# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Optics
Geometric Optics
70
Physics
10/21/2013

Term
Definition
 Q [J]
Term
Definition
 F[J/m^2]
Term
Definition
 P or I [W]
Term
Definition
 M[W/m^2]
Term
Definition
 E[W/m^2]
Term
Definition
 I[W/sr]
Term
Definition
 L[W/(m^2*sr)]
Term
 Solid Angle
Definition
 Omega=A/r^2Omega=4pi*sin^2(1/2theta)
Term
 Huygen's Princlple
Definition
 A point on a wavefront is its own source
Term
 Fermat's Principle of Least Time
Definition
 Light follows the path which results in the least travel time
Term
 Definition of refractive index
Definition
 speed of light under vacuum------------------------------speed of light in material
Term
 Principle of Reversibility
Definition
 rays can be reversed and situation is still valid
Term
 Reflection:speculardiffuse
Definition
 mirror-likelambertian
Term
 Real Image
Definition
 can be projected on a screen, can be observed directly, light rays touch the image
Term
 Virtual Image
Definition
 cant be projected, observed indirectly (eg by eye) light rays never touch the image
Term
 Object Distance
Definition
 sobject on same side as incoming light correlates to positive sign
Term
 Image Distance
Definition
 s'image on same side as outgoing light correlates to positive sign
Term
Definition
 If center of curvature is on the same side as outgoing light +r otherwise -r
Term
 Small Angle Approx
Definition
 sin(theta)=theta cos(theta)=1tan(theta)=theta
Term
 Taylor Expansion
Definition
 f(x)=f(a)+(f'(a)(x-a))/1!+(f''(a)(x-a))/2!....
Term
 Mirror Focus
Definition
 f=-R/2
Term
 Mirror Equation
Definition
 1/f=1/s+1/s'=1/p+1/q
Term
 Lateral Magnification
Definition
 m=(-n1*s')/(n2*s)n1 is where light is coming coming from, n2 is where light is headed
Term
 Transitive Rule
Definition
 For multiple surfaces or chained optics, the image from one step becomes the object for the next
Term
 Lensmaker Equation
Definition
 1/f=(n2-n1)/n1 * (1/R1-1/R2)
Term
 Total Internal Reflection
Definition
 n1 refraction n1>n2 => total internal reflection theta refraction theta>theta_c => Total Internal Reflection
Term
 Thick lenses vs. Thin Lenses
Definition
 diameter of lens << thickness of lense then thickdiameter of lens >> thickness of lensethen thin
Term
 Cardinal Points
Definition
 2 focal points f1, f22 principle points r,s2 nodal points v,w
Term
 Principle Points
Definition
 incoming rays // to principle axis intersect line of outgoing ray from same ray
Term
 Nodal Points
Definition
 point where // incoming and outgoing rays lines intersect the principle axis
Term
 distances for a thick lens
Definition
 All distances (s's f's, etc) are relative to the principle planes of the lens
Term
 When does the thin lense equations apply to thick lenses?
Definition
 When n=n'=1, in other words, there is air on both sides of the lense
Term
 Ray Vectors
Definition
 (y) <= height above optical axis(alpha) <= angle from // to optical axis
Term
 Translation Matrix
Definition
 [1 L] => [1 L][ y_i ] = [ y_f ][0 1] => [0 1][alpha_i] = [alpha_f]
Term
 Thick Lens Matrix
Definition
 [ y_i ] = [ y_f ][alpha_i] = M1*M2*M3 = [alpha_f]M1= 1st refraction matrixM2= translation matrixM3= 2nd refraction matrix
Term
 4 examples of prisms
Definition
 Right PrismDove PrismPenta PrismPorro Prism
Term
 Dispersion of Light through a Prism
Definition
 Light is split into colors, blue light is bent more than red, n depends on wavelength
Term
 Abbe Number
Definition
 vd=(nd-1)/(nf-nc)where nd is n at the helium d linenf is n at the hydrogen F lineand nc is at the hydrogen C lineLarge Vd => less dispersiveGeneral rule: low n => high VdLow Abbe # bends light a lot, high not as much.
