# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Phsic 1-10
Vocabulary words for the first 10 chapters of conceptual physics
71
Physics
02/04/2019

Term
 scientific attitude
Definition
 the scientific method inclined toward inquiry, integrity, and humanity.
Term
 pseudoscience
Definition
 fake science that pretends to be science
Term
 inertia
Definition
 the property of things to resist changes in motion
Term
 Newton’s first law of motion (the law of inertia)
Definition
 every object continues in a state of rest or of uniform speed in a straight line unless acted on by a nonzero net force.
Term
 force
Definition
 a push or a pull (measured in Newtons)
Term
 net force
Definition
 the vector sum of forces that act on an object
Term
 vector
Definition
 an arrow drawn to scale used to represent a vector quantity
Term
 vector quantity
Definition
 a quantity that has both magnitude and direction, such as force.
Term
 scalar quantity
Definition
 a quantity that has magnitude but NOT direction, such as mass and volume
Term
 resultant
Definition
 net result of a combination of two or more vectors
Term
 mechanical equilibrium
Definition
 the state of an object or system of objects for which there are no changes in motion. In accord with Newton’s first law, if an object is at rest, the state of rest persists. if an object is moving, its motion continues without change.
Term
 equilibrium rule
Definition
 for any object or system of objects in equilibrium, the sum of the forces acting equals zero.
Term
 speed
Definition
 how fast an object moves; the distance traveled per unit of time
Term
 instantaneous speed
Definition
 the speed at any instant
Term
 average speed
Definition
 the total distance traveled divided by the time of travel
Term
 velocity
Definition
 an object’s speed and direction of motion
Term
 acceleration
Definition
 the rate at which velocity changes with time; the change in velocity may be in magnitude, or direction, or both.
Term
 free fall
Definition
 motion under the influence of gravity only
Term
 friction
Definition
 the resistive force that opposes the motion or attempted motion of an object either past another object with which it is in contact or through a fluid.
Term
 mass
Definition
 the quantity of matter in an object. more specifically, it is the measure of the inertia or sluggishness that an object exhibits in response to any effort made to start it, stop it, deflect it, or change in any way its state of motion
Term
 weight
Definition
 the force upon an object due to gravity, mg.
Term
 kilogram
Definition
 the fundamental SI unit of mass. One kilogram is the mass of 1 liter of water at 4 degrees Celsius
Term
 newton
Definition
 unit of force. one newton is the force that will give an object of mass 1kg an acceleration of 1 m/s^2
Term
 volume
Definition
 the quantity of space an object occupies
Term
 Newton’s second law
Definition
 the acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on the object, is in the direction of the net force, and is inversely proportional to the mass of the object
Term
 terminal speed
Definition
 the speed at which the acceleration of a falling object terminates because air resistance balances gravitational force
Term
 terminal velocity
Definition
 terminal speed with direction specified
Term
 Newton’s third law
Definition
 whenever one injection exerts s force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first
Term
 components
Definition
 mutually perpendicular vectors, usually horizontal an vertical, whose vector sum is a given vector
Term
 momentum
Definition
 the product of the mass of an object and its velocity
Term
 impulse
Definition
 the product of the force acting on an object and time during which it acts
Term
 impulse-momentum relationship
Definition
 impulse is equal to the change in the momentum of the object that the impulse acts upon.
Term
 law of conservation of momentum
Definition
 in the absence of an external force, the momentum of a system remains unchanged. hence, the momentum before and event involving only internal forces is equal tot eh momentum after the event
Term
 elastic collision
Definition
 a collision in which objects rebound without lasting deformation or the generation of heat
Term
 inelastic collision
Definition
 a collision in which object become distorted, generate heat, and possibly stick together.
Term
 work
Definition
 the product of the force and the distance moved by the force: W=Fd
Term
 power
Definition
 the time rate of work:Power= (work done)/(time interval)
Term
 energy
Definition
 the property of a system that enables it to do work
Term
 mechanical energy
Definition
 energy due to the position of something or the movement of something
Term
 potential energy
Definition
 energy that something possesses because of its position
Term
 kinetic energy
Definition
 energy that something possesses because of its motion, quantified by the relationship KE= (1/2)mv^2
Term
 work-energy theorem
Definition
 the work done on an object equals the change in the kinetic energy of the object.
