# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

PG 2
n/a
125
Geography
10/30/2012

Term
 Air rises spontaneously as long as its temperature is higher than that of the surrounding air as long as its temperature is the same as that of the surrounding air as long as there is a temperature inversion  as soon as it reaches the dew point
Definition
 as long as its temperature is higher than that of the surrounding air
Term
 The amount of water vapor in the atmosphere Answer   is pretty constant from place to place around the globe varies in space but doesn't show much variation at any one place over time is only about 1/1000 of 1% of the total volume of water on the globe, but is important because it cycles through the atmosphere very rapidly with an average residence time of only 7 to 9 days is about the same as the total volume of liquid water in lakes, rivers, wetlands, and soil moisture
Definition
 is only about 1/1000 of 1% of the total volume of water on the globe, but is important because it cycles through the atmosphere very rapidly with an average residence time of only 7 to 9 days
Term
 Which of the following conditions generally has to occur first before condensation can occur? Answer cooling of a moist air mass precipitation warming of a moist air mass temperature inversion
Definition
 cooling of a moist air mass
Term
 In class we calculated the amount of energy needed to (1) melt a gram of ice at 0 degrees C; (2) raise the temperature of the water to 100 degrees C; and (3) convert that gram of liquid water into water vapor. What percent of the total energy involved in these three processes goes into latent heat rather than sensible heat? Answer about 10% about 85% 50% 33%
Definition
 85%
Term
 Which type of fog forms by the process of warm moist air passing over cool waters? Answer radiation fog valley fog evaporation fog advection fog
Definition
Term

 the altitude where a rising air mass becomes saturated the amount of moisture in the air when dew or fog begins to form the relative humidity at the time when dew or fog begins to form the temperature at which air becomes saturated and condensation begins
Definition
 the temperature at which air becomes saturated and condensation begins
Term
 Assume that the actual amount of water vapor in the air does not change over a 24-hour period in the summer. How does relative humidity change over this same time period? Answer not at all relative humidity should rise in the evening, reach a maximum in early morning, and gradually decline to a minimum in mid-to-late afternoon relative humidity should decline in the evening, reach a minimum in early morning, and gradually increase to a maximum in mid-to-late afternoon relative humidity should reach a minimum at noon and then gradually increase until it reaches a maximum at midnight; it should then gradually decrease again through the rest of the night and the morning
Definition
 relative humidity should rise in the evening, reach a maximum in early morning, and gradually decline to a minimum in mid-to-late afternoon
Term

Answer this question while looking at the relevant graph from the textbook or from the posted set of slides. Specific humidity is 15 g/kg and the temperature is 30o C; temperature then cools to 20o C. Answer

 The air was already saturated at 30o C; as it cools to 20o C, much of the moisture in the air will condense At 30o C the relative humidity is close to 60%; at 20o C the air will be saturated and condensation is likely to begin At 30o C the relative humidity is close to 40%; at 20o C the relative humidity will be about 20% Relative humidity stays the same regardless of temperature
Definition
 At 30o C the relative humidity is close to 60%; at 20o C the air will be saturated and condensation is likely to begin
Term
 If we could squeeze all the water from the atmosphere at any one time and measure the average depth around the globe, it would be about one inch.   True False
Definition
 true
Term
 Which of the following cloud types is most likely to form as a result of convection? Answer cumulus stratus cirrus altostratus
Definition
 cumulus
Term

In the graph below, how would you characterize atmospheric conditions? Answer

[image]

 stable conditionally unstable unstable peripatetic
Definition
 conditionally unstable
Term

What happens to rising air under the conditions illustrated in the figure below? Answer

[image]

 the air mass will rise until it reaches altitude A and then it will become stable the air mass is stable and will not rise at all unless forced the air mass rises spontaneously and clouds form beginning at altitude A, but the air mass stops rising at altitude B clouds begin to form at altitude B
Definition
 the air mass rises spontaneously and clouds form beginning at altitude A, but the air mass stops rising at altitude B
Term
 The vast majority of the earth's FRESH water is where? Answer atmosphere oceans glaciers and ice sheets groundwater rivers and lakes soil moisture
Definition
 glaciers and ice sheets
Term
 The amount of moisture that air can hold
Definition
 increases by about a factor of 2 with each 10o C increase in temperature
Term

Phase changes in water

 are associated with breaking of the bonds linking water molecules when ice melts and when liquid water evaporates involve the absorption of latent heat in both melting and evaporation involve the release of latent heat in both condensation and freezing may include the direct conversion of ice to water vapor or water vapor to ice all of the above are true
Definition
 all of the above are true
Term

Which of the following statements is NOT true? Answer

 precipitation generally cannot occur unless there is a rising air mass and it reaches the lifting condensation level once the dew point is reached, condensation occurs preferentially around microscopic particles called condensation nuclei formation of cloud droplets in a rising air mass is the last step required before precipitation begins the average raindrop has a radius 100 times larger than the average cloud droplet and contains about a million times as much water in order for precipitation to occur, it is necessary first for cloud droplets to combine into larger droplets that are heavy enough for their weight to overcome the upward force of the rising air
Definition
 formation of cloud droplets in a rising air mass is the last step required before precipitation begins
Term

