Shared Flashcard Set


test 13

Additional Law Flashcards




Objectives of Patrol:
• To preserve the peace by mere presence and by proper action.
• To prevent crime by opportunity reduction; Duty to prevent.
• To suppress crime by timely response to crimes in progress and by properly investigating offenses.
• To apprehend suspects.
• To regulate non-criminal conduct by obtaining and maintaining good officer – citizen relationships to protect life and property
Importance of Patrol:
• Protection: prevention of crime is the soundest of all criminological theories.
• Service: to the community of which each peace officer is a part.
• Duties and powers - CCP 2.13
• Duty of peace officer as to threats - CCP 6.05
• Peace officer to prevent injury - CCP 6.06
• Conduct of peace officer - CCP 6.07
Elements of shift orientation:
• Duty assignment
• Related circumstances, i.e., warrants, current stolen property/vehicle lists, hazardous situations, and special events.
Elements of beat characteristics that the officer should know early on in assignment:
• Area and its socio-economic and geographic characteristics
• Conditions
• Crime hazards
• Crimes committed in area
• Knowledge of assigned area, such as location of streets, businesses, schools, hospitals; which way street numbers run; traffic routes, i.e., main arterial streets, dead ends, overpasses, back roads, one-way streets, and alleyways.
• Increases probability of on-site arrest and officer safety
Familiarization with known offenders:
• Their habits and types of crimes
• TCIC/NCIC information
• Increases probability of arrest
Equipment Readiness Check
• Vehicle, weapons, radio, fire and first-aid gear, etc.
• Report or replace non-working or unsafe equipment
Knowledge of cover and concealment:
• Cover: U.S. Mailboxes, utility poles, automobiles and trucks, brick walls, dirt embankments, etc.
• Concealment: shrubs, fences, etc.
24.2.1. Determine the various kinds of hazards encountered while on patrol.
• Placing your self, others or your patrol unit in a position so as to provide the suspect(s) with a definite identifiable target.
• Provides suspect(s) with knowledge of how many officers are present, fire power, and approach.
• Allows suspect(s) to plan course of action.
• Attempt to select location for vehicle stop.
• Back-up units secure headlights, reds and ambers upon approach of primary unit.
• Hold flashlight well in front and away from body. Do not point toward other officers.
• Do not stand in doorways and hallways or peer openly through broken or otherwise open windows.
24.2.1. Determine the various kinds of hazards encountered while on patrol.
Telltale noises:
• Vehicle, engine
• Parking unit too close to scene
• Radio volume too loud
• Seat belts/pop the buckle
• Letting unit door slam shut
• Equipment, i.e. radio, keys, whistles, baton, handcuffs, portable radio
24.2.1. Determine the various kinds of hazards encountered while on patrol.
Suspects’ hands:
• Demand suspect place hands in front of him/her and turn palms up.
• Do not allow subject to put hands in pockets.
• Possibly hiding contraband (evidence) in pockets, weapon, and/or identifiable marks, scars, or tattoos.
• If hands are already in pockets, do not allow removal.
• Situational discretion needed - suspect to turn head away and/or kneel or lay on ground before checking for weapon.
24.2.1. Determine the various kinds of hazards encountered while on patrol.
Report hazards such as:
• Roadway hazards, dead animals, animals on roadway, traffic control devices, crime hazards.
• Contact appropriate authorities, depending upon the type of hazard, as soon as possible.
24.3.1. Identify the two types of problem area patrols.
Preventive patrol:
• Preventive enforcement: conduct property checks, question suspicious persons, vary patrol patterns, and maintain high visibility.
• Selective patrol: deals with specific problems or violations, so be aware of the problem, the location, and the time of day that the problems usually occur.

Apprehension patrol
• Low visibility and surveillance
24.3.2. Identify the five patrol patterns.
Lane Selection
• The lane nearest the center of the roadway lends itself to effective observation-a clear view between buildings on both sides of the street and on-coming traffic effectively.
• Driving in the lane nearest the curb, at a decreased speed, allows a ready stop at the curb and it affords a better view of street-front windows, sides of buildings, and potential hiding places.

Parking the patrol vehicle
• Parking is an important consideration while on patrol.
• It can influence the citizen's attitude toward the police.
• Proper parking can gain voluntary compliance of traffic laws.
• Proper parking can offer officer cover or concealment in other situations.

Circular pattern
In this pattern, the car is driven either from the approximate center of the beat in ever increasing "circles" or from the outside of the beat in ever-decreasing circles. Obviously, the pattern is not truly circular, but approximately so.
Double-Back pattern
• Helpful when learning the beat
• Helpful in problem areas or in cases where a second look at someone or something is necessary.

Random pattern:
• Whatever pattern is chosen, the beat must be covered with a lack of predictability
24.3.3. Identify the advantages of the six different patrol modes.
Bicycle patrol:
Advantages: flexibility where use of motorized vehicles is impractical or impossible, allows for high visibility and intense patrol. Many cities and college campuses choose bicycle patrol in preventive efforts and to improve community relations.

