Shared Flashcard Set

Details

OPOTA SPOs
SPO flash cards for OPOTA test
561
Criminal Justice
Professional
01/03/2014

Additional Criminal Justice Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Relationship between a SPO and a test question.
Definition
A test question must respond directly to an SPO and every SPO may be the basis of a test question.
Term
Ultimate reason for law enforcement training.
Definition
To be able to protect the life and property of yourself and the public.
Term
Federalism
Definition
- a dual system of government
Term
Due process of Law
Definition

- the process of assuring fundamental fairness in application of criminal justice.

 

Term
Probable Cause
Definition

 

- the facts and circumstances which would lead a reasonable person to believe that a condition exists that justifies the action to be taken.

 

Term
Proof Beyond a reasonable doubt
Definition

- the accused guilt must be established to the point that facts proven must, by virtue of their probative force, establish guilt.

 

Term
Describe the principle Factual Guilt plus Legal Guilt
Definition

This term means that the accused did in fact commit the crime or act in question, or there is substantial evidence of proof beyond a reasonable doubt that the accused did so.

 

Term
Legal Guilt has three components:
Definition

 

i)        Was the accused properly treated in being brought to justice.

 

ii)      Was he or she give his or her procedural rights

 

iii)    Was due process adhered to

 

Term
The “Crime Control” perspective and the “Due Process” perspective of Criminal Justice
Definition

Crime Control is the efficient enforcement of the criminal laws followed by punishment.

 

 

Due process perspective emphasizes following the rules of our justice system.

 

 

Term
Define Civil Rights
Definition

The rights and privileges afforded to all persons in society by the legislative acts of congress, the state, and local ordinances.

 

Term

 

42.USC:1183-

 

Definition

Every person who, under color of any statute, ordinance regulation, custom or usage, of any state or territory, subjects, or causes to be subjected, any citizens of the United States or other persons within the jurisdiction there of to the deprivation of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the constitution and laws, shall be liable to the party insured in an action at law, suit in equity or other proper proceeding for redress.

 

Term
Define Role
Definition
The characteristic and expected social behavior of an individual
Term
Define Occupational Role
Definition
Behaviors performed in the course of pursuing one’s job or vocation
Term
Role Conflict occurs when
Definition

The officer perceives a clash between competing perceptions, values and standards when deciding what behavior is appropriate.

 

Term
Stress may be defined as:
Definition

A state of physical and psychological arousal.

 

Term
Define Critical Incident
Definition

A specific event which causes unusually strong emotional reactions and which has the potential to interfere with the ability to function either at the scene or later.

 

Term
Categories of Stress symptoms:
Definition

 

a)      Cognitive- thought processes

 

b)      Physical- the body

 

c)       Emotional- feelings

 

d)      Behavioral- actions or reactions.

 

Term
Initial Intervention techniques to be utilized after a Critical Incident.
Definition

a)      Physical exercise

b)      Structured time

c)       Talk to friends and family

d)      Eat healthy foods

e)      Do not make life changes.

Term
Seven traditional criteria of a profession
Definition

           a)      Specific body of knowledge

b)      Extensive preparation through education and training.

c)       Code of ethics

d)      Licensing, regulation, by boards and counsels.

e)      Commitment and obligation to clientele

f)       Relative professional autonomy

g)      Public acknowledgement of status

Term
Discretion
Definition

“The use of individual judgment by officers in making decisions as to which of several behavioral responses is appropriate in specific situations”.

 

Term
The criminal justice system may be defined as
Definition
The formal system established by the United States for maintaining social control and handling criminal conduct
Term
Four components of the Criminal Justice System:
Definition

a.       Law Enforcement

b.      Prosecution and Defense

c.       Judiciary

d.      Corrections

 

Term
The titles of the courts in Ohio:
Definition

 a.       The supreme court of Ohio

 

b.      Court of appeals

 

c.       Common pleas court

 

d.      County court

 

e.      Municipal court

 

f.        Mayors court

 

g.       Court of claims

 

Term
Five matters over which the Ohio Supreme Court has original jurisdiction:
Definition

 

a.       Quo Warranto- by what authority

 

b.      Mandamus- re command

 

c.       Habeas Corpus- that you have the body

 

d.      Prohibition- prohibits outside jurisdiction

 

e.      Pecedendo

 

Term
Offenses are divided into two broad classes:
Definition

 

a.       Felony

 

b.      Misdemeanor

 

Term

Define Felony

 

Definition
A felony is an offense defined by law as a felony
Term
Misdemeanor
Definition
Misdemeanor is an offense defined by law as a misdemeanor
Term

Two purposes of felony sentencing

 

Definition

 

a.       To protect the public from future crime by the offender and others.

 

b.      To punish the offender

 

Term
Four needs a court is required to consider when imposing a felony sentence:
Definition

 

a.       The need for incapacitating the offender

 

b.      The need for deterring the offender and others from future crime.

 

c.       The need to rehabilitate the offender

 

d.      The need for making restitution to the victim of the offense, the public, or both.

 

Term

A felony sentence imposed by the court must satisfy 3 requirements:

 

Definition

 

a.       It must be reasonably calculated to achieve the considerations of the court.

 

b.      It must be commensurate with and not demeaning to the seriousness of the offender’s conduct and its impact on the victim.

 

c.       It must be consistent with sentences imposed for similar crimes committed by other offenders with similar characteristics.

 

Term
11 Steps necessary to process an adult felon through the Ohio Criminal Justice System
Definition

 

a.       Investigation

b.      Arrest

c.       Bookin

d.      Initial Appearance

e.      Preliminary Hearing

f.        Grand Jury

g.       Arraignment

h.      Pre-trial Motions and Hearings

i.        Trial

j.        Sentencing

k.       Appeal

 

Term

Seven sequential steps necessary for processing an adult misdemeanor offender through the Criminal Justice System:

 

Definition

 

a.       Investigation

b.      Arrest/Summons/Citation

c.       Initial Appearance

d.      Arraignment

e.      Trial

f.        Sentencing

g.       Appeal

 

Term
Nine stages of the Juvenile Justice process in sequence are:
Definition

 

a.       Investigation

b.      Taking into custody

c.       Intake/Detention hearing

d.      Formal complaint

e.      Pre-adjudication hearing

f.        Preliminary conferences

g.       Adjudication hearing (Trial)

h.      Disposition

i.       Appeal

Term
Ethics may be defined as:
Definition
The moral actions, conduct, motives, and character of an individual
Term

Factors which most likely contribute to unethical behavior:

 

Definition

a.       Anger

b.      Lust

c.       Greed

d.      Peer Pressure

 

Term
Nine ethical responsibilities of Peace Officer
Definition

 a.       You have an ethical responsibility to treat everyone professionally

b.      You have an ethical responsibility to yourself to maintain your self-respect

c.       You have an ethical responsibility to you own profession

d.      You have an ethical responsibility to your family

e.      You have an ethical responsibility to your community

f.        You have an ethical responsibility to citizens to NEVER allow cynicism to cloud your view of the people whom you serve.

g.       You have an ethical responsibility to NEVER use excessive physical force when controlling combative individuals.

h.      You have an ethical responsibility to NEVER accept gratuities.

You have an ethical responsibility to NEVER commit perjury.

Term
The definition of Bribery
Definition
The offering, giving, receiving or soliciting of something of value for the purpose of influencing the action of an official in the discharge of her or her public or legal duties
Term
Define Sexual Harassment
Definition

a.       Unwelcomed, sexual advance, request for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitute sexual harassment when:

                                                                                                  

      i.      Submission to such conduct is made explicitly or implicitly in term of an individual’s employment.

                                                                                                    

  ii.      Submission to a rejection of such conduct by an individual is used as the basis for employment decisions affect such individual.

                                                                                                

 iii.      Such conduct has a purpose or effect of unreasonably interfering with an individual’s work performance or creating an intimidating hostile or offensive working environment.