Saturation vapor pressure is

 about 12 millibars atmospheric pressure measured at the earth's surface when the air is saturated the portion of total atmospheric pressure that is due to the weight of water vapor in the air the portion of total atmospheric pressure due to the weight of water vapor in the air when relative humidity is 100%
Definition
 the portion of total atmospheric pressure due to the weight of water vapor in the air when relative humidity is 100%
Term
 Which mechanism is dominant in raindrop formation in midlatitude clouds? Answer collision-coalescence process subluminescence adiabatic warming ice-crystal process
Definition
 ice-crystal process
Term

 occurs as a result of mixing between a rising air mass and the cooler air around it occurs whenever a rising air mass reaches the lifting condensation level is a result of radiative cooling of an air mass during the night and early morning is independent of the temperature of the surrounding air and is entirely a result of the expansion of an air mass as it rises and is exposed to lower atmospheric pressure
Definition
 is independent of the temperature of the surrounding air and is entirely a result of the expansion of an air mass as it rises and is exposed to lower atmospheric pressure
Term

 when an air mass reaches the lifting condensation level, condensation begins to occur and latent heat is converted back to sensible heat, slowing down the rate of adiabatic cooling when the air is saturated, further cooling leads to evaporation and conversion of sensible heat to latent heat, increasing the rate of adiabatic cooling when a rising air mass reaches the lifting condensation level, no further cooling can occur and the temperature actually starts to rise in most cases the dry adiabatic lapse rate is NOT different from the moist adiabatic lapse rate
Definition
 when an air mass reaches the lifting condensation level, condensation begins to occur and latent heat is converted back to sensible heat, slowing down the rate of adiabatic cooling
Term
1. Which of the following cloud types is least likely to be associated
with a warm front?
 stratus cumulonimbus cirrus altostratus
Definition
 cumulonimbus
Term
Which of the following is not one of the lifting mechanisms that are important ways of generating precipitation from an air mass?

 convection convergence orographic frontal monopoelic
Definition
 monopoelic
Term
Which of the following statements is true?

 Where there is a rainshadow, temperatures at the surface are generally warmer on the rainshadow side than on the windward side of a mountain range Where there is a rainshadow, surface temperatures are generally warmer on the windward side of the mountain and cooler in the rainshadow area Where there is a rainshadow, surface temperatures generally are the same on both sides of the mountain range Where there is a rainshadow, surface atmospheric pressure is generally much higher on the windward side of the mountain and much lower on the rainshadow side
Definition

 Where there is a rainshadow, temperatures at the surface are generally warmer on the rainshadow side than on the windward side of a mountain range
Term
In the mature phase of thunderstorm development,

 the cloud is dominated almost entirely by updrafts the cloud is dominated almost entirely by downdrafts there often are powerful updrafts and downdrafts in separate parts of the same cloud the entire cloud oscillates between alternating vertical pulses of rising and falling air
Definition
 there are often powerful updrafts and downdrafts in seperate parts of the same cloud
Term
What accounts for the thunder that follows lightning?

 thunder is the audible expression of a shock wave created by rapid expansion of a narrow channel of superheated air thunder is simply the sound generated by the flash of light itself; since the sound has a different wavelength, it travels more slowly thunder occurs as a result of ground shaking when a lightning bolt strikes the ground, but cannot be generated by cloud-to-cloud lightning none of the above are valid explanations
Definition
 thunder is the audible expression of a shock wave created by rapid expansion of a narrow channel of superheated air
Term
Air masses moving inland from the Gulf of Mexico typically belong to which group?

 cP mP cT mT cA
Definition
 mT
Term

What is the cause of "lake-effect" snow?

 convection over the Great Lakes cold polar air masses moving over warmer lake water pick up moisture and latent heat, become unstable, and are chilled again over the leeward shore of the lake presence of a topographic barrier on the windward shore of the lake causing air over the lake to sink, warm adiabatically, and generate an intense low-pressure system that delivers large volumes of snow in winter all of these are common causes of lake-effect snow
Definition
 cold polar air masses over wamer late water pick up moisture and latent heat become unstable and are chilled again over the leeward shore of the lake.
Term
The largest hailstones are produced by the most intense thunderstorms. Why?

 The statement is incorrect. The largest hailstones are produced by thunderstorms at higher latitudes regardless of intensity. Because the raindrops produced by intense thunderstorms are larger, and hailstones are made from frozen raindrops. Because more intense thunderstorms have more intense vertical circulation and more powerful updrafts that can resuspend hailstones multiple times until they are too large to be carried by the updraft. Because only the most intense thunderstorms are tall enough to reach altitudes where the air temperature is below the freezing point of water.
Definition
 Because more intense thunderstorms have more intense vertical circulation and more powerful updrafts that can resuspend hailstones multiple times until they are too large to be carried by the updraft.
Term
Where are we most likely to see precipitation generated by convergence?

 over warm tropical oceans and tropical rainforests over the subtropical high-pressure belts in the vicinity of the polar front on southeast coasts in the midlatitudes
Definition
 over warm tropical oceans and tropical rainforests
Term
Which type of front is associated with the symbol shown below?

[image]

 stationary front warm front occluded front cold front
Definition
 occluded front
Term
Under what conditions do we see formation of the type of front illustrated in the previous question?

 a cold air mass moves underneath a warmer air mass, causing it to rise abruptly over the boundary between warm and cold air a warm air mass slides gradually over a cooler air mass, producing stratiform clouds a rapidly moving cold front overtakes a warm front and forces the warm air entirely away from the surface warm and cold air masses are in contact on either side of a boundary, but there is little or no motion [image]
Definition
 a rapidly moving cold front overtakes a warm front and forces the warm air entirely away from the surface
Term
What process leads to frontal lifting?

 Forced rise of air passing over a mountain range. Contact between warm and cool air masses. Expansion of an air mass by heating at the surface. Absorption of large amounts of water vapor by air masses passing over warm tropical ocean waters.
Definition
 Contact between warm and cool air masses
Term
Where you see this kind of feature in a radar image, what kind of front is responsible?

[image]

 cold front warm front stationary front occluded front
Definition
 cold front
Term
Wave cyclones like those discussed in class and in the textbook typically develop

 over warm tropical waters along a section of the polar front in the midlatitudes at almost any location where there is sufficient moisture to generate precipitation over monsoonal coasts
Definition
 along a section of the polar front in the midlatitudes
Term
The area of lowest pressure, thickest clouds, and most intense precipitation is typically associated with which location in the figure shown below?