Motorcycle patrol:
Advantages: quick response, flexibility to cover large area, can be used as escort units, and are effective in traffic law enforcement.

Foot patrol:
Advantages: immediate traffic control; person-to-person contact; good public/community relations; increased knowledge of physical beat; develop informants; increased knowledge of community needs and potential crime hazards.

Automobile patrol:
• Advantages: speed, mobility; visibility increases preventive potential; protection of officer; permits officer to carry extra equipment
• Check vehicle for mechanical defects, contraband, and weapons before beginning patrol
• Do not spend too much time in drive-ins or coffee shops; if another patrol vehicle is there, do not stop
• Conferences between patrol vehicles should be located on main thoroughfare where they can be seen; encourages preventive enforcement
• Watch driving speed and observe rules of the road
• Never leave keys in the patrol vehicle
• Remain alert and prepared for an emergency

Fixed wing and helicopter patrol:
Advantages: available in emergency situations, can cover enormous area, allows sky view of fleeing persons or vehicles, excellent apprehension tool when used with ground units.

Mounted patrol:
Advantages: Person-to-person contact, good public/community relations, better mobility in crowded areas, visibility increases in a crowd.
24.3.4. Discuss the various patrol methods.

One-officer patrol:
• Having twice as many patrol vehicles on the street doubles preventive enforcement.
• When the officer is alone, more attention is devoted to patrol functions and duties.
• An officer alone develops self-reliance, rather than depending on a partner for backup.
• A lone officer in a patrol vehicle takes fewer chances.
• Personality clashes are reduced.
24.3.4. Discuss the various patrol methods.
Two-officer patrol:
• Greater safety factor.
• Can be used as a training aid for the correction of officer mistakes.
• Share driving duties.
• Two pairs of eyes are better than one.
• One officer can operate the radio while the other drives.
24.3.5. Discuss effective observation skills.

Skilled observer:
one who is able to take in everything around a given situation and then sort out the relevant from the irrelevant.
Observation Skills:
• See everything there is to see and take it in quickly and accurately
• Look for clues in situations
• Learn own beat area
• Be aware of everything around you constantly

• Draw conclusions about what you see
• Catalog what you see for possible future use also
Effective observation can contribute significantly to blank and blank , and it includes protecting the public from natural or man-made hazards.
crime prevention
successful prosecution of crimes
How to perform a pedestrian stop:
• Use effective verbal communications
• Approach carefully: maintain visual contact with suspicious person, approach on right side since most people are right-handed, watch for furtive movements or attempts to flee, establish early eye contact, and be aware of surroundings.
Field inquiry is …
Used to learn about people:
• Subject's reaction to inquiry.
• How people react to questioning by police.
• Personal contact with citizens opens relationships for future information.
• Puts officer on one-to-one basis with public.
A vital source of information:
• The people in the area personally know the officer.
• The officer learns the socio-economic make-up of the people in the area.
• The officer learns where people work and becomes aware of who the store clerks are, what time they travel to and from work, and what types of vehicle they drive.
• People observe and know many things and will tell a good officer who has developed proper rapport through field inquiry.

Used to learn about places:
• Houses, buildings and stores have specific observable characteristics.
• A light on in a building, where none has been before.
• No attendant at cash register in convenience store.
• An open or broken window of closed business or home.
• Suspicious persons in alley or other area where no one usually goes.
• Broken or missing lock on gate.
• A light out over a rear or side entrance to a closed building.
• Vehicles parked in alley or area where none is usually parked.
• Tire tracks across lawn to back of building.
The seven-step violator contact method:
1. Greeting and identification of the police agency:
2. Statement of violation committed:
3. Identification of driver and check of conditions of violator and vehicle:
4. Statement of action to be taken:
5. Take that action:
6. Explain what the violator must do:
7. Leave:
Identify the procedures for a high-risk vehicle stops.
Assess risk - look for cues and clues.

Use caution in all vehicle stops - no vehicle stop is routine.