 

Term
The purpose of any code of ethics is to:
Definition
Identify expected behavior
Term
Community Policing may be defined as:
Definition
A practical, effective way of policing that helps law enforcement and community partner’s work together to identify crime and its related problems, and then develop ways to resolve and prevent crime and disorder from occurring in the future
Term
Ten Principles of Community Policing
Definition

Philosophy

Commitment

Personalized

Proactive

Trust

Enforcement

Special needs

Grass-roots

Change

Futuristic

Term
The three essential elements of community policing
Definition

 

·         Partnerships: Building relationships through teamwork and collaboration

 

·         Empowerment: The optimum use of internal (law enforcement agency) and external(community) relationships- appeasement vs. empowerment

 

·         Problem solving: Prevention, Enforcement, and Proactive

 

Term
The four steps of problem solving
Definition

Scanning

Analysis

Response
Assessment

Term
Community policing initiatives that involve law enforcement and the community in ways to reduce or prevent crime
Definition

Neighborhood watch

 

Citizen police academies

Term
Five uses of field notes
Definition

Preservation of knowledge in written form

Foundation of the formal report

Aids in further investigation

Evidence in court

Documentation of the officer’s efforts in the field

Term
Eight types of information to be recorded in field notes
Definition

Complete Information on victims, witnesses, and suspects involved

Date and Time of offense or incident being reported

Location of Occurrence

Type of place where offense or incident took place

Details of offense or incident being reported

Disposition of evidence, property, and subjects

Other information important

Corresponding Report Number

Term
Nine Guidelines to be followed when taking field notes
Definition
  • Head notebook page with day and time of shift
  • Write or print neatly so that you can read and understand your notes later
  • Do not place information from one incident on the same page with information from another
  • Record all information in ink
  • Let victims and witnesses talk through the event before you start recording notes
  • Ask clarifying and follow up questions
  • Be as complete as possible
  • Consider the use of electronic data device or template
  • Do not record personal information in your notebook
  • Remember officer safety when taking field notes. Pay attention to your surroundings and do not become so involved with writing notes that you place yourself in jeopardy
Term
Six essential questions answered in a report
Definition

Who

What

When

How

Where

Why

Term
Four requirements of a well written report
Definition

Complete

Concise

Clear

Correct

Term
Identify the reasons for law enforcement driver training
Definition

a.       Reduce collisions

b.      Reduce personal injury

c.       Reduce the liability against the driver, community, or agency

d.      Increase the level of attention to the driving task

e.      Increase the desire to continue to improve as a driver

f.        Create higher levels of maturity in the driver

g.       Create greater emotional control and discipline

h.      Reduce risk acceptance when there is insufficient gain

i.        Reduce stress levels on the driver

j.        Improve image as a role model and professional

k.       Increase information- processing and decision making skills necessary to avoid potential collision situations

l.        Improve skills necessary to cope with on-going driving conditions

m.    Improve vehicle control skills to cope with normal and abnormal conditions

n.     Improve skills which carry over into off-job driving responsibilities

Term
Identify elements of an acceptable law enforcement vehicle inspection.
Definition

 

a.       Mechanical conditions under the hood

 

b.      Interior conditions

 

c.       Exterior conditions

Term
Identify the importance of safety belts and other occupant protection devices
Definition

 a.       Better vehicle control

 

b.      Less chance of injury or death

 

c.       Lower medical costs if involved in a crash

 

d.      Less time lost from work or away from family

 

e.      Better role model to the community

It’s the law- the public does notice when officers are not belted

Term
Identify factors that affect handling, steering, and braking
Definition

 

a.       Centrifugal force

 

b.      Centripetal force

 

c.       Inertia

 

d.      Momentum

 

e.      Velocity

 

f.        Gravity

Friction

Term
Identify factors that influence the stopping distance of a vehicle
Definition

 

a.       Driver-Perception skills, Physical reaction capabilities, Physiological impairments, Emotional control

 

b.      Environment- road surface, road grade, road type, visibility

 

c.      Vehicle- Speed, braking system, suspension system and steering components, tires, vehicle weight and distribution of extra weight

Term
Identify driving movements that frequently contribute to law enforcement collisions
Definition

 

a.       Backing

 

b.      Parking

 

c.       Road positioning

 

d.      Turnabouts

 

e.      Lane changing

Driving too fast for conditions- Hydroplaning, at intersections, hills, curves, passing/following vehicles

Term

Identify acceptable vehicle control methods

Definition

 

a.       Acceleration/Deceleration

 

b.      Acceptable hand positioning methods and advantages

 

c.      Acceptable hand movements for steering methods

Term
Identify methods for skid avoidance
Definition

a.       Perception

 

b.      Steering

 

c.       Braking

 

d.      Speed Control

 

e.      Roadway positioning

Term
Identify factors involved in skid control
Definition
Three types of skids- Braking skids, Cornering skids, Power skids
Term
Identify acceptable methods for the use of the communications radio
Definition

a.       On straight, flat roads

b.      When stopped

c.       When the drivers view is free from obstruction

d.      During slow speed

e.      Non-intersection areas

f.        Avoid driving one-handed

g.       Secure microphone when not in use

h.      Reduce sound distraction

i.        Have a partner use the radio

j.        Know radio codes, language, street names

k.       Speak clearly and efficiently

Term
Identify the content of the Ohio Revised Code as it applies to emergency response
Definition

 

a.       Call to duty

 

b.      Inherently dangerous situation

 

c.       Demands immediate response

 

Term
Identify the types and limitations of emergency warning devices on law enforcement vehicles
Definition

a.       Headlights

 

      i.      Extremely useful especially during daylight hours

      ii.      Highbeams have tendancy to blind oncoming traffic during dark

 

b.      Lights and sirens

 

      i.      Often required by statute

      ii.      Use both on emergency response or pursuit

      iii.      They do not replace good decision making or driving skill

      iv.      Weather can impact effectiveness of both

      v.      Surroundings may effect both

     vi.      May not be as effectively interpreted by drivers or pedestrians

      vii.      Effectiveness lost as speeds increase

      viii.      Often promote an “Invincibility Syndrome”

Term
Identify Factors that contribute to the effectiveness of a police radio during  an emergency response
Definition

a.       Accurate and precise use of the radio

 

b.      Radio Transmission Accuracy

 

c.       When to use car radio

 

d.      Factors which can influence Radio use: The siren, Heavy traffic, Loud engine noise from acceleration

 

e.      Content of your radio transmission: Identify yourself, advise the situation, advise you location and direction of travel

 

Term
Identify in route selection for an emergency response
Definition

 

a.       Most directly effected by traffic density

 

b.      Avoid heavy pedestrian traffic

 

c.       Avoid slow moving traffic areas- construction, school zones

 

d.      Select roads with acceptable lines of sight

Consider time of day, weather and visibility

Term
Identify the changes in vehicle dynamics that occur during an emergency response
Definition

 

a.       Steering- countersteering, over-correct steering, steering in a skid, understeer, oversteer.

 

b.      Braking- front wheel lock up, all wheels locked, rear wheel lock up, brake fade

 

c.       Cornering- centrifugal force, centripetal force

 

Term
Identify acceptable steering methods for use during an emergency response
Definition

 

a.       Two-hand high speed steering

 

b.      Shuffle steering

 

c.       Hand over hand steering

 

Term
Identify acceptable methods of cornering during an emergency response
Definition

 a.       Search 12 seconds ahead

 

b.      Start lane position adjustments prior to reaching the corner

 

c.       Depending on the approach speed, braking may not be necessary

      i.      Accomplish necessary braking before reaching the corner/curve

 

d.      Begin steering actions while driving towards the apex of the corner

     i.      Avoid aggressive steering movements

 

e.      As the vehicle passes through the apex, steer the vehicle toward the exiting lane position

 

f.        Acceleration and steering adjustments are added at this moment

 

Term
Identify acceptable backing methods during an emergency response
Definition

 

a.       Avoid backing unless absolutely necessary

 

b.      Back in a straight line if possible

 

c.       Both mirror use and over the shoulder are acceptable

 

       i.      This depends on cricumstances

 

       ii.      Mirrors are for tight confined spaces

 

       iii.      Over the shoulder allows for wider field of vision

 

       iv.      Using both provides the driver with the best overall view

 

Term
Identify acceptable collision avoidance methods for use during an emergency response
Definition

 a.       Quick, sudden braking

 

b.      Evasive steering or sudden lane change

 

c.       Clearing intersections

 

            i.      Clear a lane at a time, left/ right and front

 

            ii.      Place chin near shoulder left to right in order to insure center vision down cross lanes

 

            iii.      Change siren pitch in advance of intersection

 

