system vascular resistance (SVR)
SVR= (mean arterial pressuremean right atrial pressure)/ cardiac output 


Term
The cardiac output to systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation is the same, ___ is just lower in pulmonary circulation. 

Definition


Term
How do you calculate resistance of resistances in series? 

Definition
 when vessels are in series you just sum the individual resistances
Rt= R1 +R2 + R3 


Term
How do you calculate total resistance when resistances are in parallel? 

Definition
 inverse of the total resistance is equal to the sum of the individual inverse resistances
1/Rt= 1/R1 + 1/R2 + 1/R3 


Term
With a parallel series, the total resistance is more/less than those of the individual arteries. 

Definition


Term
Poiseuille's Law helps determine ___ resistance. Define and explain it and its variables. 

Definition
 vascular R= (8nL)/(pix r^4)
n= eta, viscosity of fluid L= length r= radius 


Term
Flow is proportional to what? 

Definition


Term
resistance is proportional to the ___ of the fluid and to __ of the tube. 

Definition


Term
since r is raised to the fourth power in Pouisell's law, a constant driving force with a small decrease in diameter will do what? 

Definition
 greatly increase resistance and decrease flow 


Term
Poiseuill's law applies to laminar flow, and blood flow is laminar. Explain what this means. 

Definition
 flow in the center of the tube is going faster than flow on the sides of the tubes b/c there is the most reistance along the sides of the tubes  so blood in center is moving the fastest 


Term
The alternative to laminar flow is ___ flow. Explain. 

Definition
 turbulent flow flow not always going down tube, it can go around, uses much more energy, causes vibrations that can damage the vessel, you can hear the vibrations in your stethoscope 


Term
so if there is a disease in the carotid artery and is constricted, you will increased velocity of flow, also due to the decreased outward pressure vibrations will occur. 

Definition


Term

Definition
increased red blood cells so blood is more viscous 

