Term
pressure is (SI units, formula) 

Definition
pressure = Force/Area
SI units of Pascals 


Term
Largest entropy of sum of two dice 

Definition
7
Possible states of (1,6),(2,5),(3,4),(4,3),(5,2),(6,1) 


Term
Net work using pressure and volume 

Definition


Term
Say you want to find the number of microstates in a box of volume V and no of particles N. How would I do that? 

Definition


Term
Box of N particles split into two bits. Find information about the equilibrium. 

Definition


Term
Delta S given Vi Vf and N 

Definition


Term
Given a graph of S and U, how do I find T. Which S vs U graph is impossible? 

Definition
dS/dU = 1/T
dS/dU > 0 because T > 0 


Term
Given Q and T graph how to find C 

Definition


Term
Find delta S given C Tf and Ti 

Definition


Term
Difference between c_p and c_v 

Definition
8.31 usually (esp for noble gas) 


Term
Transnational KE and properties 

Definition
[image]
*Independent of Mass *avg KE per atom 


Term
DOF for water molecule (not straight) 

Definition
3 transnational 3 rotational = 6 


Term

Definition


Term
What type of molecule would have the largest c_v 

Definition
One with lots of bonds, tons of DOF. 


Term
U for solids (DOF for solids) 

Definition
U = 3NkT DOF = 6 c_p for solids is also just 3R 


Term
Give the difference between C_v c_v and C_v,mol 

Definition
C_v is the total heat capacity of a substance Example Cv of 50 mol He is 629 J/k
c_v is the specific heat (heat capacity per unit mass) c_v for helium is 3120 J/kgK
c_v,mol is the heat capacity per mole. Dependent on DOF  c_vmol for He is 12.5 J/molK 


Term

Definition


Term
Total no of microstates of quantum oscillator
U in quantum oscillator 

Definition


Term
I know C(T). What can I do from here? 

Definition


Term
I know U(T). What can I do? Also, where would I usually get U(T) from? 

Definition
[image]
[image]
Get U(T) from equipartition:
U9T) = Ndof/2 *kT + C Boltzmann gives U(T) also. 


Term
Know S vs U (S(U)). What can I do? Where do I usually get S(U)? 

Definition
Find U(T) using: [image]
Get S(U) from counting states.
S(U) = kln(states)(U)
Can use U(T) to find C
[image] 


Term
when is dS/dU = 1/T valid? How about C = dU/dT 

Definition
1) equilibrium 2) constant volume 


Term
What happens to S of a 2 state system at T>0? How about T > infinity? 

Definition
1) S > 0 because there is only one state available. 2) Each state is just as likely. kln(states) = kln2 usually. 


Term
Average total energy of a state in a quantum oscillator 

Definition
= Probability of state * Energy of state = P*E
Total avg energy in 2 state:
U = E_H P_H + E_L P_L
Can find C from dU/dT
General formula:
[image] 


Term

Definition
U = mgh
Can use this to see how much particles in the atmosphere fall off by. Show that you can use anything for U, not just a random energy given. 


Term

Definition
Macrostate  Things like U,V,N Microstate  position and velocity 


Term
Adding heat to something at a constant temperature. What's delta S 

Definition


Term
Solve two blocks coming to equilibrium 

Definition
[image]
Do that for BOTH blocks, and then:
[image] 


Term
Carnot Engine (properties) 

Definition
Most efficient:
[image] Delta S > 0 [image] 


Term
Carnot Engine (efficiency) 

Definition


Term

Definition
[image]
Integrate the segments.
< means negative work_by > means positive work by 


Term
Which processes are reversible? 

Definition
Isothermal and adiabatic are reversible
Isochoric and Isobaric are irreversible. 


Term
What's zero in a reversible process? 

Definition
*Change in total energy!!
*Change in total entropy 


Term
What is the relationship between quasistatic processes and reversible processes? 

Definition
All reversible processes are quasistatic.
NOT True:
All quasistatic are reversible 


Term
COP for Fridge and Heat Pump 

Definition


Term
General Engine Efficiency 

Definition


Term

Definition


Term

Definition
[image]
Example of brick in a room
[image] 


Term
How to calculate max work from brick? 

Definition
[image]
where:
[image] [image] 


Term

Definition


Term
Modified ordering of isoX. 

Definition
1) Isobaric 2) Isothermal 3) Adiabatic 4) Isochoric
This will be used for everything else. 


Term
What part of PV is constant for each of the elements 

Definition
Isobaric: P Isothermal: PV Adiabatic: PV^(a+1)/a Isochoric: V 


Term
What are the "cutoffs" for:
DeltaT, deltaU Wby Qin deltaS 

Definition
1) zero at 2, decreases down 2) zero at 4, decreases down 3) zero at 3, decreases down 4) zero at 3, decreases down 


Term
How much does entropy change during a phase change 

Definition


Term
How do chemical potentials of the 2 phases compare during a phase change? 

Definition


Term
What's zero during a phase change? 

Definition


Term
What's G at constant T and P? 

Definition


Term
Whats du/dT at constant pressure and N 

Definition


Term

Definition


Term
pressure in "thermo of photons" 

Definition


Term
Other variables (ex: C_v) in thermodynamics of photons 

Definition
Same relationships still apply, acts like a normal system. Example:
C_v = dU/dT = 4AVT^3 


Term
S in thermodynamics of photons 

Definition


Term
What star is the hottest? 

Definition
One that emits:
lowest wavelength highest frequency 


Term
Wavelength > highest (700nm) to lowest (400nm) 

Definition
ROYGBIV (Red  700, Violet  400) 


Term
[image] in thermal radiation (definition)
Total power from a star 

Definition
Power/surface area
Power = J*A = A([image])(T^4) 


Term
Why isn't the same amount of energy reflected back to Earth as is reflected out to space? 

Definition
The Earth emits photons at a different frequency than the sun. 