1.       Return to two hand driving near intersection and concentrate on lane clearing.

 

Term
Identify content of the Ohio Revised Code as it applies to Pursuit Driving.
Definition

 a.       ORC 2744.01-

                           i.      Call to duty

                           ii.      Inherently dangerous

                          iii.      Need of immediate response

b.      ORC 4511.03-

      i.      Allows officers to drive through red lights and stops signs, USING DUE REGARD.

c.       ORC 4511.24-

         i.      Allows officers to drive above the speed limit, while USING DUE REGARD.

d.      ORC 4511.45-

      i.      Give officers the right of way, in which vehicles must pull over to the right side of the road for the officer to pass.

e.      ORC 4513. 21-

    i.      Allows officers to have emergency sound signals(horns, sirens, and warning devices) that may be heard from 500 feet, as opposed to the civilian standard of 200 feet.

f.        ORC 4511.041-

     i.      Officers are not exempt from passing school buses.

g.       ORC 2744. 02-

      i.      Liability and Defenses

Term
Identify factors that impact on initiating a vehicle pursuit
Definition

 a.       Legal Authority and Agency Policy

 

b.      Environmental Factors

 

c.       Vehicular Factors

 

d.      Human Factors

 

e.      Ethical Considerations

 

f.        Supervision Considerations

 

g.       Seriousness of the offense or suspicion

 

Term
Identify factors involved when conducting a vehicle pursuit
Definition

a.       Generally, no more than two law enforcement vehicles involved in direct pursuit.

b.      The pursuit should be conducted by officers who are not emotionally involved.

c.       Unmarked vehicles, covert surveillance vehicles, vans, motorcycles and law enforcement vehicles with civilian passengers or those that are not designed for pursuit oriented dynamics should not be involved in the pursuit.

d.      Inability to see approaching/cross traffic at an intersection requires a full stop prior to proceeding

e.      No intentional contact with the violator vehicle; i.e., P.I.T. maneuvers, ramming, blocking, fixed or moving roadblocks should be initiated, unless such force is authorized or required, and the officer is trained in the technique.

f.        No shooting at, or from moving vehicles unless agency policy authorizes and deadly force is warranted.

g.       Lights and siren devices should be in operation at all times.

h.      Use good driving techniques.

i.        The interior of your vehicle must retain free of loose objects.

j.        Communicate with the public using the patrol’s vehicle emergency warning devices.

k.       Keep Ohio Revised Code and agency policy in mind when operating emergency equipment.

l.        Officers should avoid approaching and passing another vehicle on the right when emergency warning devices on the law enforcement vehicle are in operation.

m.    Even during daylight, headlights should be used in conjunction with emergency lights.

n.      During darkness, high beams may obliterate emergency lights and blind oncoming drivers.

o.      Emergency warning devices are not substitutes for caution and professional driving skills. They do not relieve the officer from the duty or exercising due care/regard for the safety of others.

Term
Identify factors that would warrant the pursuing officer, or a supervisor, making the decision to Terminate/ discontinue a vehicular pursuit
Definition

 

a.       Do the hazards of continuing the pursuit outweigh the hazards of the violation?

 

b.      Can an arrest be made at a later time because the operator of the fleeing vehicle has been identified?

 

c.       Has the pursuing officer lost sight of the fleeing vehicle for an appreciable length of time causing the pursuing officer to question the location of the vehicle.

 

d.      Have conditions changed appreciably since the pursuit began?

 

        i.      To the violator’s vehicle

 

        ii.      To the patrol vehicle

 

        iii.      To the environment

 

        iv.      To the officer

 

Term
Identify factors that impact on the termination of a pursuit: suspect voluntary or involuntary stopping
Definition

 a.       The following areas should be considered when officers formulate split second plans for actions associated with pursuit terminations:

                   i.      Safety of public, suspects, and officer

                   ii.      Termination without apprehension(Review)

1.       Consider Violator vehicle type and passengers

                   iii.      Contact with telecommunications

                   iv.      Acknowledgement of psychological and physiological state of both officer(s) and suspect.

               v.      Pursuit termination- high-risk felony stop situations

                   vi.      Documentation needed(Reports)

Term
Identify factors to be considered when a law enforcement vehicle is involved in the termination of a vehicular pursuit using various physical intervention techniques. (Road blocks)
Definition
Deliberate obstruction utilized by law enforcement officers for the specific purpose of controlling or terminating a targeted vehicle’s movement on a selected roadway
Term
Two methods by which an officer may be injured or killed during a vehicle stop
Definition

 

a.       Felonious Assault

 

b.      Crash

 

c.       All tactics used by officers when making a traffic stop must account for these two possibilities in order to protect  against injury, death, or both.

 

Term
Define the term vehicle stop
Definition
Any situation in which the officer deploys directly from a cruiser
Term
Two legal foundations for making a vehicle search
Definition

 

a.       Probable cause

 

b.      Reasonable suspicion

 

Term
The primary goal of a patrol officer during their tour of duty is
Definition

 

a.       To maintain control of situations concerning:

 

                                                                                                  i.      Traffic

 

                                                                                                ii.      People

 

Term
The most crucial component of the vehicle stop
Definition
The assessment
Term
Three categories of a vehicle stop
Definition

 

a.       Unknown Risk

 

b.      Elevated Risk

 

c.       High Risk

 

Term
Define unknown risk
Definition
A vehicle stop which has an unknown potential for felonious assault or vehicle crash
Term
Define Elevated risk stop
Definition
A vehicle stop in which the potential for felonious assault or vehicle crash is elevated
Term
Define High risk stop
Definition
A vehicle stop where there is a likely potential for felonious assault
Term
Sequential order of the eight verbal tactics an officer should use when making a vehicle stop:
Definition

 a.       Greet

 b.      Give them your I.D.

 c.       Reason- Don’t ask, Tell

 d.      Justification- Ask why

 e.      Request the suspect’s license, CCW license, if necessary

 f.        Request the suspect’s registration and insurance papers

 g.       Decision- ticket, warning, OVI.

 h.      Close-not “Have a nice day”

 

Term
Four unknown risk approach patterns
Definition

 

a.       Standard left-side walk up

 

b.      Standard right-side walk up

 

c.       Tactical left-side walk up

 

d.      Tactical right-side walk up

 

Term
Action zones through which an officer moves during a walk up approach to a suspect’s vehicle
Definition

 a.       The officer is still inside the cruiser with the cruiser moving or parked.

 b.      The officer has exited the cruiser with the cruiser door opened or closed.

 c.       The officer is beside the cruiser hood.

 d.      The officer is in the open space between the bumpers of the suspect’s car and the cruiser’s.

 e.      The officer is beside the trunk area of the suspect’s vehicle.

 f.        The officer is at the “suspect contact position” directly behind the trailing edge of the driver’s side door.

 g.       The officer is ahead of the driver’s side door. (Post ahead position)

 h.      The officer is approaching from the right side.

Term
Actions to be taken when under fire from suspect in each of the above action zones
Definition

a.       Fire through windshield, retreat with cruiser.

b.      Get in low position, Draw, Fire if necessary from A-pillar

c.       Retreat or forward toward passenger side.

d.      Move to low cover/concealment between vehicles, Draw, Fire if necessary

e.      Move to low cover/concealment between vehicles, Draw, Fire if necessary

f.        Attack suspects weapon and control muzzle, Draw, Fire if necessary

g.       If possible, move onto hood area, Draw, Fire if necessary

h.      Move to low cover, concealment, draw, fire if necessary

Term
Four steps to consider in order to react to the suspect’s actions
Definition

 

a.       Perceive the threat

 

b.      Evaluate intention and available delivery system

 

c.       Decide on an appropriate tactical response

 

d.      Act or respond to the threat

 

Term
Three initial things to control in the High Risk Vehicle Stops
Definition

 

a.       Keys

 

b.      Hands

 

c.       Eyes-face them away from officer

 

Term
Most important rule for high risk vehicle stops
Definition
Maintain cover and concealment
Term
Procedures for High Risk Vehicle Stops
Definition

a.       Initiate high risk vehicle stop

b.      Position cruisers for high risk vehicle stop

c.       Fulfill assigned area of responsibility

d.      Maintain control of all occupants

e.      Control exit of Suspect#1

f.        Handcuff, search and secure Suspect #1 for transport

g.       Control exit of Suspect#2

h.      Handcuff, search and secure Suspect#2 for transport

i.         Clearing the suspect vehicle

 

Term
Firearms Safety SPOs
Definition

1)      SPO#1-         Treat all firearms as if they were already loaded.