[image]

 1 2 3 4 these conditions are equally likely at any one of these points
Definition
 1
Term
You look at the sky and see high, wispy cirrus clouds that gradually get lower and thicker over the next 12 to 24 hours. What kind of front is approaching?

 cold stationary occluded warm monopoelic
Definition
 warm
Term
Convective storms occur most frequently

 in areas that are affected by maritime tropical air masses in the areas with the highest temperatures, regardless of air mass type in areas where warm and cool air masses meet in high-latitude continental regions the type of location has no influence on the frequency of convective storms
Definition
 in areas that are affected by maritime tropical air masses
Term
Which of the following statements is true?

 the energy source that fuels both wave cyclones and hurricanes is the strong temperature contrast between air masses coming from different regions wave cyclones are less common at our latitude in summer than in winter and spring, because the polar front is located further north in summer wave cyclones are triggered most often by thermal convection wave cyclones are almost never seen in the higher midlatitudes
Definition
 wave cyclones are less common at our latitude in summer than in winterand spring, because the polar front is located further north in summer
Term

 typically develop in association with an advancing cold front in contact with a  maritime tropical air mass occur more often in the south-central US than anywhere else in the world are most commonly associated with supercell storms with a deep rotating updraft known as a mesocyclone can be spawned by tropical cyclones all of the above are true
Definition
 all of the above are true
Term
Which of the following is a step that is involved in the development of a tornado?

 central pressure is so high that air is forced down and outward at high velocity migration of the ITCZ into subtropical latitudes a warm front catches up with a cold front and forces the cold air off the ground stronger winds aloft and weaker winds at the surface cause spinning of air along a horizontal axis
Definition
 stronger winds aloft and weaker winds at the surface cause spinning of air along a horizontal axis
Term
What is an easterly wave?

 a tropical weather system in the trade-wind belt that has convergent flow and rising air with thunderstorm development on its east side and sinking, divergent air and clear conditions on its west side a tongue of cold air from the midlatitudes that penetrates into very low latitudes a sudden, destructive rise of water driven by an advancing tropical cyclone a strong updraft associated with thunderstorm development in a supercell storm
Definition
 a tropical weather sustem in the trade-wind belt that has convergent flow and rising air with thunderstorm development on its east side and sinking, divergent air and clear conditions on its west side.
Term
Tropical cyclones tend to form

 at the equator in the South Atlantic ocean over warm tropical waters at least 5-10 degrees away from the equator where a cold air mass penetrates into tropical latitudes in the vicinity of the polar front
Definition
 over warm tropical waters at least 5-10 degrees away from the equator
Term
Which of the following is NOT an accurate description of the nature of air circulation in a tropical cyclone?

 convergent flow at the surface feeds powerful updrafts in the massive wall clouds surrounding the eye, but surface winds never actually reach the eye the highest wind velocities occur in the center of the eye itself air diverges aloft but some of it is pulled back down into the eye, sinking and heating adiabatically and keeping the eye mostly free of clouds the cyclonic circulation is strengthened by the conversion of latent heat into sensible heat as warm moist air rises in powerful updrafts and the moisture condenses into liquid water
Definition
 highest wind velocities occur in the center of the eye itself
Term
Hazards associated with tropical cyclones include

 storm surge and coastal flooding inland flooding from intense rainfall extreme wind velocities that may tear the roofs off houses or flatten buildings all of the above
Definition
 all of the above
Term
The storm track for a tropical cyclone

 almost always involves westward drift in the trade-wind belt may include a turn to higher latitudes and steering by the westerlies is highly variable from one tropical cyclone to the next all of the above are true
Definition
 all of the above are true
Term
Figures in the texbook showing the distribution of lightning flashes recorded by NASA's Lightning Imaging Sensor in June-August 2000 and in Dec. 1999-Feb. 2000 indicate different patterns. What is the explanation for this difference?

 Seasonal shift in location of the ITCZ Seasonal change in the direction of rotation of the major oceanic gyres Seasonal change in location of the polar front Seasonal change in moisture content of the atmosphere in each hemisphere Seasonal change in the tracks of tropical cyclones
Definition
 Seasonal shift in the location of the ITCZ
Term
Which of the following statements about derechoes is NOT correct?

 They tend to form along the northern boundary of a hot air mass, right along or just south of the jet stream They occur most often in May through July They are rare occurrences in our part of the world The most recent occurrence in our area was associated with a historic, record-breaking heat wave The high winds and damage are associated with the forced rise of hot, humid air and powerful downdrafts that hit the ground at high velocity and then spread outward along the advancing front
Definition
 they are rare occurences in our part of the world
Term
Which of the following features is NOT typical for tropical cyclones and hurricanes?

 convergence at the surface and divergence aloft sinking air at the center over the eye spiral rain bands and extremely high clouds along the eyewall extremely low central barometric pressure fueled by latent heat All of the above are true
Definition
 All of the above are true
Term
How old is the earth?

