# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Phonetics
N/A
71
Language - English
05/30/2012

## Additional Language - English Flashcards

Term
 Sound Waves
Definition
 An alternative high and low pressure. These pressure changes more through the air like ripples on a pond.
Term
 Pitch
Definition
 Auditory realisation on sound waves perceptual correlate of frequency
Term
 Frequency
Definition
 How many cycles of a wave movement will be completed in a given time. Cycles per second: Hertz (Hz) Physical property of sound waves.
Term
 Harmonics
Definition
 any whole-number multiple of the fundamental frequency.
Term
 fundamental frequency
Definition
 the frequency of the lowest component of sound or over all frequency of vibration.
Term
 amplitude
Definition
 The amount of variation in ari pressure from normal.
Term
 Intensity
Definition
 Intensity is perceived as loudness, derived from the energy input.(amplitude and frequency) dB scale is a ratio scale (logarithmic) 0 dB: threshold of hearing 30 dB: a quiet whipser 60 dB: conversation 120 dB : threshold of pain
Term
 resonance
Definition
 one system/body being set into motion by the vibrations of another. the selective absorption and reinforcement of sound energies, which create the characterists quality of certain speech sounds.
Term
 resonance curve
Definition
 a symmertic approximation to the normalized response of a resonant circuit.
Term
 Frequency Spectrum
Definition
 The frequency spectrum of a speech sound is a description  of the frequencies of which it is composed and their relative amplitudes.
Term
 Spectography
Definition
 analysis of speech sound in terms of frequency (cycles per second), intensity (energy, amplitude and frequency) and temporal characteristics.
Term
 Formants
Definition
 vocal tract resonance
Term
 Free vibration
Definition
 the natural virbratory response of an object, which is dependant upon mass tension and stiffness of that object
Term
 forced vibration
Definition
 when one object sets another object into vibration
Term
 sound spectogram
Definition
 the visual display of an acoustic analysis; frequency is displayed on the vertical axis, duration on the horizontal axis and intensity is noted by the darkness of the tracings.
Term
 velopharyngeal machanism (closure)
Definition
 the structures and muscles of the velum (soft palate) and those of the pharyngeal walls coming together to produce closure
Term
 Acoustic phonetics
Definition
 a branch of phonetics tat documents the transmission properties of speech sounds. professionals specializing in acoustic phonetics study sounds in form of sound waves that travel through the air from a speaker to a listener physical properties of sound
Term
 articulatory phonetics
Definition
 branch of phonetics that examines production features of speech sounds. professionals specializing in articulatory phonectics are primarily concerned with how the different speech sounds are generated; they describe and classify speech sounds according to parameters of their actual production. how the vocal tract produces speech sounds
Term
 Auditory phonetics
Definition
 how listeners perceive sounds
Term
 Homorganic
Definition
 the term for consonant sounds which are articulated in the same position or place of articulation in the mouth
Term
 intonation
Definition
 pitch changes to signal syntactic information
Term
 velaric airstream mechanism
Definition
 used to produce clicks, a click is produced when the vaccum is released by lowering one part of the tongue.
