Shared Flashcard Set


Pharm Drugs Test 2
The prototype drugs for test 2
Undergraduate 3

Additional Pharmacology Flashcards




CLASS: Skeletal muscle relaxant; centrally acting norepinephrine releasing agent
IND: Short-term therapy of acute MSK conditions (not related to CNS)
MOA: occurs at brainstem and spinal cord, blocks synaptic reuptake of norepinephrine therefore increasing activity
SE: Drowsiness, dizziness, xerostomia, tachycardia, vasodilation, palpitations
CONSIDERATIONS: caution in pt.s with cardiac disease
CLASS: Direct-acting skeletal muscle relaxant, antispasticity agent;Calcium release blocker
IND: muscle spasms of head/neck; treatment for malignant hyperthermia
MOA: Interferes with release of calcium ions in skeletal muscle
SE: Muscle weakness, drowsiness (BB Warn: hepatotoxic)
CONSIDERATIONS: Risk for older adults (falls); monitor for hepatic function, report signs of jaundice, no breast feeding; therap. effects may take up to 1 week,
CLASS: Anitacne agent; Retinoid
IND: Treatment of severe recalcitrant nodular acne unresponsive to conventional treatments
MOA: binds to and activates nuclear retinoic acid receptors, thereby regulating cell differentiation and proliferation
SE: Dryness and sun-sensitivity (BB Warn: Preg. Cat. X - causes severe birth defects; must register to iPledge program)
CONSIDERATIONS: Females must have 2 neg pregnancy tests; avoid Vit A supplements
PERMETHRIN (Acticin, Elimite, Nix)
CLASS: Antiparasitic; Scabicide, pedicullicide
IND: Kills head and crab lice and mites and their eggs
MOA: Affects nervous system of parasite, causing paralysis
SE: rash, pruritis or erythema in affected area
CONSIDERATIONS: Not approved for under 2 mos. of age, notify those who may have been exposed, wear gloves when handling
CLASS: Antiacne; Retinoid
IND: Early treatment of mild to moderate acne, also reduces fine lines and hyperpigmentation
MOA: Increases skin cell turnover
SE: Erythema, peeling skin
CONSIDERATIONS: Limit sun exposure, do not take while pregnant or breastfeeding
BENZOCAINE (Amercaine, Anbesol)
CLASS: Topical anesthetic; local anesthetic, antioruritic
IND: topical temporary relief of pain and discomfort
MOA: Suface anesthesia by inhibiting conduction of nerve endings
SE: Allergic reactions
CONSIDERATIONS: Don't apply to open or infected areas, apply up to 4x a day; pt. at risk for cold or burns due to desensitivity
CLASS: Nonnarcortic analgesia, antipyretic, antiplatelet; Salicylate, NSAID
IND: Analgesic, antipyrectic, antiplatelet
MOA: Inhibitions of COX1 and COX2 leads to reduced prostaglandin synthesis
SE: Risk of hypersensivity reaction, stomach irritation, heartburn, GI problems, GI bleeding
CONSIDERATIONS: Do not administer for under 19 yrs of age, monitor elderly for GI irritation or bleeding
IBUPROFEN (Advil, Motrin)
CLASS: Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic; NSAID
IND: Analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic
MOA: Inhibits COX-1 and COX-2 and modulate T-cell function
SE: GI related problems
CONSIDERATIONS: Avoid alcohol, do not take with other OTC drugs with ibuprofen, increase fluid intake in young children to reduce risk of dehydration and possible renal effects
CELECOXIB (Celebrex)
CLASS: Anti-inflammatory; COX-2 inhibitor, NSAID
IND: Treat mild to moderate pain and inflammation; effective antipyretic
MOA: Selective COX-2 inhibits prostaglandin synthesis
SE: Increases risk of CV events (i.e. fatal MI and stroke); produces same GI problems but at lower rate
CONSIDERATIONS: Avoid alcohol, monitor for stroke or MI symptoms, monitor ethnically diverse pop more freq.