 6,000 years 4,600,000,000 years 100,000,000,000 years 5 x 106 years 65,000,000 years
Definition
 4,600,000,000 years
Term
1. Which of the earth's interior layers is composed mostly of molten iron?
 outer core inner core lower mantle asthenosphere megasphere
Definition
 outer core
Term

James Hutton is widely viewed as one of the fathers of our modern view of earth history. Which of the following statements is consistent with his principle of uniformitarianism as we currently understand it?

 earth history can be explained as the cumulative result of a series of catastrophic upheavals earth history can only be explained on the basis of processes we can actually observe occurring at the surface today and the idea that catastrophic events played a role has been discredited and is no longer accepted the evidence for the origin of life requires an extraterrestrial source for the earliest living cells earth history is largely explained by the operation of the same physical and chemical processes we can observe today, but also includes the occurrence of catastrophic events such as the asteroid impact that led to a global extinction event about 66 million years ago
Definition
 earth history is largely explained by the operation of the same physical and chemical processes we can observe today, but also includes the occurrence of catastrophic events such as the asteroid impact that led to a global extinction event about 66 million years ago
Term
When we look at the geologic time scale, we find that the first 87-88% of earth history falls within the time period known as the

 Cretaceous Paleozoic Precambrian Pleistocene Cenozoic
Definition
 Precambian
Term
Which of the following describes the major change in the fossil record that appears at the beginning of the Cambrian Era?

 a global extinction event that killed off the great majority of all species in existence at that time a rapid increase in the diversity of fossil life forms preserved in the geologic record, including the development of inorganic skeletal parts a sudden episode of global cooling leading to a long period of alternating ice ages and interglacial periods the development of the very first single-celled organisms
Definition
 a rapid increase in the diversity of fossil life forms preserved in the geologic record, including the development of inorganic skeletal parts
Term
The dominant group of rock-forming minerals in the earth's crust all have structures with a basic building block made of which two elements?

 carbon and oxygen iron and magnesium nitrogen and calcium potassium and sodium silicon and oxygen
Definition
 silicon and oxygen
Term
The compositional spectrum within the group of rock-forming minerals described above extends between what end members?

 felsic (light-colored, less dense) to ultramafic (dark-colored, higher density) clastic (rich in Ca and C) to chemical (rich in Al and K) end members from the oldest (> 2 billion years old) to the youngest (< 10,000 years old) foliated (darker, heavier) to nonfoliated (lighter, less dense) fine-grained (plutonic) to coarse-grained (volcanic)
Definition
 felsic (light-colored, less dense) to ultramafic (dark-colored, higher density)
Term
Looking at the pair of rock samples below, choose the statement that best characterizes what you are looking at.

[image]

 The rock on the left is felsic and the rock on the right is mafic. The rock on the left is plutonic and the rock on the right is volcanic. The rock on the left is metamorphic and the rock on the right is sedimentary. The rock on the left is basalt and the rock on the right is limestone. The rock on the left is volcanic and the rock on the right is plutonic.
Definition
 The rock on the left is plutonic and the rock on the right is volcanic.
Term
The dominant rock type of the oceanic crust is _________ .

 granite sandstone conglomerate basalt phyllite
Definition
 basalt
Term
The pathways illustrated in the rock cycle indicate that

 metamorphic rocks may be melted to form magma igneous rocks may be weathered, eroded, transported and deposited to form sediments and sedimentary rocks igneous rocks can be subjected to high temperature and pressure to form metamorphic rocks sedimentary rocks can be subjected to high temperatures and pressures to form metamorphic rocks metamorphic rocks may be weathered, eroded, transported and deposited to form sediments and sedimentary rocks all of the above are true
Definition
 all of the above
Term
Which of the following is a chemical sedimentary rock?

 sandstone limestone shale conglomerate
Definition
 limestone
Term
Shale is

 a coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rock formed from deposits in a high-energy environment such as a river or beach a chemical sedimentary rock made of shell fragments a chemical sedimentary rock made of evaporite deposits precipitating out of solution in a saline lake in an arid environment a fine-grained clastic sedimentary rock made of silt and clay deposited in a low-energy environment such as a swamp or the deep ocean floor a fine-grained chemical sedimentary rock formed by water that drips and evaporates to leave behind calcium carbonate deposits in caves
Definition
 a fine-grained clastic sedimentary rock made of silt and clay deposited in a low-energy environment such as a swamp or the deep ocean floor
Term
What range of particle sizes falls between 0.062 mm and 2 mm in diameter?

 gravel sand silt clay
Definition
 sand
Term
What do we call a clastic sedimentary rock with a large percentage of particles coarser than 2 mm?

 conglomerate sandstone shale gypsum either limestone or dolomite
Definition
 conglomerate
Term
Foliation is

 layering produced as a result of the deposition of successive layers of sediment over time that are eventually buried, compressed, and cemented together to make a sedimentary rock one end of the compositional spectrum of the mineral group that makes up igneous rocks layering produced in volcanic igneous rocks by successive lava flows and ash deposits as they are deposited over time layering characteristic of many metamorphic rocks that is produced by differential stresses and compression that reorients and recrystallizes mineral grains
Definition
 layering characteristic of many metamorphic rocks that is produced by differential stresses and compression that reorients and recrystallizes mineral grains
Term
Which of the following is a metamorphic form of limestone?

 marble quartzite schist slate gneiss limestone is a metamorphic rock to begin with, therefore no other rock can be a metamorphic form of limestone
Definition
 marble
Term
Which of the following describes the differences you see in rocks as you progress from low-grade to high-grade metamorphism?

 high-grade metamorphic rocks are darker in color and higher in density than low-grade metamorphic rocks high-grade metamorphic rocks are crushed and ground down so that they have much finer particle sizes than low-grade metamorphic rocks with increasing temperature and pressure, metamorphic rocks show signs of more intense deformation and segregation of mineral into discrete bands that become thicker and more contorted and irregular in shape all of the above are true
Definition
 with increasing temperature and pressure, metamorphic rocks show signs of more intense deformation and segregation of mineral into discrete bands that become thicker and more contorted and irregular in shape
Term
What is a continental shield?

 a relatively young mountain belt of high relief and high tectonic activity an area of ancient igneous and metamorphic rocks that have been eroded to levels of low relief a passive continental margin with little or no tectonic activity and active deposition of coastal and marine sediments a plate boundary that separates oceanic plates from continental plates
Definition
 an area of ancient igneous and metamorphic rocks that have been eroded to levels of low relief
Term
How does oceanic crust compare with continental crust?