Term
 glottalic airstream mechanism
Definition
 a body of air in the vocal tract which can move up or down
Term
 voice-onset-time
Definition
 interval between release of closure and start of voicing negative VOT: voiced plosive
Term
 accent
Definition
 characteristic phonetic features
Term
 dialect
Definition
 linguistic variety distinguishable by linguistic features (vocab, phonology and morphology)
Term
 Bilabial
Definition
 articulated with both lips eg. [b], [p] nd [m]
Term
 labiodental
Definition
 articulated with lips and teeth eg. [f] [v]
Term
 alveolar dental
Definition
 articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior  alveolar ridge eg. [t], [d], [ð] [l] and [θ]
Term
 alveo palatal
Definition
 articulation of the frount of the tongue towards the area between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.   [ʃ], [ʒ], [r] and [j]
Term
 velar
Definition
 articulated by putting the back part of the tongue against the soft palate. eg [k], [g], [ŋ] and [w]
Term
 obstruent
Definition
 formed by obstructing airflow, causing increased air pressure in the vocal tract eg. plosives [b], affricates
Term
 sonorant
Definition
 speech sounds that are produced with a relatively open vocal tract, creating a resonant quality of the sound.  more acoustic energy, frictionless. eg. vowels, nasals and approximants
Term
 syllabic
Definition
 a speech sound that acts as the nucleus of a syllable. eg. nasals, vowels and sometimes lateral approximant [l]
Term
 non-syllabic
Definition
 not able to form a syllable or a nucleus of a syllable
Term
 continuant
Definition
 a type of consonant in which the vocal tract is not completely blocked but rather a continuous flow of air is achieved. eg. vowels, fricatives, nasals and approximants
Term
 diphthong
Definition
 a gliding vowel, two adjacent vowel sounds occuring within the same syllable
Term
 nasals
Definition
 /m/, /n/ and /ŋ/
Term
 plosives
Definition
 /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/ and /g/
Term
 fricatives
Definition
 /f/, /v/, /θ/, /ð/, /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/ and /h/
Term
 affricates
Definition
 /tʃ/, /dʒ/
Term
 approximants
Definition
 liquids and glides /j/, /l/, /w/, and /r/
Term
 minimal pairs
Definition
 word pairs with only one difference
Term
 aspiration
Definition
 a puff of air that is created when increased air pressure is released. aspiration occurs due to a greater build-up of pressure within the oral cavity during certain voiceless stop-plosive production
Term
 allophones
Definition
 variations in phoneme realization that do not change the meaning of word when they are produced in various contexts.  two phonetic variants, predictable by a rule, dont change word meaning
Term
 free variation
Definition
 two allophones of one phoneme that could be exchanged for  one another in similar contexts.
Term
 complimentary distribution
Definition
 two allophones of a phoneme that cannot normally replace one another, as they  occur in mutually exclusive contexts
Term
 phonetics vs phonemic
Definition
 phonetic: narrow transription, includes specific production features of actual concrete production; [square brackets]   Phonemic: broad transcription, based on phoneme system of particular language; /slash brackets/
Term
 phoneme
Definition
 smallest unit that can distinguish owrd meaning (are language specific)
Term
 mechanical resonator
Definition
 the object vibrates itself
Term
 acoustic resonator
Definition
 container filled with air set into vibration
Term
 stress
Definition
 certain syllables are more prominent than others in pronounciation. rhythm is derived from the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables.
Term
 syllable-timed language
Definition
 equal number of syllables between each two stressed syllables
Term
 stress-timed language
Definition
 equal amount of tim between each two stressed syllables irrespective of number of syllables 'isochronous'
Term
 duration/length
Definition
 syllable length is considered a prosodic aspect even though it relates to consonant and vowel length
Term
 coarticulation
Definition
 at segment boundaries, segments become more similar taking on eachothers features
Term
 vowel raising
Definition
 a low to mid lax vowel are realized at a higher tenser placement
Term
 chain shift
Definition
 systematic changes in vowel systems in which the vowels shift in respect to thier articulatory features.
Term
 final consonant deletion
Definition
 dropping the sound at the end of a word the ommission of a syllable-arresting consonant
Term
 week syllable deletion
Definition
 the omission of an unstressed syllable
Term
 progressive assimilation
Definition
 a sound segment modifies a following sound
Term
 regressive assimilation
Definition
 a sound segment modifies a preceding sound
Term
 egressive
Definition
 sounds by which he airstream is create by pushing air out throguh the mouth or nose
Term
 implosive
Definition
 same as ingressive taking in of air through the mouth and nose???
Term
 click
Definition
 ingressive velaric airstream?
Term
 vowel merger
Definition
 Two vowels merging together near square
Term
 velar fronting
Definition
 The /k/ and /g/ sounds are articulated by making contact between the back of the tongue and the velum or soft palate. Sometimes children produce these sounds as /t/ and /d/ respectively, making contact between the front of the tongue and the alveolar ridge just behind the front teeth. Children with velar fronting may pronounce can't as tan't orgoose as doose.
Term
 percussive
Definition
 two semi-rigid articulators brought sharply together
Term
 Nareal fricative
Definition
 nasal escape, typical with cleft palate
Term
 epenthisis
Definition
 the insertion of a sound in the middle of a word
Term
 formant frequency
Definition
 vocal tract resonance
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