# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

PE-Final
FUNDEMENTAL PROPERTIES OF PETROLEUM
46
Engineering
12/09/2011

Term
 Petroleum
Definition
 is a naturally occurring material and consists of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and other organic molecules of various molecular weights.
Term
 Crude oils
Definition
 which produce a higher percentage of gasoline or other high value products will demand a higher price.
Term
 U.S. barrels,
Definition
 which contains 42 U.S. gallons.
Term
 10,000 cubic feet of gas
Definition
 is commonly expressed as 10 Mcf, or 0.010 MMcf
Term
 MMMcf
Definition
 is referred to as billion cubic feet of gas and commonly abbreviated Bcf.
Term
 Reserves
Definition
 are estimates of oil and gas that can be recovered from the geologic formations where they exist. Reserves are held in subsurface reservoirs (containers).
Term
 6,000 cubic feet of gas
Definition
 1 Barrel of Oil Equivalent
Term
 6 Mcf of gas
Definition
 1 Barrel of Oil Equivalent
Term
 5.615 cu ft
Definition
 1 bbl
Term
 Density
Definition
 is the ratio of a mass per unit volume. Common oil-field measurements of density include pounds per gallon (ppg), and grams per cubic centimeter (g/cc). Fresh water at standard conditions has a density of 8.334 ppg, or 1 gm/cc.
Term
 Specific Volume
Definition
 is the inverse of density and is volume per unit mass. is much less common in oil field calculations than density.
Term
 Specific gravity
Definition
 can viewed as a ratio of two densities, where the denominator serves as a reference, typically at stated conditions of pressure and temperature.
Term
 SGOil
Definition
 (Density of Oil) / (Density of Water) (at 14.7 psig and 60 deg Fahrenheit)
Term
 SGOil = (Density of Oil) / (Density of Water) (at 14.7 psig and 60 deg Fahrenheit)
Definition
 = 7.0 ppg / 8.334 ppg = 0.84
Term
 Fresh water density
Definition
 is 8.334 pounds per gallon (ppg) and exerts a pressure of 0.433 psi per ft.
Term
 the static bottom hole pressure
Definition
 8.33/13 = .433/x
Term
 API Gravity =
Definition
 (141.5 / SGOIL) – 131.5
Term
 API gravity
Definition
 is a crude oil measurement based upon its specific gravity
Term
 hydrometer
Definition
 API gravity can easily be determined with a ________. This is especially helpful for measurement in the field.
Term
 SGOIL =
Definition
 141.5 / (API gravity + 131.5)
Term
 Product prices of crude oil
Definition
 is influenced by its API gravity, typically lighter crudes contain a higher percentage of valuable components when they are refined (gasoline).
Term
 Heavy Crude:
Definition
 API gravity less than 22.3 degrees API
Term
 Intermediate (Medium) Crude:
Definition
 API gravity between 22.3 degrees API and 31.1 degrees API e.g. West Texas Intermediate
Term
 Light Crude:
Definition
 API gravity higher than 31.1 degrees.
Term
 Condensates from natural gas production
Definition
 are typically higher than 45 degrees API.
Term
 Viscosity
Definition
 indicates the “thickness” of a fluid, e.g, how easy is it to stir the fluid.
Term
 Viscosity is dependent upon temperature,
Definition
 if we raise the temperature of a crude oil, its viscosity decreases and becomes easier to flow, thus one of the reasons we inject steam into high viscosity oil reservoirs.
Term
 The technical definition of viscosity
Definition
 is a fluid’s resistance to shear and is measured in centipoise (cp).
Term
 Conventional Crude Oil Reservoirs
Definition
 These reservoirs are defined as reservoirs which can be produced by ordinary means (oil well methods)
Term
 Unconventional Oil Reservoirs –
Definition
 Extra heavy oils are highly viscous and typically less than 20 degrees API gravity. They often contain sulfur and heavy metals nickel and vanadium, which increase refining difficulty. Venezuela’s Orinoco heavy oil belt is on of the best known examples of this type of resource.
Term
 Oil (Tar) Sands
Definition
 differ from extra heavy oil because they are much less likely to flow. The largest accumulation of tar sands are the Athabasca oil sands located in northern Alberta. These deposits are typically strip mined and hauled to refineries via trucks, where the extracted material is heated (retorted) to extract the oil.
Term
 Oil shale
Definition
 is a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen. Kerogen is a mixture of organic compounds which can be converted to shale oil. The expense of this extraction and conversion has yielded few economically viable projects worldwide. Some of the largest accumulations of oil shale occur in the western United States, in particular the Green River formation found in Colorado.
Term
 Conventional natural gas reservoirs
Definition
 are those which have accumulated in sedimentary rock and possess permeability and porosity large enough to flow gas to the wellbore without significant intervention.
Term
 Unconventional Natural Gas Reservoirs –
Definition
 Tight gas sands are characterized by their very low permeability and inability to produce economically without significant intervention, usually by massive hydraulic fracturing.
Term
 Coal Bed Methane
Definition
 Natural gas is produced from coal bed seams by drilling wellbores and pumping out water (dewatering). When the water is removed, the methane is deadsorbed (released) from the coal matrix.
Term
 Shale Gas
Definition
 is natural gas produced from shale. It typically exhibits very low permeability and must be hydraulic fracture stimulated in order to produce in economically paying quantities. It is usually described as a resource play, where the geological risk of not finding gas is low, but profit per well is also usually lower as well.
Term
 Horizontal drilling
Definition
 is often used in shale plays to increase the number of natural fractures encountered by the wellbore. The gas held in natural fractures is produced first, the gas held in the pore space is produced next, and finally the gas adsorbed onto the organic material in the shale is produce last as the formation pressure is depleted from gas production.
Term
 Petroleum Chemistry
Definition
 Petroleum is a complex mixture of organic chemicals, primarily hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons are organic chemicals that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Carbon has four binding locations and can bind either to hydrogen or other carbon atoms. Hydrogen has only one binding location and can only bind to a carbon atom in hydrocarbons. When carbon atoms bind to one another, they can create hydrocarbon “chains” of varying length.
Term
 Alkanes a
Definition
 are either straight chain or branched chain saturated hydrocarbons and have a general formula of CnH2n+2
Term
 Straight-chained alkanes
Definition
 are called “normal”
Term
 "isomer” of the normal chain alkane.
Definition
 branched chained alkanes are considered
Term
 Natural gas may
Definition
 include inert compounds and impurities, primarily hydrogen sulfide (H2S), carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrogen (N2).
Term
 in diesel
Definition
 alkanes of C9 through C16
Term
 for gasoline
Definition
 C5 through C8
Term
 lubricants.
Definition
 alkanes greater than C17
Term
 Cycloalkanes
Definition
 are also saturated hydrocarbons, but rather than existing as straight or branched chains, they exist as hydrocarbon rings and have the general formula of CnH2n.
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