Identification of suspicious or stolen vehicles:
• Notify headquarters of vehicle, vehicle description, location, direction of traffic any occupants.
• Request NCIC/TCIC check to confirm if stolen.
• If stolen and unoccupied, secure.
• If stolen with occupants and stopped, request backup and proceed as in felony stop, secure.
• If stolen with occupants and moving effect a felony stop and secure.
• Check department policy for pursuit.
Procedures for stopping high-risk vehicles or felony stops:
• Notify headquarters of location and direction and request back up. When practical, wait for back up before signaling suspect vehicle to stop.
• Signal suspect vehicle to stop by use of horn, siren, red lights, or public address system and maintain safe distance behind.
• When suspect vehicle stops, notify headquarters of exact location.
• If possible, offset the patrol vehicle to the left of suspect vehicle giving officer more protection. If not possible to offset, position the patrol vehicle at an angle facing the right front to the suspect vehicle.
• If dark, illuminate the suspect vehicle with spotlight.
• Leave flashing lights and emergency flashers on to warn passing motorists of potential danger.
• Draw weapon to cover suspects, if necessary.
• Orders given to suspects in loud, clear, steady voice:
o to slowly exit vehicle by reaching outside of driver's window and open door from the outside with the left hand, stop, place hands in the air, walk backwards slowly toward the patrol unit, stop, lie face down, feet to patrol unit, legs spread, arms out stretched one to exit suspect vehicle unless ordered to do so;
o All occupants to remain still and to look ahead;
o Driver to turn off ignition and drop the keys outside of suspect vehicle;
o All occupants to place and keep hands in view of controlling officer;
o Driver touched, and palms up;
o Driver not to move;
o Other occupants to follow same procedure one at a time beginning with those in the front seat.
• After all occupants are out of vehicle, check interior and be aware of the trunk, in which another suspect could be hiding.
• Handcuff and search all occupants, one at a time.
• Secure suspect vehicle per department policy.
24.5.3. Identify the procedures for safe responses to crimes in progress calls.
Prowler calls, burglary-in-progress calls, robbery-in-progress calls:
• Never a “routine” call
• •Safety in approach: driving/vehicle operation policies, watching for fleeing suspects.
• Danger cues: observe layout of situation, observe suspects, awareness of suspect v. victims.
• Adhere to department policy - communicate with dispatcher.
• Communicate and cooperate with other officers - radio, verbal signals, and hand signals.
• Department policy - waiting for back up.
24.5.4. List the procedures for the safe building searches.
Buildings where illegal entry is suspected:
• Notify headquarters
• Request backup
• Secure point of entry
• Secure other exits
• Request dispatcher to notify property owner to advise location of office, safe, cash register
• Leave enough officers outside to secure perimeter
• At least two officers should enter the building to make search, wearing protective gear if available
• Search should be pre-planned based on knowledge from owner, operator, plans, employee, etc., if possible
• Backup team covers search team as they have enter the building and then guards the place of entry/exits providing any help possible
• Members of search team should be aware of other members and their location
• •Search the premises using the "leap frog" techniques (one officer covering the other as they move from place to place)
• The team should stay together and search each room thoroughly before moving to the next room. Each room searched should be secured or under observation if possible
• In most cases, the team should leave the suspect(s) an opportunity to leave the building - a trapped intruder may start shooting
24.5.5. Identify the procedures for safe response to incidents involving bomb threats.
• Determine make up and population of area threatened.
• Determine if evacuation is necessary.
• Secure area, control entry of unauthorized persons.
• Determine what assistance is available, Fire Dept., Ambulance, Bomb Squad, Military EOD.
Identify factors that affect decision of whether search is to be conducted:
• Determine size and location of area, and possible locations for a bomb
• Is there time for a search?
• Is time of detonation known?
• Can area be evacuated or not?
Describe proper search techniques to be employed:
• What are possible types of device-size, makeup, mechanical, electrical-may be obtained from initial report? What to look for
• Identify common types of bombs or suspicious objects that could be bombs.
• Organize volunteers familiar with the area for search party.
• Search for bomb using proper techniques-turn all radios off within 500 feet of search area, do not touch anything that looks suspicious; no smoking in search area.
• If a device or suspicious object is found evacuate the immediate area and call specialized assistance. Do not move the device!
crime prevention
a proactive anticipation, recognition, and appraisal of a crime risk and the action needed to remove or reduce that crime risk
common bombs or devices
pipe bombs
chemical devices
electrical devices
commercial explosives
military ordinance
goals of public service
to provide protection and service
to minimize cultural/emotional barriers between officers and citizens
to create an officercitizen relationship which supports best interest of society
to create empathetic response to citizen needs/concerns
consequences of public service
negative consequences of ineffective service

lack of trust and respect
reduced budgetary support
increased citizen complaints
positive consequences of effective service
increased trust and respect
support for budgetary requests
reduction in citizen complaints
methods to enhance public service
visual presence
non punitive interaction
community involvement
emergency community resources
salvation army
red cross
rape crisis
united way
women shelters
mediation services
cps other city services
consular notification
a foreign detainee must be informed of his'her right to have his consulate notified

arrestees decision should be documented

applies to all foreign detainees, whether in the country illegally or not

must notify consulate within 72 hours
consular notification mandatory rule
certain consulates MUST be notified regardless of the wishes of the detainee

refere to consular notification and access handbook and consular notification and access reference card
consular notification right to privacy
does not apply to mandatory notification of foreign nationals covered by bilateral treaty

privacy of citizens of vccr countries should be respected
consular access
must follow detention facility regulations
services of consular officer
arange legal representation
monitor progress of the case
ensure a fair trial
monitor conditions of confinement
provide reading material, food, medicine, or other necessities.
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