 oceanic crust is thinner (5-8 km) and denser (3.0 g/cm3) than continental crust (~25-35 km, 2.7 g/cm3) oceanic crust is thinner (5-8 km) and less dense (2.7 g/cm3) than continental crust (25-35 km, 3.0 g/cm3) they have the same composition and density but oceanic crust is thinner oceanic crust is more brittle and has a greater tendency to fault and fracture compared with continental crust, which is warmer and more plastic and more likely to bend and stretch under stress
Definition
 oceanic crust is thinner (5-8 km) and denser (3.0 g/cm3) than continental crust (~25-35 km, 2.7 g/cm3)
Term
How does the lithosphere compare with or relate to the asthenosphere?

 the lithosphere is made up dominantly of oceanic crust and the asthenosphere is made up dominantly of continental crust the lithosphere is found underneath the asthenosphere and is hotter, denser and older the lithosphere is composed of the crust and uppermost mantle and is more rigid and brittle than the underlying asthenosphere, which is closer to the melting point and is more plastic and deformable the lithosphere is found at the earth's surface whereas the asthenosphere is a layer within the earth's outer core
Definition
 the lithosphere is composed of the crust and uppermost mantle and is more rigid and brittle than the underlying asthenosphere, which is closer to the melting point and is more plastic and deformable
Term
The mid-ocean ridge is

 a region where oceanic crust sinks into the mantle and is consumed a region where plates move past each other laterally a region where two oceanic plates have collided, creating a chain of mountains on the sea floor a region where the ocean floor spreads apart, magma rises from the mantle and new oceanic crust is created none of the above
Definition
 a region where the ocean floor spreads apart, magma rises from the mantle and new oceanic crust is created
Term
How is the Atlantic Ocean similar to or different from the Pacific Ocean?

 The Atlantic Ocean is bordered by active continental margins with steep relief, tectonic activity, earthquakes and volcanism whereas the Pacific Ocean is bordered mostly by passive continental margins with gentle slopes and low tectonic activity (except for the area near Japan) Both the Atlantic and the Pacific have an almost equal distribution of active and passive continental margins and areas of high and low relief and tectonic activity The Atlantic is bordered almost entirely by passive continental margins of low tectonic activity and has an almost symmetrical distribution of relief features centered on the mid-ocean ridge; whereas the Pacific is bordered mostly by active continental margins with steep relief, deep trenches, active chains of volcanoes, and high frequency of earthquakes The rocks on the floor of the Atlantic Ocean are much older than the rocks on the floor of the Pacific Ocean and therefore have much higher content of iron and magnesium and lower content of silicon and aluminum
Definition
 The Atlantic is bordered almost entirely by passive continental margins of low tectonic activity and has an almost symmetrical distribution of relief features centered on the mid-ocean ridge; whereas the Pacific is bordered mostly by active continental margins with steep relief, deep trenches, active chains of volcanoes, and high frequency of earthquakes
Term
Rocks of the ocean floors are

 about the same age as continental rocks much older than continental rocks no more than about 200 million years old, whereas some continental rocks are as old as several billion years oldest in the vicinity of the mid-ocean ridge and progressively younger in either direction away from a ridge
Definition
 no more than about 200 million years old, whereas some continental rocks are as old as several billion years
Term
What type of plate boundary is associated with deep trenches on the ocean floor?

 transform fault boundary convergent boundary divergent boundary retrocursive boundary
Definition
 convergent boundary
Term
Where in the world today can you see a young divergent plate boundary in the early stages of formation?

 the Red Sea and the East African rift valley the San Andreas fault along the coast of California the Himalayas at the boundary between Asia and the Indian subcontinent Japan, the Philippines, and the Aleutian Islands off the coast of Alaska
Definition
 the Red Sea and the East African rift valley
Term
Magnetic stripes on the ocean floor provide strong supporting evidence for the existence of what process?

 subduction sea-floor spreading transform faulting shifting of the poles is association with major earthquakes
Definition
Term
What happens along a convergent plate boundary when two continental plates meet?

 the older continent will be subducted beneath the younger continent they bounce off each other and begin moving apart, leading to upwelling of magma from the mantle and formation of a new ocean they will slide laterally past each other, forming a transform fault boundary both are too buoyant to be subducted and instead a suture zone will form where they collide, with intense compression, deformation, and formation of thrust sheets
Definition
 both are too buoyant to be subducted and instead a suture zone will form where they collide, with intense compression, deformation, and formation of thrust sheets
Term
Transform faults typically form

 at a convergent boundary where thrust faulting causes slices of the crust to shear off in a sideways direction in the interior of a lithospheric plate where uplift of a plume of magma from deep in the earth's mantle causes the plate to tear apart at a retrocursive plate boundary where there is a sudden shift from convergent to divergent motion along a section of a divergent plate boundary where the transform faults occur as fracture zones offsetting one part of the spreading ridge from another
Definition
 along a section of a divergent plate boundary where the transform faults occur as fracture zones offsetting one part of the spreading ridge from another
Term
What of the following statements is true?

 Accumulated heat from decay of radioactive isotopes in the earth's interior is one cause of convection in the mantle, with upwelling and spreading at divergent boundaries and sinking and subduction of older, cooler ocean floor at convergent boundaries Large parts of the continents are thought to have assembled over time by repeated accretion onto the continental margins of small crustal fragments like volcanic island arcs, oceanic plateaus and microcontinents that are rafted in across the ocean and plastered onto the continent along a subduction zone The growth of new ocean floor at divergent plate boundaries occurs at rates comparable to the rate of growth of your fingernails - typically 5-10 cm/year, with maximum rates on the order of 15-17 cm/year All of the above are true
Definition

 [image]   All of the above are true

Term
Which of the following statements is NOT true?