CLASS: Nonopioid analgesic, pyretic; para-aminophenol derivative
IND: Relieves mild to moderate pain, reduces fever
MOA: Acts centrally in CNS by inhibiting COX
SE: Dose related, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, lethargy, diaphoresis, chills
CONSIDERATIONS: Note alcohol history to prevent hepatotoxicity, Avoid alcohol
CLASS: Immunostimulant; Interferon, biological response modifier
IND: Neoplastic conditions; genital warts tx
MOA: Antiviral and antineoplasitc activities. Inhibits viral replication and affects cancer cells by enhancing general immune functions and suppressing growth of cancer cells
SE: Flulike syndrome that diminishes, fatigue, headache, NVD, Anorexia, hair loss (BB Warn: cause fatal or lifethreatening neuropsychiatric, autoimmune, ischemic, or infectious disorders
CONSIDERATIONS: Elderly at risk for falls, do not administer to neonatal or infants; keep F/U appt. during and after drug therapy and monitor for drug-induced depression
CLASS: Immunostimulant; Interleukin, biologic response modifier
IND: Treatment of cancer, (off label leprosy)
MOA: Activates ILs to promote B and T cell, macrophages, and NK cell proliferation thereby increasing body's ability to fight cancer cells
SE: Toxic drug has potential to cause serious effects in every organ system
CONSIDERATIONS: Pt. should avoid vaccinations, report symptoms of bleeding, infection, SOB, hallucinations, agitation, vision changes, palpitations, chest pain, reduced urine output, yellowing of eyes or fatigue
CYCLOSPORINE (Gengraf, Neoral, Sandimmune)
CLASS: Immunosuppressant; Calcineurin inhibitor
IND: Prophylaxis transplant rejection, psoriasis, severe RA, xeropthalmia
MOA: Inhibits function of calnieurin which diminishes activity of T and B cells and suppresses immunity
SE: Nephrotoxicity, reduction in urine flow, 50% experiene HTN and tremor, Hirsutism common
CONSIDERATIONS: Monitor ethnically diverse pops, take med same time each day, don't take with grapefruit juice, take with meals, excessive hair growth may occur but reverse with discontinuation
AZATHIOPRINE (Azasan, Imuran)
CLASS: Immunosuppressant; Cytotoxic agent
IND: Prophylaxis of kidney transplant rejection, treatment of severe RA
MOA: Inhibits DNA synthesis reulting in DNA damage and chromosome breakage
SE: Bone marrow suppression, can have infections secondary to immunosuppression
CONSIDERATIONS: Take drug in divided doses with meals to reduce irritation and nausea, no pregnancy/breastfeeding during use
MUROMONAB-CD3 (Orthoclone, OKT3)
CLASS: Immunosuppressant; Monoclonal antibody
IND: Prevents acute transplant rejection of solid organ
MOA: Binds to CD3 protein on T cell surfaces preventing T cell from initiating immune response
SE: Cytokine release 30-60 min after IV admin produces high fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, angina, tremor
CONSIDERATIONS: Educate to immediately report rash, hives, SOB, flulike symptoms
HEPATITIS B VACCINE (Engerix-B, Recombivax HB)
CLASS: Vaccine; Vaccine
IND: Provides immunity to HBV in 99% to 100% of patients when given in recommended 3 doses
MOA: Consists of HBsAg produced through DNA tech using yeast cells; antibodies are induced
SE: Anaphylaxis is rare
CONSIDERATIONS: Older adults may require confirmation by titer; vaccine is not effective unless entire series of doses is completed; notify Dr. if pregnant
RHo(D) Immune Globulin (RhoGAM)
CLASS: Immunizing agent (passive); Antibody, Immunoglobulin
IND: Prevents mother from forming Rh antibodies, so there will be no risk of incompatibility in subsequent pregnancies
MOA: Rho antibodies suppress immune response of Rh- mother to Rh+ fetuses
SE: hypersensitivity is rare.