2)      SPO#2-         Never point a gun at anything you do not want to shoot.

3)      SPO#3-         Keep your finger off the trigger until you are on target (and made the decision to fire).

4)      SPO#4-         Be sure of your backstop(target) and what is beyond. (Properly identify, and justify shooting)

 

Term
Define Crime
Definition
Any act of omission done in violation of the law
Term
Five elements of a crime
Definition

 i)        Actus Reus-conduct, a willed unlawful act

 

ii)      Harm

 

 iii)    Causation

 

 iv)    Mens Rea- mental state ( the guilty mind) doesn’t require intent

 

 v)      Concurrence

 

Term
Culpable mental states
Definition

 i)        Purposely

 

ii)      Knowingly- aware that conduct will probably cause a certain result. (Felonious assault, theft, criminal damaging)

 

 iii)    Recklessly- with heedless indifference to the consequence. ( Pubic indecency, criminal damaging, criminal trespassing)

 

 iv)    Negligently- Beacause of substantial laps from due care, fails to perceive of avoid a risk that may conduct may cause a certain result, (Criminal trespassing, negligent homicide)

 

Term
Define Jurisdiction
Definition
A government’s general power to exercise authority over all persons and things within it’s territory.
Term
Define Venue
Definition
The particular county or geographical area in which a court with jurisdiction may hear and determine a case, and in the territory of which the offense or any element of the offense was committed.
Term
Define Burden of Proof
Definition
The duty of proving facts disputed during trial
Term
Define Statutory Law
Definition
The body of law derived from statutes rather than from constitutions or judicial decisions
Term
Define Case Law
Definition
The law found in the collection of reported cases that form all or part of the body of law within a given jurisdiction.
Term
Define Force
Definition
Any violence, compulsion, or constraint physically exerted by any means on or against a person or thing
Term
Define Deadly Force
Definition
Any force which carries a substantial risk that it will proximately result in the death of any person
Term
Define Physical Harm to Persons
Definition
Any injury, illness, or other physiological impairment, regardless of its gravity on duration.
Term
Define Physical Harm to Property
Definition
Any tangible or intangible damage to property that, in any degree, results in loss to its value or interferes with its use or enjoyment
Term
Define Serious Physical Harm to persons means any of the following:
Definition

 ·         Any mental illness or condition of such gravity as would normally require hospitalization or prolonged psychiatric treatment.

 ·         Any physical harm that carries a substantial risk of death.

 ·         Any physical harm that involves some permanent incapacity, whether partial or total or that involves some temporary, substantial incapacity.

 ·         Any physical harm that involves some permanent disfigurement or that involves some temporary, serious disfigurement.

 ·         Any physical harm that involves acute (severe) pain of such duration as to result in substantial suffering or that involves any degree of prolonged or intractable pain.

Term
Define Serious physical harm to property
Definition

Any physical harm to property that does either of the following:

 

·         Results in substantial loss to the value of the property or requires a substantial amount of time, effort, or money to repair or replace.

 

·         Temporarily prevents the use or enjoyment of the property or substantially interferes with its use or enjoyment for an extended period of time.

 

Term
Peace Officers priorities in Protecting the Scene of a Collision
Definition

1)      The first priority is to protect the crash victims and the first responders.

 

2)      Check for injuries

        a)      Even if you were dispatched to a non-injury crash, check for injuries 

        b)      EMS should always be requested to respond to the scene, if an injury is reported or suspected.

        c)       If responding to a fatality, always protect and cover up the victims.

        d)      Any injured or deceased victims should be treated the same as you would treat your own family members.

3)      Protect the involved vehicles and other evidence at the collision scene.

Term
How to Recognize When a situation is classified as a Motor Vehicle Traffic Accident
Definition

 1)      The incident includes one or more occurrences of injury or damage.

 2)      At least one occurrence of injury or damage that was not the direct result of a cataclysm.

 3)      The incident involved one or more motor vehicles.

 4)      At least one motor vehicle was in transport.

 5)      The incident was an unstabilized situation.

 6)      The unstabilized situation originated on a traffic way or the injury or the damage occurred on a traffic way.

 7)      If the incident involved a railway train in transport, a motor vehicle was involved prior to any injury or damage involving the train.

 8)      Neither an aircraft in-transport nor a watercraft in-transport was involved in the incident.

 9)      If all of these conditions are met, and the property damage is over 1,000$, the officer will need to complete an OH-1.

Term

 

Sequence of Events in a traffic collision- to describe the sequence of event at the scene of the collision, an officer must work backwards, starting with the final rest location and the back to the encroachment of the involved traffic units.

 

Definition

1)      Encroachment- entering or intruding into the rightful path or area of another traffic unit.

2)      Point of possible perception- place and time at which the hazard could have been perceived by a normal person; precedes actual perception and is the beginning of perception delay.

3)      Point of perception- location and time where and when the person recognized the hazard.

4)      Evasive action- action or combination of actions taken, such as steering or braking, to avoid a collision or other hazardous situation; includes the results of an initial evasive action such as braking and skidding or slowing.

5)      Point of no escape- the place and time after or beyond which the crash cannot be prevented by a particular traffic unit.

6)      First harmful event- the first occurrence of injury or damage in the collision.

7)      Maximum engagement- the greatest penetration of one body, such as a vehicle, by another during collision; instant of greatest force between objects in collision; the time and place of this occurrence and the position of the bodies with respect to each other at this instant.

8)      Disengagement- separation of traffic units or disengagement of a traffic unit and another object after maximum engagement.

9)      Final rest- location where traffic unit came to a rest after a collision; in determining final rest, investigators should find out whether the vehicle stopped at the position at which it was found, or if it was driven/moved to that position after the collision. 

Term
Difference between Contact Damage and Induced Damage
Definition

 

Contact Damage- Caused by direct contact with some object which is not a part of the vehicle.

Induced Damage- is when part of the vehicle is displaced 

Term
Evidence that should be documented with Photographs at a traffic collision
Definition

1.       The officers should photograph everything that was damaged and all physical evidence.

2.       The entire sequence of events:

     a.       Photograph the view from the driver’s perception point.

     b.      View from the driver’s reaction point

     c.       View from the driver’s point of no escape

3.       The approach to the collision scene

4.       Surface marks on the roadway

5.       The area of impact

6.       Final Rest

7.       Evidence from the scene 

Term
ORC 2903.01
Definition
Aggravated Murder
Term
ORC 2903.02
Definition
Murder
Term
ORC 2903.03
Definition
Voluntary Manslaughter
Term
ORC 2903.04
Definition
Involuntary Manslaughter
Term
ORC 2903.041
Definition
Reckless Homicide
Term
ORC 2903.05
Definition
Negligent Homicide
Term
ORC 2903.06
Definition
Aggravated vehicular homicide - vehicular homicide - vehicular manslaughter
Term
ORC 2903.08
Definition
Aggravated vehicular assault, vehicular assault
Term

ORC 2903.09

 

Definition
Aggravated vehicular assault, vehicular assault (unborn child, newborn child)
Term
ORC 2903.11
Definition
Felonious Assault
Term
ORC 2903.12
Definition
Aggravated Assault
Term
ORC 2903.13
Definition
Assault
Term
ORC 2903.14
Definition
Negligent Assault
Term
ORC 2903.21
Definition
Aggravated Menacing
Term
ORC 2903.211
Definition
Menacing by Stalking
Term
ORC 2903.22
Definition
Menacing
Term
ORC 2905.01
Definition
Kidnapping
Term
ORC 2905.02
Definition
Abduction
Term
ORC 2905.03
Definition
Unlawful restraint
Term
ORC 2905.05
Definition
Criminal child enticement
Term
ORC 2905.11
Definition
Extortion
Term

ORC 2905.12

 

Definition
Coercion
Term
ORC 2905.32
Definition
Trafficking in persons
Term
ORC 2905.33
Definition
Unlawful conduct with respect to documents
Term
Elements of the Crime
Definition

 1. Actus Reus → guilty act
 

2. Mens Rea → guilty mind
 

3. Causation → connection between ∆'s voluntary act and resulting harm
 

4. Concurrence → simultaneous connection between actus reus and mens rea

 

Term
Sexual Conduct is defined as
Definition
Vaginal intercourse between a male and female; anal intercourse, fellatio and cunnilungus between persons regardless of sex and the insertion, however slight, of any part of the body or instrument, apparatus or other object into the vaginal or anal cavity of another.
Term
Define Sexual Contact
Definition

 

Any touching of an erogenous zone of another, including without limitation the:

 

·         Thigh

 

·         Genitals

 

·         Buttock

 

·         Pubic Region, or

If the person is female, a breast

Term
Sexual Activity is define as
Definition
Sexual conduct, sexual contact, or both.
Term
Define Spouse
Definition

 A person married to an offender at the time of the alleged offense, except that such person shall not be considered a spouse when any of the following apply:

 

·         When the parties have entered into a written separation agreement authorized by section 3103.06 of the ORC.