 Pangaea is the name given to the "supercontinent" that formed around 300 million years ago by continental collision and that included all of the earth's major land masses Splitting of Pangaea began about 200 million years ago, leading to the formation of today's Atlantic Ocean Geologists now believe that the formation and splitting apart of supercontinents is part of a long-term cycle, 400 to 500 million years long, that has happened multiple times in earth history Alfred Wegener first suggested the idea of continental drift, but he had no supporting geologic or fossil evidence for his idea
Definition
 Alfred Wegener first suggested the idea of continental drift, but he had no supporting geologic or fossil evidence for his idea
Term

What is the difference between climate and weather?

 Climate is simply the long-term average weather of a particular location on the globe. Climate is much more variable and unpredictable than weather. An accurate description of climate includes average conditions over time, seasonal patterns of variation, and the range of variation in temperature and precipitation in a region, including extremes. Weather refers to specific atmospheric conditions at a particular point in time. Climate and weather are interchangeable words that refer to the same thing.

Definition
 An accurate description of climate includes average conditions over time, seasonal patterns of variation, and the range of variation in temperature and precipitation in a region, including extremes. Weather refers to specific atmospheric conditions at a particular point in time.
Term
Why are some of the world's great deserts located in the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn?

 They are associated with subsiding air in the subtropical high-pressure belts. They are too remote from sources of available moisture to be able to generate precipitation. They are controlled by the contrast between air masses along the subtropical front. They are caused by massive temperature inversions when cooler high-latitude air masses push underneath the dominant warm tropical air masses and suppress the tendency for air to rise.
Definition
 They are associated with subsiding air in the subtropical high-pressure belts.
Term

Which of the following does NOT have an important influence on the spatial pattern of global moisture regimes?

 Latitude Continental vs. maritime location Seasonal shifts in major pressure belts East vs. west coast location Ocean currents ALL of the above affect the global spatial pattern of precipitation
Definition
 ALL of the above affect the global spatial pattern of precipitation
Term
Where would you find the greatest seasonal variation in monthly precipitation?

 Tropical rainforest climate Humid continental climate Mediterranean climate Tropical monsoon climate Midlatitude desert
Definition
 Tropical monsoon climate
Term
The figure below shows the annual pattern of precipitation in a location in the northern hemisphere. Which location do you think is the most likely place to see a pattern like this one?

[image]

 Tropic of Cancer partway between the equator and the Tropic of Cancer an east-coast location along the polar front a west-coast location halfway between the subtropics and the midlatitudes
Definition
 partway between the equator and the Tropic of Cancer
Term
What kind of climatic conditions would you expect to see in the areas marked with the number 2 on the map of Africa below?

[image]

 summer wet season and winter dry season summer dry season and winter wet season dry conditions throughout the year wet conditions throughout the year
Definition
 summer wet season and winter dry season
Term
Which climate type and/or associated vegetation pattern corresponds to number 4 on the map in the previous question?

 tropical rainforest tropical savanna dry tropical humid continental marine west coast
Definition
 dry tropical
Term
What feature of the general circulation dominates weather conditions in the area marked with a "1" on the map cited in the two preceding questions?

 subtropical high ITCZ polar front ENSO
Definition
 ITCZ
Term
What type of vegetation would you expect to see in the area associated with the climograph below?

[image]

 tropical rainforest Mediterranean shrub and sclerophyllous trees savanna humid temperate forest
Definition
 savanna
Term
Which vegetation type is associated with the climograph shown below?

[image]

 tropical rainforest Mediterranean shrub and sclerophyllous forest savanna humid temperate forest midlatitude grassland
Definition
 Mediterranean shrub and sclerophyllous forest
Term
Which answer best describes climatic conditions in Florida?

 Dominated by the ITCZ throughout the year Dominated by the ITCZ in summer and by dry subtropical air in winter Subtropical high pressure causes dry conditions in summer and migration of the ITCZ into the area causes wet conditions in winter Maritime tropical air is pumped onshore by circulation around the Bermuda high in summer and heating over land causes frequent convective precipitation; frontal precipitation is common in winter
Definition
 Maritime tropical air is pumped onshore by circulation around the Bermuda high in summer and heating over land causes frequent convective precipitation; frontal precipitation is common in winter
Term
What conditions are associated with the marine west coast climate?

 Extremely high summer precipitation and a winter dry season, with hot summers and cold winters Mild seasonal variations in temperature, with frequent cyclonic storms and abundant moisture particularly in winter Mild temperature variations with generally low precipitation throughout the year Hot summers and very cold winters with abundant precipitation throughout the year
Definition
 Mild seasonal variations in temperature, with frequent cyclonic storms and abundant moisture particularly in winter
Term
What controls semiarid and arid climates of the midlatitudes?

 subtropical high pressure belt polar high polar front rainshadow from mountain ranges or remoteness from sources of moisture at continental interior locations all of the above
Definition
 rainshadow from mountain ranges or remoteness from sources of moisture at continental interior locations
Term
The Atacama desert along the coast of Chile and Peru is one of the world's driest deserts. Which of the following describes conditions that play a role in keeping this desert so dry?

 cool water offshore due to cold-water currents and upwelling of cold bottom water creates a temperature inversion in the atmosphere that suppresses any tendency of air to rise and generate condensation this area is simply remote from any possible source of moisture weather conditions here are so thoroughly dominated by the ITCZ that virtually no opportunity exists for air to rise and condense all of the above play a role in suppressing precipitation
Definition
 cool water offshore due to cold-water currents and upwelling of cold bottom water creates a temperature inversion in the atmosphere that suppresses any tendency of air to rise and generate condensation
Term
Climates with cold winters, warm summers and precipitation throughout the year are most strongly associated with what feature of the general circulation of the atmosphere?

 polar front subtropical high Hadley cells Arctic or Antarctic high pressure
Definition
 polar front
Term
What kind of weather pattern is the most important source of moisture throughout most of the year in the climate described in the previous question?

 tropical cyclones convective storms easterly waves wave or midlatitude cyclones convergent lifting in the vicinity of the ITCZ
Definition
 wave or midlatitude cyclones
Term
Which of the following would you find in eastern Wyoming and Colorado?

 humid subtropical climate tundra climate Mediterranean climate steppe boreal forest
Definition
 steppe
Term
What climate type would be associated with the climograph shown below?