Term
 law of conservation of energy
Definition
 energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can be transformed, but not change
Term
 machine
Definition
 a device, such as a lever or pulley, that increases (or decreases) a force or simply changes the direction of a force
Term
 conservation of energy
Definition
 the work output of any machine cannot exceed the work input. in an ideal machine, where no energy is transformed into thermal energy.
Term
 lever
Definition
 a simple machine consisting of a rigid rod pivoted at a fixed point called the fulcrum.
Term
 efficiency
Definition
 the percentage of the woke put into a machine that is converted into useful work output.
Term
 tangential speed
Definition
 the linear speed tangent to a curved path, such as in circular motion
Term
 rotational speed
Definition
 the number of rotations or revolutions per unit of time; ofthen measured in rotations or revolutions per second or per minute.
Term
 torque
Definition
 the product of force and lever-arm distance, which tends to produce or change rotationtorque = lever arm * force
Term
 center of mass (CM)
Definition
 the average position of the mass of an object. the CM moves as if all the external forced acted at this point
Term
 center of gravity (CG)
Definition
 the average of position of weight or the single point associated with an object where the force of gravity can be considered to act.
Term
 equilibrium
Definition
 the state of an object in which it is not acted upon by a net force or a net torque
Term
 centripetal force
Definition
 a force directed toward a fixed point, usually the cause of circular motion:F= mv^2/r
Term
 contrifugal force
Definition
 an outward force apparent in a rotating frame of reference. it is apparent (fictitious) in the sense that it is not part of an interaction but is a result of rotation — with no reaction-force counterpart.
Term
 linear momentum
Definition
 the product of the mass of an object an its linear velocity
Term
 angular momentum
Definition
 the product of a body’s rotational inertia and rotational velocity about a particular axis. for an object that is small compared with the radial distance, angular momentum can be expressed as the product of mass, speed, and radial distance of rotation
Term
 conservation of angular momentum
Definition
 when no external torque acts on an object or a system of objects, no change of angular momentum can occur. hence, the angular momentum before an event involving only internal torques or no torques is equal to th angular momentum after the event.
Term
 law of universal gravitation
Definition
 every body in the universe attracts every other body with a force that, for two bodies, is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers F= G(m1*m2)/d^2
Term
 inverse-square law
Definition
 a law that relates that intensity of an effect to the inverse square of the distance from the cause. gravity follows an inverse square law, as do the effects of electric, magnetic, light, sound, and radioation phenomena.
Term
 weightless
Definition
 being without a support force, as in free fall
Term
 spring tides
Definition
 high or low tides that occur when the sun, earth, and the moon are all lined up so that the tides due to the sun and the moon coincide, making the high tides higher than average and the low tides lower than average.
Term
 Neap tides
Definition
 the tides that occur when the moon is midway between new and full, in either direction. tides due out the Sun and the moon partly cancel, high tides lower than average and low tides higher than average.
Term
 gravitational field
Definition
 the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body. it is measured in Newtons per kilogram.
Term
 black hole
Definition
 a concentration of mass that results from gravitational collapse, near which gravity is so intense that not even light can escape.
Term
 projectile
Definition
 any object that moves through the air or through space under the influence of gravity
Term
 parabola
Definition
 the curved path followed by a projectile under the influence of only constant gravity
Term
 satellite
Definition
 a projectile or small celestial body that orbits a larger celestial body
Term
 ellipse
Definition
 the oval shaped path followed by a satellite. the sum of the distances from any point on the path to two points called foci is a constant. when the foci are together at one point, the ellipse is a circle. as the foci get farther apart, becomes more “eccentric.”
Term
 Kepler’s laws
Definition
 Law 1: the path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the Sun at on focus. law 2: the line from the Sun to any planet sweeps out equal areas of space in equal time intervalslaw 3: the square of the orbital period of a planet is directly proportional to the cube of the average distance of the planet from ten sun
Term
 escape speed
Definition
 the speed that a projectile, space probe, or similar object must reach to escape th gravitational influence of Earth or of another celestial body to which it is attracted.
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