 

 ·         During the pendency of an action between the parties for annulment, divorce, dissolution or marriage or legal separation.

In the case of an action for legal separation, after the effective date of the judgment for legal separation.

Term
ORC 2907.02
Definition
Rape
Term
ORC 2907.03
Definition
Sexual Battery
Term
ORC 2907.04
Definition
Unlawful Sexual Conduct with a minor
Term
ORC 2907.05
Definition
Gross Sexual Imposition
Term
ORC 2907.06
Definition
Sexual Imposition
Term
ORC 2907.07
Definition
Importuning
Term
ORC 2907.08
Definition
Voyeurism
Term
ORC 2907.09
Definition
Public Indecency
Term
ORC 2907.21
Definition
Compelling Prostitution
Term
ORC 2907.22
Definition
Promoting Prostitution
Term
ORC 2907.23
Definition
Enticement or solicitation to patronize a prostitute; procurement of a prostitute for another
Term
ORC 2907.24
Definition
Soliciting- after positive HIV test- driver's license suspension
Term
ORC 2907.241
Definition
Loitering to engage in solicitation; solicitation after positive HIV test
Term
ORC 2907.25
Definition
Prostitution- after positive HIV test
Term
ORC 2907.31
Definition
Disseminating matter harmful to juveniles
Term
ORC 2907.311
Definition
Displaying matter harmful to juveniles
Term
ORC 2907.32
Definition
Pandering obscenity
Term
ORC 2907.321
Definition
Pandering obscenity involving a minor
Term
ORC 2907.322
Definition
Pandering sexual oriented matter involving a minor
Term
ORC 2907.323
Definition
Illegal use of minor in nudity-oriented material or performance
Term
ORC 2907.33
Definition
Deception to obtain matter harmful to juveniles
Term
ORC 2907.34
Definition
Compelling acceptance of objectionable materials
Term
ORC 2907.38
Definition
Permitting unlawful operation of viewing booths depicting sexual conduct.
Term
ORC 2907.39
Definition
Permitting juvenile on premises of adult entertainment establishment - use of false information to gain entry
Term
ORC 2907.40
Definition
Illegally operating sexually oriented business
Term
Three factors necessary for the commission of a crime
Definition

 

·         Desire (power, revenge, narcotics usage)

 

·         Victim (easy target)

 

·         Opportunity (in plain view in car, open garage)

 

Term
Define Crime Prevention
Definition

 A pattern of attitudes and behaviors directed both at reducing the threat of crime and enhancing the sense of safety and security:

 

·         To positively influence the quality of life in our society

 

 ·         To help develop environments where crime cannot flourish.

 

Term
State the 10 guidelines to enhance personal safety:
Definition

1.       Know your surroundings- 360⁰

2.       Lock your doors and windows

3.       Don’t leave valuables in the vehicle (if you must, use the trunk)

4.       Know your neighbors and be sure they know you.

5.       Don’t talk to strangers

6.       Walk with confidence

7.       Don’t flash cash

8.       Take a friend

9.       Walk in well-lit areas

10.   Practice random irregularity

 

Term
State the 4 D’s of Crime Prevention
Definition

                 Deny (opportunity for crime to occur)

 

                Delay (locks, alarms)          

                 Detect ( security alarms)

 

                Deter (warning dog sign, protected by Glock sign)

Term
List the three goals of a security survey
Definition

 ·         Identify security risks

 

·         Define the precautionary measures and protection needed

 

 ·         Make recommendations to help minimize criminal opportunity

 

Term
Define Tort
Definition
A civil wrong other than breach of contract, for which a remedy may be obtained in the form of damages.
Term
Police related lawsuits fall into four major categories
Definition

 

1.       Unlawful search and seizure

 

2.       False arrest

 

3.       Traffic accidents

 

4.       Excessive force claims

 

Term
Define Emergency Call
Definition
A call to duty, including, but not limited to, communications from citizens, police dispatchers, and personal observations by peace officers of inherently dangerous situations that demand an immediate response of the part of a peace officer.
Term
Define Sovereign Immunity
Definition
The standard under which an officer who is responding to an emergency call is governed
Term
Three requirements in which a failure to train case may be the basis for liability:
Definition

 1.       The training is inadequate

 

2.       The city is deliberately indifferent to the rights of the person with whom the officers have contact.

 

 3.       The lack of training was the proximate cause of the plaintiff’s injuries.

 

Term
The principle by which a use of force case will be judged-
Definition
The reasonableness requirement of the Fourth Amendment
Term
Factors considered when determining what level of force is reasonably justified-
Definition

·         Severity of the crime

 

·         Immediate threats to officer(s) or other

 

·         Whether suspect is actively resisting

  • Whether suspect was evading arrest by flight.
Term
Plakas v. Drinski (1994)
Definition
Ruled that there is no requirement for officers to use all feasible alternatives to avoid a situation where deadly force can justifiably be used.
Term
ORC 2915.02
Definition
Gambling
Term
ORC 2915.04
Definition
Public Gaming
Term
ORC 2915.05
Definition
Cheating- corrupting sports
Term
ORC 2915.06
Definition
Skill based amusement machine prohibited conduct
Term
ORC 2915.07
Definition
Conducting illegal bingo
Term
ORC 2925.02
Definition
Corrupting another with drugs
Term
ORC 2925.03
Definition
Trafficking, aggravated trafficking in drugs
Term
ORC 2925.04
Definition
Illegal manufactre of drugs- illegal cultivation of marijuana- methamphetamines offenses
Term
ORC 2925.041
Definition
Illegal assembly or possession of chemicals for the manufacture of drugs
Term
ORC 2925.05
Definition
Funding, Aggravated funding of drug or marijuana trafficking
Term
ORC 2925.06
Definition
Illegal administration or distribution of anabolic steroids
Term
ORC 2925.11
Definition
Possession of a controlled substance
Term

ORC 2925.12

 