[image]

 humid subtropical Mediterranean boreal forest monsoon
Definition
 humid subtropical
Term
What accounts for the difference in climatic conditions between the northeast and northwest coasts of the U.S.?

 There is no significant difference in climatic conditions between the northwest and northeast coasts Prevailing westerly winds bring maritime air and mild conditions onshore along the west coast and bring continental air and more sever conditions from the interior toward the east coast coastal upwelling causes much drier and cooler conditions along the coasts of Oregon and Washington maritime air masses have a much greater influence in the northeast whereas continental air masses are dominant in the northwest
Definition
 Prevailing westerly winds bring maritime air and mild conditions onshore along the west coast and bring continental air and more sever conditions from the interior toward the east coast
Term
Which location is most likely to have a humid continental hot-summer climate?

 San Diego London New York Moscow
Definition
 NYCCCCCC
Term
Which of the following statements about boreal forest is not true?

 It is associated with short, cool summers and intensely cold winters It is dominated by conifer trees It is found in a latitude belt extending from Scandinavia to Siberia and from Labrador across north-central Canada to Alaska It has permafrost below the surface and a shallow layer of saturated soil in summer
Definition
 It has permafrost below the surface and a shallow layer of saturated soil in summer
Term
 Arctic and subarctic climates may have much lower precipitation totals than lower-latitude humid climates simply because cold air cannot hold as much moisture; butt in some cases they may still have wet conditions at the surface because evaporation rates are also quite low. Answer True  False
Definition
 true
Term
Which climate type is dominant in the region outlined in purple on the map below?

[image]

 tundra climate ice-sheet climate boreal forest humid continental mild-summer
Definition
 tundra
Term
Highland climates

 are always cooler and drier than adjacent climate zones at lower altitudes are highly variable and so different from adjacent lowland areas that no pattern can be predicted are typically cooler and wetter than adjacent lowlands but with similar seasonal patterns
Definition
 are typically cooler and wetter than adjacent lowlands but with similar seasonal patterns
Term
El Nino/Southern Oscillation involves

 upwelling of cold water along the coast of Peru and warm water being driven by the trade winds west across the Pacific toward Australia strengthening of the "normal" Pacific circulation pattern weakening of the trade winds in the Pacific and "sloshing" of warm water from the western to the eastern Pacific, cutting off upwelling and causing wet conditions along the coast of South America dry conditions along the coast of Peru and flooding in northeastern Australia
Definition
 weakening of the trade winds in the Pacific and "sloshing" of warm water from the western to the eastern Pacific, cutting off upwelling and causing wet conditions along the coast of South America
Term
Which of the following statements about global climate change is NOT true?

 historical records show a sharp acceleration in both atmospheric carbon dioxide and atmospheric temperature over the last several decades available evidence shows that temperature increases are and will be greatest at high latitudes, especially in the northern hemisphere the only important greenhouse gas affecting atmospheric temperatures is carbon dioxide computer models of the atmosphere are able to reproduce temperature changes over the last century when they factor in human-forced influences on climate, but the simulations are poor if these influences are not considered even the best computer models cannot make accurate predictions of earth's surface temperatures in the year 2100
Definition
 the only important greenhouse gas affecting atmospheric temperatures is carbon dioxide
Term
Which of the following is NOT an anticipated side effect of global climate change?

 rising sea level increased likelihood of extreme weather negative impacts on ecosystems like coral reefs, tundra and forests changes in Arctic albedo all of the above either have been observed or can be expected to occur
Definition
 all of the above either have been observed or can be expected to occur
Term
Which statement is incorrect?

 in 2012 the summer extent of Arctic sea ice reached the lowest spatial extent since the beginning of satellite measurements in 2012, Antarctic sea ice reached a record maximum extent Nine of the 10 warmest years since 1880 have occurred since 2000 the 2007 IPCC forecast scenarios for global mean sea-level rise this century are already being exceeded all of the above are true
Definition
 all of the above are true
Term
The world water balance can be expressed most simply in terms of the exchanges of water between the oceans, the atmosphere and the continents. If there is more annual precipitation than evaporation, you have a surplus of water; if there is more annual evaporation than precipitation, you have a deficit. Which of the following is true?

 The oceans have a net surplus The continents have a net deficit Runoff transfers the continental surplus to balance the deficit of the oceans The atmosphere has a net deficit
Definition
 Runoff transfers the continental surplus to balance the deficit of the oceans
Term
Where would you expect to find the highest annual runoff?

 The highest annual runoff occurs wherever we have the highest annual precipitation The highest annual runoff should occur wherever we have the highest actual evapotranspiration The highest annual runoff should occur wherever we have the lowest infiltration capacity The highest annual runoff should occur wherever we have the greatest difference between annual precipitation and annual evapotranspiration
Definition
 The highest annual runoff should occur wherever we have the greatest difference between annual precipitation and annual evapotranspiration
Term
On average, how much of the water that falls as precipitation over the continents is lost to evapotranspiration?

 Less than 10% 35-40% 60-65% 90% or more
Definition
 60-65%
Term
The diagram below illustrates the annual water balance or water budget for a midlatitude climate similar to ours.

