# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Phsyical Science Final
na
66
Physics
05/22/2011

Term
 static electricity
Definition
 the accumulation of excess electrical charge
Term
 law of conservation of charge
Definition
 charge can not be created or destroyed, only transferred
Term
 conductor
Definition
 a material in which electrons are able to move easily
Term
 insulator
Definition
 a material in which electrons are not able to move easily
Term
 charge by contact
Definition
 the rearrangement of electrons on a neutral object caused by a nearby charged object
Term
 circuit
Definition
 a closed path that electric current follows
Term
 resistance
Definition
 the tendency for a material to oppose the flow of electrons
Term
 ohms law
Definition
 current(I)=voltage(V)/resistance(R)
Term
 magnetism
Definition
 the properties and interactions of magnets
Term
 magnetic field
Definition
 exerts a force on other magnets and magnetic materials
Term
 magnetic poles
Definition
 where magnetic force is the strongest
Term
 earths magnetic field
Definition
 what causes a compass to work
Term
 magnetic domains
Definition
 all magnetic materials have these, if they are lined up then the material is considered a magnet
Term
 electromagnet
Definition
 a temporary magnet made by wrapping a wire coil carrying a current around an iron core
Term
 solenoid
Definition
 For an electromagnet the ________ is the wire wrapped around the iron core
Term
 transformer
Definition
 increases or decreases the voltage of an alternating current
Term
 wave
Definition
 a repeating disturbance or movement that transfers energy
Term
 medium
Definition
 the matter that waves go through, they can be solid liquid or gas
Term
 transverse waves
Definition
 waves for which the matter in the medium moves back and forth at right angles to the direction that the waves travel
Term
 compressional waves
Definition
 waves for which the matter in the medium moves back and forth in the direction of the wave
Term
 rarefraction
Definition
 the less dense fraction of a compressional wave
Term
 wavelength
Definition
 the distance between one point on a wave and the next point just like it
Term
 compression
Definition
 the denser part of a compression wave
Term
 crest
Definition
 the highest point on a transverse wave
Term
 trough
Definition
 the lowest part of a transverse wave
Term
 frequency
Definition
 the number of wavelengths that pass a fixed point in a second
Term
 period
Definition
 the amount of time it takes for one wavelength to pass a fixed point
Term
 amplitude
Definition
 the distance from the crest/trough to the line of rest
Term
 diffraction
Definition
 when an object causes a wave to change direction
Term
 interference
Definition
 when two or more waves overlap
Term
 constructive interference
Definition
 when two waves combine to make one bigger wave
Term
 destructive interference
Definition
 when two waves cancel each other out and create a smaller wave
Term
 speed of sound
Definition
 travels fastest in solids, and slowest in gases
Term
 intensity
Definition
 the amount of energy that flows through a certain area in a specific amount of time
Term
 loudness
Definition
 the human perception of sound intensity
Term
 decibel
Definition
 a unit on the scale for sound intensity
Term
 pitch
Definition
 how high or low a sound seems to be
Term
 ultrasonic sound
Definition
 waves that have sound frequencies above 20,000 Hz
Term
 infrasonic sound
Definition
 waves that have frequencies below 20 Hz
Term
 Doppler effect
Definition
 the change in pitch or wave frequency due to a moving wave source
Term
 music
Definition
 sounds in a deliberately regular pattern
Term
 echoe
Definition
 sounds waves bouncing off of things
Term
 echolocation
Definition
 the process of location objects by emitting sounds and interpreting the sound waves that are reflected back
Term
 acoustics
Definition
 the study of sound
Term
 sonar
Definition
 a system that uses the reflection of underwater sound waves to detect objects
Term
 ultrasound
Definition
 Waves are reflected off of targeting organs and tissues
Term
 opaque
Definition
 An _____ material is one that absorbs or reflects all light and does not transmit any light
Term
 translucent
Definition
 allows some light to pass through it
Term
 transparent
Definition
 transmits almost all of the light striking it
Term
 reflection
Definition
 light waves bouncing off objects
Term
 reflection
Definition
 light waves bouncing off objects
Term
 regular reflection
Definition
 reflection of light waves from a smooth surface, like glass
Term
 diffuse reflection
Definition
 reflection of light waves from a rough surface, like a rock
Term
 law of reflection
Definition
 says the angle at which a light waves strikes a surface is the same as the angle at which it is reflected
Term
 refraction
Definition
 when light waves changes speed as it passes from one material to another
Term
 index of refraction
Definition
 a property of a material that indicates how much light slows down when traveling in the material
Term
 mirage
Definition
 caused by the air at ground level being much hotter than the air above it
Term
 rods
Definition
 help with night vision, and help with peripheral vision
Term
 cones
Definition
 help with the perception of color
Term
 seeing color
Definition
 They are three types of cones; red cones enable us to see reds and orange/yellow (the long wavelength), green cones help us to see yellows, greens, and blues (the medium wavelengths), and blue cones respond to blue/indigo and violet (the short wavelength).
Term
 pigment
Definition
 a colored material that is used to change the color of other substances
Term
 primary colors of light
Definition
 red blue green
Term
 primary colors of pigment
Definition
 red blue yellow
Term
 incandescent light
Definition
 produced when a small coil of metal (known as a filament) is heated until it produces light
Term
 fluorescent light
Definition
 ________ light bulbs are coated with phosphors and filled with gas. The tube has electrodes at each end that give off electrons. When the electrons collide with electrons collide with the gas atoms, the give of ultraviolent light. The phosphors coated on the inside of the tube absorb the ultraviolent radiation and give off visible light
Term
 neon light
Definition
 work in a similar manner as fluorescent lights, except this time when electrons strike the gas molecule visible light is produced. The visible light produced is colored
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