Definition
Possessing drug abuse instruments
Term
ORC 2925.13
Definition
Permitting drug abuse
Term
ORC 2925.14
Definition
Illegal use or possession of drug paraphernalia
Term
ORC 2925.141
Definition
Illegal use or possession of marijuana drug paraphernalia
Term
ORC 2925.22
Definition
Deception to obtain a dangerous drug
Term
ORC 2925.23
Definition
Illegal processing of drug documents
Term
ORC 2925.31
Definition
Abusing harmful intoxicants
Term
ORC 2925.32
Definition
Trafficking in harmful intoxicants- improperly dispensing or ditributing nitrous oxide
Term
ORC 2925.37
Definition
Counterfeit controlled substance offenses
Term
ORC 2921.02
Definition
Bribery
Term
ORC 2921.03
Definition
Intimidation
Term
ORC 2921.04
Definition
Intimidation of attorney, victim, or witness in criminal case or delinquent child action proceeding
Term
ORC 2921.11
Definition
Perjury
Term
ORC 2921.12
Definition
Tampering with evidence
Term
ORC 2921.13
Definition
Falsification-in theft offense- to purchase firearm
Term
ORC 2921.23
Definition
Failure to aid a law enforcement officer
Term
ORC 2921.29
Definition
Failure to disclose personal information
Term
ORC 2921.31
Definition
Obstructing official business
Term
ORC 2921.32
Definition
Obstructing justice
Term
ORC 2921.331
Definition
Failure to comply with an order or signal of police officer
Term
ORC 2921.34
Definition
Escape
Term
ORC 2921.41
Definition
Theft in office
Term
ORC 2921.43
Definition
Soliciting or accepting improper compensation
Term
ORC 2921.44
Definition
Dereliction of duty
Term
ORC 2921.51
Definition
Impersonation of a peace officer or private police officer
Term
ORC 2923.01
Definition
Conspiracy
Term
ORC 2923.02
Definition
Attempt to commit an offense
Term
ORC 2923.03
Definition
Complicity
Term
ORC 2917.01
Definition
Inciting to violence
Term
ORC 2917.02
Definition
Aggravated Riot
Term
ORC 2917.03
Definition
Riot
Term
ORC 2917.04
Definition
Failure to disperse
Term
ORC 2917.11
Definition
Disorderly conduct
Term
ORC 2917.12
Definition
Disturbing a lawful meeting
Term
ORC 2917.13
Definition
Misconduct at emergency
Term
ORC 2917.21
Definition
Telecommunications harassment
Term
ORC 2917.31
Definition
Inducing panic
Term
ORC 2917.32
Definition
Making false alarms
Term
ORC 2917.33
Definition
Unlawful possession or use of a hoax weapon of mass destruction
Term
ORC 2919.22
Definition
Endangering children
Term
ORC 2919.23
Definition
Interference with custody
Term
ORC 2919.24
Definition
Contributing to the unruliness or delinquency of a child
Term
ORC 2919.25
Definition
Domestic violence
Term
ORC 2919.27
Definition
Violating protection order
Term
Define Deadly Weapon
Definition
Any instrument device or thing capable of inflicting death AND designed or specifically used as a weapon
Term
Define Firearm
Definition
A deadly weapon capable of expellingor propelling one or more projectiles by the action of an explosive or combustible propellant. "Firearm" includes an unloaded firearm, and any firearm that is inoperable but that can readily be rendered operable
Term
Define Handgun
Definition

 

"Handgun" means any of the following:

(1) Any firearm that has a short stock and is designed to be held and fired by the use of a single hand; (2) Any combination of parts from which a firearm of a type described in division (C)(1) of this section can be assembled

Term
Define Semi-automatic Firearm
Definition
any firearm designed or specially adapted to fire a single cartridge and automatically chamber a succeeding cartridge ready to fire, with a single function of the trigger
Term
Define Sawed-Off Firearm
Definition
a shotgun with a barrel less than eighteen inches long, or a rifle with a barrel less than sixteen inches long, or a shotgun or rifle less than twenty-six inches long overall
Term
Define Dangerous Ordnance
Definition

 "Dangerous ordnance" means any of the following, except as provided in division (L) of this section:

 

(1) Any automatic or sawed-off firearm, zip-gun, or ballistic knife;

(2) Any explosive device or incendiary device;

(3) Nitroglycerin, nitrocellulose, nitrostarch, PETN, cyclonite, TNT, picric acid, and other high explosives; amatol, tritonal, tetrytol, pentolite, pecretol, cyclotol, and other high explosive compositions; plastic explosives; dynamite, blasting gelatin, gelatin dynamite, sensitized ammonium nitrate, liquid-oxygen blasting explosives, blasting powder, and other blasting agents; and any other explosive substance having sufficient brisance or power to be particularly suitable for use as a military explosive, or for use in mining, quarrying, excavating, or demolitions;

(4) Any firearm, rocket launcher, mortar, artillery piece, grenade, mine, bomb, torpedo, or similar weapon, designed and manufactured for military purposes, and the ammunition for that weapon;

(5) Any firearm muffler or silencer;

(6) Any combination of parts that is intended by the owner for use in converting any firearm or other device into a dangerous ordnance.

Term
ORC 2923.12
Definition
Carry concealed weapon
Term
ORC 2923.121
Definition
Possession of firearm in beer liquor permit premises - prohibition, exceptions
Term
ORC 2923.122
Definition
 Illegal conveyance or possession of deadly weapon or dangerous ordnance or of object indistinguishable from firearm in school safety zone
Term
ORC 2923.13
Definition
Having weapons while under disability
Term
ORC 2923.15
Definition
Using weapons while intoxicated
Term
ORC 2923.16
Definition
Improper handling firearms in a motor vehicle
Term
ORC 2923.161
Definition
Improperly discharging firearm at or into a habitation, in a school safety zone or with intent to cause harm or panic to persons in a school building or at a school function
Term
ORC 2923.24
Definition
Possessing criminal tools
Term
ORC 2923.241
Definition
Hidden compartments in vehicles
Term
Identify the Amendment to the United States Constitution which is the originating source for all laws pertaining to search and seizures or persons
Definition
The 4th Amendment to the United States Constitution is the originating source for all laws relating to search and seizures or persons
Term
Requirements an officer must show to establish Probable Cause:
Definition

·         The item(s) involved are associated with criminal activity as either evidence of criminal activity or contraband; and

 

·         It is more likely than not the item(s) will be found in the place the officer wishes to search

 

Term
Factors which an officer could consider in establishing Probable Cause:
Definition

 

·         Totality of the circumstances

 

·         Defendant’s conduct

 

Term
Exclusionary Rule- (Fruits of the poisonous tree doctrine)
Definition
States that evidence improperly obtained by the police will be excluded from the criminal trial. The Supreme Court determined there must be consequences for improper police conduct
Term
State when an officer may briefly detain a person to determine if the person was involved in criminal activity
Definition
Officers can briefly detain a person to determine if that person was involved in criminal activity when the officers have established reasonable suspicion to believe that criminal activity was afoot
Term
State when a person is considered to be “seized”.
Definition
A person is seized only when, in view of all of the circumstances surrounding the incident, a reasonable person would believe that he was not free to leave
Term
State the two requirements, which must be established, before a Terry pat down or frisk is permitted
Definition

 

·         Officers are required to articulate a reasonable belief that the suspect is armed AND

 

·         The suspect poses a threat to them

 

Term
Identify the area within which an officer may search incident to a lawful arrest of the person
Definition
The area within the person’s immediate control at the arrest location
Term
Criteria to Establish the Plain View Exception to the search warrant requirement:
Definition

 ·         The officers must be legally on the premises from where the observation is made.

 

·         The officers must not violate the 4th amendment to make the observation.

 

 ·         The incriminating nature of the item must be immediately apparent.

 

Term
Identify the key in determining whether a consent to search is in violation of the 4th Amendment
Definition
The key to determining whether a consent to search is in violation of the 4th Amendment is whether or not the consent was given voluntarily.
Term
State when a third party’s consent to search would be binding on the property owner:
Definition
A third party’s consent to search will be binding on the owner so long as the third party has joint authority and control over the area the officer wishes to search
Term
State the rationale for the motor vehicle exception to the search warrant requirements
Definition
is based on the fact that a vehicle could easily be moved from the jurisdiction in which the warrant was to be obtained
Term
Criteria needed in order for an officer to conduct a Protected Sweep of a motor vehicle
Definition
the officer must articulate and reasonable suspicion that the vehicle contains some type of weapon and the suspect or some other person reasonably has access to that weapon
Term
Police may search an automobile and the containers within it when
Definition
probable cause exits to believe contraband or evidence is contained in the motor vehicle or it(s) container(s).
Term
Factors used in determining if the inventory search of a motor vehicle is reasonable:
Definition

 ·         The car was lawfully impounded

 

·         The inventory was conducted after the impoundment

 

 ·         The owner was not present to make other arrangements for the safekeeping of the vehicle

 

 ·         The inventory was prompted by valuables in plain view and was pursuant to standard police procedure

 

 ·         The inventory search was not a pretext to conceal an investigatory search

 

Term
What is needed  for the arrest of any person?
Definition
4th Amendment of the United States Constitution requires the presence of Probable Cause for the arrest of any person.
Term
Four elements necessary to constitute an arrest:
Definition

 ·         An intent to arrest

 

·         Under real or assumed authority

 

 ·         Accompanied by an actual or constructive seizure or detention of the person

 

 ·         Which is understood by the person arrested

 

Term
Seven Requirements for a valid arrest warrant:
Definition

 ·         A warrant must be supported by probable cause

 

·         Affidavit must be supported by oath or affirmation

 

 ·         Person seized must be particularly described

 

 ·         Warrant must state the nature of the offense

 

 ·         Warrant must designate the officer or class of officers who are directed to comply with the order of the court

 

 ·         Warrant must be issued in the name of the State or United States

 

 ·         Warrant must be issued and signed by a neutral detached judicial officer.