Term
 Cauchy Equation
Definition
 n(lamda)=A + B/(lamda)^2 + C/(lamda)^4+...
Term
 Limits to Cauchy Equation
Definition
 1. Normal Dispersion Only2. Visible light only (UV&IR absorb too much)3. Empiracal
Term
 Normal Dispersion
Definition
 Short wavelengths are slower than long wavelengths. Strictly increasing E_r(w) with increasing w
Term
 Anomalous Dispersion
Definition
 short wavelengths are faster than long wavelengths. E_r(w) goes down as Epsilon_r goes up.
Term
 Limits of Selmeier Equation
Definition
 1. Transparent media only2. Nonphysical solutions at absorption positions (n^2 -> infinity)
Term
 Plane wave equation
Definition
 pitchfork=Asin(kx-wt)orpitchfork=Asin(k dot r -wt)orpitchfork=Ae^i(kx-wt)
Term
 Spherical Waves
Definition
 pitchfork=(A/r)e^i(kr-wt)Power ~A^2/r^2
Term
 Cylindrical Waves
Definition
 pitchfork=A/sqrt(r) * e^i(kr-wt)
Term
 Rayleigh Range
Definition
Term
 Bougver-Lambert-Beer Absorption Law
Definition
 I(x)=I(0)*e^(-a*x)where x is the distance into the material and a is the absorption coefficient
Term
 Waves:Random Sources
Definition
Term
 Waves:Coherent Sources
Definition
 (E0)^2=N^2*(E0_1)^2
Term
 Phase Velocity
Definition
 vp=w/k=c/n
Term
 Group Velocity
Definition
 vg=dw/dk=vp+k(dvp/dk)
Term
 Boltzmann's Constant
Definition
 1.38 * 10^-23 [J/K]
Term
 Blackbody
Definition
 1. In thermal equilibrium with its surroundings2. ideal absorber and emitter3. perfect Lambertian source
Term
 Examples of a Black Body
Definition
 furnace with a hole in itcosmic microwave backgroundHumansSunEarth
Term
 Blackbody curve
Definition
 As temperature increases, shift towards the blue.As temperature decreases, shift towards the red
Term
 Wein's Law
Definition
 lamda_peak=sigma/T= (stefan-boltzmann constant)/Temp(K) [K*m]
Term
 Stefan-Boltmann Law
Definition
 M=sigma*T^4
Term
 2 types of Emision
Definition
 Spontaneous EmmisionStimulated Emission
Term
 2 types of Absorption
Definition
 Spontaneous AbsorptionStimulated Absorption
Term
 Lasers depend on this property
Definition
 Population Inversion N'>N
Term
 LASER acronym
Definition
 Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation
Term
 Emissitivity
Definition
 E=1 => blackbodyE<1 => gray bodyE=M/M_bb
Term
 Constructive interference
Definition
 delta=theta2-theta1=2m*pi
Term
 Destrucive Interference
Definition
 delta=theta2-theta1=(2m+1)*pi
Term
 Contrast Visibility
Definition
 V=(Emax-Emin)/(Emax+Emin)
Term
 Young's Double Slit Experiment
Definition
 a is the spacing between the slitsL is the distance between the slits and the screeny is the distance above/below the axis m is the order of fringe
Term
 Film Interference:ContructiveDestructive
Definition
 Delta_tot=Delta_p+Delta_r=m(lamda) brightDelta_tot=Delta_p+Delta_r=(m+1/2)*lamda dark
Term
 Fizeau Fringes
Definition
 Caused either by a thin triangle gap between 2 plates or a thin slice such as a carbide bladewhite light input => rainbow like colors
Term
 Newton's Rings
Definition
 Plane lense in direct contact with a convex lense causes fringes in circular patterns at the contact point
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