CONSIDERATIONS: Pt. may refuse to accept admin of any component derived from human blood or serum; inform provider of any drugs taken that weaken immunity
ALBUTEROL (Proventil, Ventolin, VoSpire)
CLASS: Bronchodilator; Beta2-adrenergic agonist
IND: Used to relieve and prevent bronchospasm and facilitates mucus drainage
MOA: Selectively binding to beta2-anrenergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle to cause bronchodilation
SE: Nervousness, restlessness, tachycardia
CONSIDERATIONS: Treatment of COPD, teach how to correctly use, monitor for toxicity, assess for hypersensitivity, encourage 10-12 glasses water/day, monitor vitals for improvement
CLASS: Bronchodilator, Anticholinergic
IND: Relieves and prevents the bronchospasm that is characteristic of asthma and COPD (drug of choice for COPD)
MOA: Causes bronchodilation by blocking cholinergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle
SE: Some anticholinergic side effects
CLASS: Anti-inflammatory; Corticosteroid
IND: Preferred drug for long-term management of persistent asthma, effective at reducing the symptoms of allergic rhinitis
MOA: Beclomethasone acts by reducing inflammation and immune responses
SE: hypercorticism, hoarseness, dry mouth, and changes in taste
CONSIDERATIONS: Be alert for increased blood sugar for diabetics, pt. should be vaccinated for varicella
CLASS: Anti-inflammatory; Mast cell stabalizer
IND: Prevents inflammation that is characteristic pathophysiological feature of asthma and COPD
MOA: prevents inflammatory response that occurs when mast cells degenerate by stabilizing them
SE: Bronchospasm, cough, ad pharyngeal irritation
CONSIDERATIONS: Prophylactic management of bronchial asthma, notify clinician of wheezing, respiratory distress, do not use for acute asthma attacks
CLASS: Agent for asthma prophylaxis, anti-inflammatory; Leukotreine modifier
IND: Used for prophylaxis of persistent, chronic asthma
MOA: prevents airway edema and inflammation by blocking leukotreine receptors in the airway
SE: Headaches
CONSIDERATIONS: do not use to treat acute asthma attack; take on empty stomach
CLASS: Bronchodilator, Methylxanthine
IND: Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle and may exert some anti-inflammatory action that is beneficial to patients with asthma
MOA: Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle which promotes bronchodilation, it suppresses airway responsiveness to stimuli that promote bronchospasm
SE: N&V, headache, irritability, and insomnia; dysrhythmias, hypotension, and seizures
CONSIDERATIONS: Avoid activities requiring alertness until response to med is known, contact clinician if toxicity, nausea, vomiting, anxiety, insomnia, convulsions
CLASS: drug for allergic rhinitis and minor allergies; H1-receptor agonist, antihistamine
IND: Treatment of allergic rhinitis, most effective when taken before symptoms develop
MOA: binds to histamine receptor
SE: Headache, nausea, dyspepsia and dysmenorrhea; increased incidence of viral infections
CONSIDERATIONS: Monitor hepatic, renal, and cardiac status in older patients, undetected cardiac disease may increase likelihood of adverse effects of drug; do not use antihistamines for cold relief in children until age of 6
FLUTICASONE (Flonase, Veramyst)
CLASS: Agent for allergic rhinitis; intranasal corticosteroid
IND: Used for management of nasal symptoms associated with seasonal and perennial rhinitis
MOA: Inhibits mast cells, macrophages, and inflammatory mediators; vasoconstriction and anti-inflammatory agent
SE: headache, cough, nasal ulceration, epistaxis, and local burning
CONSIDERATIONS: Do not use intranasal corticosteroids for symptomatic cold relief in children under 4, and monitor children's growth rate
CLASS: Decongestant; Sympathomimetic
IND: Treats allergic rhinitis, sinus congestion, and the common cold symptoms; promotes sinus drainage and can open obstructed eustachian tubes in adults and children with chronic otic inflammation
MOA: Activates alpha-adrenergic receptors which causes vasoconstriction in the nasal mucosa
SE: Some patients experience CNS stimulation with symptoms of insomnia
CONSIDERATIONS: Monitor cardiac status in the older adult, do not use decongestant for symptomatic cold relief in children under 6 yrs of age
DEXTROMETHORPHAN (Delsym, Robitussin DM)
CLASS: Antitussive; Levorphanol derivation
IND: Cold suppressant; more effective at reducing nonproductive cough due to chronic due to chronic throat irritation from tobacco use or emphysema rather than acute cough due to colds
MOA: acts directly on cough center in medulla
SE: No adverse effect of therapeutic doses
CONSIDERATIONS: Use special caution when administering this drug to the older adult who is at increased risk of falls
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