[image]

 line A is a graph of monthly variations in potential evapotranspiration line A is a graph of monthly variations in actual evapotranspiration line A is a graph of monthly variations in precipitation line A is a graph of monthly variations in soil moisture content line A is a graph of monthly variations in the amount of runoff
Definition
 line A is a graph of monthly variations in potential evapotranspiration
Term
Based on the annual cycle illustrated in the figure from the preceding question and our understanding of what controls the balance of moisture in the soil and the elevation of the water table, what can we say about the annual pattern of changes in soil moisture, groundwater levels and base flow in streams?

 all of these reach their annual minimum values in late December or early January all of these reach their  annual minimum values in September or early October all of these reach their annual minimum values in July or August all of these reach their annual minimum values in April
Definition
 all of these reach their  annual minimum values in September or early October
Term
Where does water flowing in a stream channel come from when it is not raining?

 overland flow sheet flow transpiration interception groundwater
Definition
 groundwater
Term
The water table is

 the boundary between the saturated and unsaturated zones the lower boundary of a confining layer the discharge zone where groundwater emerges from the subsurface the curved flow path taken by groundwater from the recharge zone to the discharge zone a thin layer of water forming sheet flow at the surface during an intense storm
Definition
 the boundary between the saturated and unsaturated zones
Term
Infiltration capacity is

 the maximum rate at which water can be absorbed by the surface when it is raining the actual rate at which water is absorbed by the surface when it is raining the minimum rate at which water is absorbed by the surface when it is raining the rate at which water runs over the surface when it is raining none of the above
Definition
 the maximum rate at which water can be absorbed by the surface when it is raining
Term
Available water is

 the difference between field capacity and wilting point the maximum amount of water that soil can hold when saturated the maximum amount of water that soil will hold against gravity after draining the amount of water remaining in the soil when plants start wilting
Definition

 the difference between field capacity and wilting point
Term
Which is the best definition of an aquifer?

 A well A water-bearing, permeable layer of rock or sediment that can transmit water in amounts sufficient for use as a source of water supply An impermeable rock formation that acts as a barrier to subsurface flow A section of the unsaturated zone where water and air both are present in pore spaces The boundary separating the saturated zone from the overlying unsaturated zone
Definition
 A water-bearing, permeable layer of rock or sediment that can transmit water in amounts sufficient for use as a source of water supply
Term
If a well is drilled into a confined aquifer, the pressure in the aquifer will cause the water level in the well to rise to an elevation higher than the top of the aquifer.  If you connect all the points representing this level throughout the aquifer, this would be the

 water table recharge zone aquiclude potentiometric surface
Definition
 potentiometric surface
Term
Which of the following statements about groundwater flow is correct?

 the velocity of flow is about the same as flow over the land surface groundwater typically travels in a straight path from higher to lower elevation, just as it does at the surface the velocity of flow may be hundreds or thousands of times slower than flow at the surface, taking weeks, months or years to travel distances that might be traveled in hours or days at the surface groundwater is from a source that is not associated with precipitation at the surface; it comes from deep underground reservoirs that are completely isolated from the surface portion of the hydrologic cycle
Definition
 the velocity of flow may be hundreds or thousands of times slower than flow at the surface, taking weeks, months or years to travel distances that might be traveled in hours or days at the surface
Term
In which of the following locations do we find problems associated with overdraft of groundwater?

 the High Plains of Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Kansas and Colorado Mexico City the Coastal Plain of Maryland Arizona and southern California all of the above
Definition
 all
Term
The consequences of groundwater pumping may include all but which one of the following?

 Formation of a cone of depression distorting the shape of the water table in the vicinity of a well Subsidence of the land surface sufficient to affect building foundations and utility lines Increased groundwater flow to streams Encroachment of saltwater into wells in coastal areas
Definition
 Increased groundwater flow to streams
Term
Which of the following descriptive statements about the High Plains aquifer is incorrect?

 Pumping rates in excess of the natural rate of recharge have caused a dramatic decline in the elevation of the water table over the last several decades Much of the groundwater being pumped from this aquifer probably entered the aquifer thousands of years ago. If pumping were to stop, groundwater levels would recover very rapidly Center-pivot irrigation is a major reason for the dramatic increase of groundwater pumping in this area
Definition
 If pumping were to stop, groundwater levels would recover very rapidly
Term
Why are streams in the desert southwest often dry whereas streams in our area are flowing even when it hasn’t been raining?

 Because the water table is typically lower than the bed of the stream in these arid climates Because the soils in that area are impermeable and water cannot reach the stream bed Because the soils in that environment are so permeable that all the water that falls as precipitation infiltrates and is not available to generate surface runoff Because there is a network of underground streams that captures all of the surface flow and diverts it to the deep subsurface
Definition

 Because the water table is typically lower than the bed of the stream in these arid climates

Term
Which of the following is NOT true?

 water moves through coarse-grained soils much more easily than through fine-grained soils fine-grained soils retain more moisture in their pores than coarse-grained soils the amount of water available to plants is greatest in loamy soils the wilting point occurs only when there is no moisture at all remaining in the soil
Definition
 the wilting point occurs only when there is no moisture at all remaining in the soil
Term
What is the difference between consumptive use and nonconsumptive use?

 consumptive use is the portion of water withdrawn from storage that evaporates and is not returned to the system for additional uses nonconsumptive use is water that is withdrawn but not consumed by humans or animals consumptive use is water that is used for some productive purpose that causes it to have degraded water quality when it is returned to a stream or other water body consumptive use is water used for electric-power generation
Definition
 consumptive use is the portion of water withdrawn from storage that evaporates and is not returned to the system for additional uses
Term
Which area of the U.S. is probably at greatest risk for future water-supply shortage?

 New England and the Mid-Atlantic region Hawaii the Southwest the upper Midwest all regions are at equal risk
Definition
 The Southwest
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