Term
Probable Cause exists when:
Definition
The facts and circumstances within the officer’s knowledge and of which he/she has reasonable trustworthy information sufficient to warrant a person to believe that an offense has been, or is being, committed by the person to be arrested
Term
In determining if probable cause exists to issue the arrest warrant:
Definition
The issuing authority must look at the “Totality of the Circumstances”.
Term
When probable cause becomes “stale”:
Definition
Information that gave rise to probable cause may become “stale” when, after a warrant us issued but before it is executed, officers obtain information which contradicts the earlier information that gave rise to the probable cause.
Term
Person seized must be particularly described:
Definition

 ·         The usual method of identifying the person to be arrested is to insert his/her name in the warrant.

 

·         A warrant that leaves a blank for the arresting officer to fill in the name at a later time violates the 4th amendment standards for particularity.

 

Term
Four requirements for the execution of a valid arrest warrant include:
Definition

 ·         The executing officer must be specifically names or fall within the class designated on the warrant.

 

·         Warrant must be executed within the jurisdictional limits.’

 

 ·         Arresting officer should make known his/her purpose.

 

 ·         Officer usually must show the arrest warrant or advise the arrestee that a warrant has been issued.

 

Term
The arrest warrant may be executed in the home of a third party, provided:
Definition

 ·         There is also a warrant to search the premises for the person to be arrested, or

 

·         The officer has consent to enter, or

 

 ·         There are exigent circumstances.

 

Term
Seven sources of information of which an officer may rely in establishing probable cause to make a warrantless arrest:
Definition

1.       Personal Observations

2.       Informant’s tips

3.       Reports from other officers or law enforcement agencies

4.       Leads furnished by the victim or witness to the crime

5.       Physical evidence found at the scene

6.       Past criminal records of the suspect

7.       Non-custodial statements made by a suspect

 

Term
What must exist before an officer would be justified in conducting a warrantless, non-cosensual entry into a private dwelling in order to arrest the resident?
Definition
The court determined that exigent circumstances must exist which demand an immediate response before an officer would be justified in conducting a warrantless, non-cosensual entry into a private dwelling in order to arrest the resident
Term
The standard which governs whether a summons may be issued in lieu of an arrest is:
Definition
Whether a summons is reasonably likely to ensure the accused’s presence at trial.
Term
Hot/Fresh Pursuit can be defines as:
Definition
Pursuit of a person who is endeavoring to avoid arrest without unreasonable interruption
Term
ORC 2935.03 provides that a peace officer (as defined in ORC 2935.01) may pursue, arrest, and detain outside the officer’s jurisdiction if:
Definition

 ·         The pursuit takes place without unreasonable delay after the offense is committed, and…

 

·         The pursuit is initiated within the jurisdiction where the officer is appointed, employed, or elected, and…

 

 ·         The offense is a felony, a misdemeanor of the first or second degree or substantially equivalent municipal ordinance, or an offense for which points may be assessed.

 

Term
When Using a Terry Rationale:
Definition
an officer may detain an individual based upon the officer’s reasonable, articulable suspicion that  criminal activity was being planned, or was in the process of being executed.
Term
Steps necessary to prepare for testifying in court:
Definition

 ·         Ensure all evidence required for the case is accounted for and safely secured

 

·         Whenever possible, call or meet with the prosecutor to determine if he/she requires any assistance, additional information, etc.

 

 ·         As far as possible, maintain contact with the victim and/or witnesses to the case

 

 ·         Unless ordered by the court or requested by the prosecutor, there is no requirement that an officer speak with defense counsel.

 

 ·         Review notes and/or reports pertinent to the case

Term
Six General Rules for effective courtroom testimony
Definition

 ·         Present a professional appearance

·         Wear appropriate clothing

 ·         Present positive, professional attitude

 ·         Be aware of any special concerns relating to testimony

 ·         Speak loudly, clearly, and with confidence

 ·         Give concise, clear, and complete statements

 

Term
State the nine defense attorney tactics for questioning the officer and appropriate counter tactic for each: 5/9
Definition

 ·         Rapid fire questioning to confuse the officer and force inconsistent answers: Ask to have the question repeated if unsure how or what to answer. Remain calm

·         Repeated questioning to obtain conflicting responses: Know the facts of the case and the material upon which you will be testifying. Tell the truth. The answers will always be the same. If you don’t understand the question, ask for clarification. If you don’t know the answer, don’t guess. Remember,  sometimes “I don’t know” is the best answer.

·         Verbal badgering and staring to anger the officer so the officer loses composure: If it is pronounced, it may lead to an objection by the prosecutor. Ignore the  stare, look at the person who is asking the question, then answer the question to the jury. Remain calm, every eye in the courtroom is either on the person asking the question or the person answering it. Any physical reaction could be misunderstood by the jury

·         Suggestive questions to confuse the officer: Think about each question and each answer before responding. Do no allow the attorney to get information before the jury which is incorrect based on assumptions.

·         Demanding a “yes” or “no” answer to a question which requires an explanation: There is no direct defense for a demand that the officer answer the question asked with a “yes” or “no”. An officer may be required by the court to simply answer with one of two words.

Term
State when a lay witness may be given an opinion:
Definition

 ·         The witness is not testifying as an expert, that witness may testify as to his/her opinion provided that opinion or inferences drawn are:

 

o   Rationally based on the witness’ perceptions AND

 

 o   Helpful for a clear understanding of the witness’ testimony or the determination of a fact in issue

Term
Define the term “Heresay”:
Definition
A statement, other than one made by the declarant while testifying at the trial or hearing, offered in evidence to prove the truth of the matter asserted.
Term
Define Mob
Definition
A collection of people assembled for an unlawful purpose and intending to do damage or injury to anyone, or pretending to exercise correctional power over other persons by violence and without authority of law.
Term
Basic Concepts of Perimeter Crowd Control:
Definition

 ·         Linear strategy- deploys police forces as a blocking force along a roadway or geographical barrier perpendicular to access routes into the impacted area.

 

·         Cordoning- Surrounding a particular problem area by using linear strategy to seal off access from all sides.

 

 ·         Sectoring- Dividing the cordoned area into smaller sized units in which control can be re-established individually once sufficient police resources are assembled to regain control.

 

Term
State the common uses for a mobile field force:
Definition

 ·         Control of unruly crowds either hostile or passive

 

·         To seal off problem areas regardless of size

 

 ·         To rescue citizens or officers from crowds

 

 ·         To clear an area of hostile individuals by use of proactive tactics

 

 ·         To apprehend multiple offenders, if required.

 

Term
The color codes of the four types of chemical agents used by Law Enforcement Agencies:
Definition

 

·       HC labeling, color code- Yellow             (Smoke)

 

·       CN labeling, color code- Red(Tear gas quit in 1972)

 

·       CS labeling, color code- Blue              (Tear gas)

 

·         OC labeling, color code Orange   (Pepper spray)

 

Term
State the steps for administering first aid to an individual who has been exposed to the chemical agents CN or CS.
Definition

 1.       Remove the individual from the contaminated area

 2.       Encourage the individual to remain calm

 3.       Advise individual not to rub eyes

 4.       Flush effected tissue area with clean fresh water

 5.       Can use soap but not any decontaminate that contains chlorine bleach as is it may cause a reaction that is worse

6.       If the individual’s condition is questionable, seek professional medical attention

 

Term
State the steps for administering first aid to an individual who has been exposed to the chemical agent OC
Definition

 ·         Remove individual from the contaminated area

 

·         Flush exposed tissue with clean, fresh water

 

 ·         Do not use oily ointments or soaps containing oils or lotions as they tend to hold OC particles on the skin.

 

 ·         Obtain professional medical attention should the individual’s condition be questionable.

 

Term
The foundation of the juvenile justice system is:
Definition
The concept of parens patriae- (in place of the parent)
Term
Four requirments the U.S. Supreme Court Established for Juvenile Courts:
Definition

 1.       Hold a hearing before waiving jurisdiction of child’s case

 

2.       Assure the right of the child’s to be represented by counsel

 

 3.       Permit counsel access to social recors and probation reports on the child

 

 4.       Juvenile court judge must state reason(s) for a transfer, in writing

 

Term
Five overriding principles of the Juvenile Justice System:
Definition

 1.       Providing for the care, protection, and mental and physical development of children

 

2.       Protecting the public interest and safety

 

 3.       Holding offenders accountable

 

 4.       Restoring victims

 

 5.       Rehabilitating  offenders

 

Term
Describe four violations of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act
Definition

 1.       An accused or adjudicated status offender is held securely

 

2.       An accused delinquent offender is held over six hours

 

 3.       An adjudicated delinquent is sentenced to a secure adult jail/prison

 

 4.       Any juvenile that is held securely and is not in sight and sound separated from adult offenders

 

Term
Factors Considered in Transfer to Adult Court
Definition

 ·         The victim suffered physical, psychological, or serious economic harm

 

·         The victim’s physical or mental harm was exacerbated by the victims physical or mental vulnerability or age.

 

 ·         The juvenile’s relationship with the victim facilitated the act

 

 ·         The juvenile committed the act for hire or as a part of a gang or other criminal activity

 

 ·         The juvenile displayed, brandished, indicated, or used a firearm

 

Term
Active listening skills:
Definition

 ·         Attempt to hear and understand what a person is saying

 ·         Most persons in crisis have a desire to be heard and be understood

 o   Active listening attends to this need. It is critical for developing a relationship that will ultimately lead to crisis resolution.

 ·         Use minimal encourgements

 o   Demonstrate that you are listening carefully (responding with “yes”, “ok”, or “I see”). Give occasional, brief, and well-timed vocal replies

 ·         Paraphrasing

 o   Repeating in own words what he/she thinks the subject said. This shows that the officer is not only listening, but also understanding what is being said.

 ·         Officers who use active listening skills aquire addition facts that allow them to form accurate judgements about incidents or individuals.

 ·         Armed with more accurate information, officers can respond or act more intelligently and identify better alternatives to resolve situations.

 ·         Active listening also demonstrates to others that officers are aware of and sensitive to their emotions.

 ·         Asking open ended questions-

 o   Who, What, and How questions allow you to assess the person’s situation. Avoid the overuse of “why” questions, which may imply interrogation.

Term
The difference between traditional suspect encounters and an encounter with an individual with a mental illness is:
Definition
the need to be non- confrontational
Term
The four categories within the LOSS Model are:
Definition

 

·         Loss of Reality

 

·         Loss of Hope

 

·         Loss of Control

 

·         Loss of Perspective

 

Term
Ear Model- the three phases of a special populations encounter are:
Definition

 Engage- the purpose of engage is to make a connection with the purpose so you can calm him/her.

 

Assess- the purpose of assess is to gather the information you need about the situation and the person’s condition so that you can make the needed resolution

 

Resolve- the purpose of resolve is to bring the encounter to a safe resolution and get the person to obtain the help that the person needs.

 

Term
Describe what the officer’s goal should be when talking to a person contemplating suicide:
Definition
When talking to a person contemplating suicide, the goal of the officer should be- to get the individual to focus on the elements of his/her story causing the ambivalence ( e.g. children/spouse)
Term
Victims often fear their sexual assault report will not be believed or taken seriously because of the following:
Definition

·         They knew the suspect

 

·         They are related to or closely acquainted with the suspect

 

·         They are intimidated because of the suspect’s position, power, or social status

 

·         The engaged in drug or alcohol use

 

·         The put themselves at risk by their actions (entering a strangers automobile or apartment)

 

·         They have an arrest record or an outstanding warrant

 

·         They were engaged in illegal activity at the time of the offense

Term
It is essential that responding officers convey the following to sexual assault victims:
Definition

 

·         They are knowledgeable about sexual assault

 

·         They believe the victim

 

·         That the victim is not to blame

 

Term
Three offenses Constitute Domestic Violence in Ohio:
Definition

 1.       Knowingly causing or attempting to cause physical harm to a family or household member.

 

2.       Recklessly causing serious physical harm to a family or household member.

 

 3.       By threat of force, knowingly causing a family or household member to believe that the offender will cause imminent physical harm to the family or household member.

 

Term
Four categories of persons who fall within the Meaning of Family or Household Member:
Definition

 ·         A spouse, a person living as a spouse or a former spouse of the offender.

 ·         A parent or a child of the offender or another person related by blood or affinity to the offender.

 ·         A parent or child of a spouse, person living as a spouse or former spouse of the offender or another person related by blood or affinity to a spouse, person living as a spouse or former spouse of the offender.

 ·         The natural parent of any child of whom the offender is the other natural parent or is the putative other natural parent.

 o   Parties who have children together

 o   No residency requirements 1994 to present

 o   Person living as a spouse now includes any “alleged” natural parent.

 o   Includes if they have lived together anytime in past five years

 o   Common law entered prior to 1991 or states that recognizes common law marriages.

Term
Four elements which should be used to determine the Primary Physical Aggressor in a Domestic Violence Incident:
Definition

 ·         Any history of domestic violence or other violent acts by either person involved in the alleged offense, that the officer can reasonably ascertain.

 

·         Whether the alleged violence was caused by a person acting in self-defense.

 

 ·         Each person’s fear of physical harm, if any, resulting from the other person’s threatened use of force against any person or resulting from the other person’s use or historyof the use of force against any person and the reasonableness of that fear.

 

 ·         The comparative severity of any injuries suffered by the persons involved in the alleged offense.

 

Term
Identify when protection orders are applicable:
Definition

1.       Temporary Protection Order (TPO)

a.       A TPO is an order from the court that is available after a family or household member is charged with a violent or sexually oriented offense and it is good for the length of the case. It removes the suspect from the shared residence and has other restrictions. It can be received by the victim at any time starting with arraignment, but it is over when the case is over. A TPO can be requested by: The complainant, The alleged victim, A family or household member of the alleged victim or, A peace officer may file the motion on behalf of the victim if the victim is so badly injured from the incident that they are hospitalized or unable to attend court, The court on its own motion; Officer documentation is key; If the victim is the one who has filed to obtain a TPO, the victim must come to court for the TPO hearing.

 2.       Criminal Protection Order           (CRPO)

a.       Issued by the court after a non-family/household member is charged with a violent, menacing, or sexually oriented criminal offense. A CPO is like a TPO for non-family or non-household members

 3.       Civil Protection Order   (CPO)

a.       Another option for a victim is the CPO which is obtained through the domestic relations or common pleas court even through criminal charges are not going to be filed. Broader in scope than the TPO because it can be in effect up to five years and it can include other provisions (e.g. child support, custody). A person may initially file for a TPO and then petition for a CPO. If this is the case, know that once the CPO is issued, the TPO becomes invalid. For a peace officer, this is important because if both orders are on file, the officer will need to charge with a violation of the CPO. There are two levels to the CPO (ie. Exparte and Final) and both are enforceable once the suspect is aware of the order. It is essential that the peace officer documents information showing why he/she believed that the protection order was valid and that the offender knew of the existence of the order. Some agencies keep their own files; other times that clerk of courts must be called; following agency procedures. If the officer is unable to independently verify, the protection order is still enforceable if it is valid on its face and the officer may be immune from liability resulting in enforcing it

 4.       Stalking Protection Orders- Stalking or Sexually oriented offenses protection order. Protects the victim of stalking and sexually oriented offenses from a non-family or non-household member. Issued through the common pleas court. Available for victims in the absence of criminal charges. It has the same two levels (Exparte and Final) as the CPO.

Term
Responsibilities of a Law Enforcement Agency in a Missing Child Case:
Definition

 

1.       Take prompt actions to locate the missing child

 

2.       Understand there is no waiting period before a child can be reported missing.

 

3.       Immediately enter the information into NCIC

 

4.       Notify neighboring agencies

 

5.       Remove entry from NCIC if child is found

 

Term
Actions that the initial officer assigned to the report of a missing child will take:
Definition

 

·         Conduct a preliminary interview of the person making the report

 

·         Verify the child is missing

 

Term
What the officer should do if the initial investigation is completed and the child is still missing.
Definition

 

·         Reach out to additional resources

 

Term
Categories of Missing Children
Definition

 

·         Non-family abduction

 

·         Family abduction

 

·         Runaways/ Thrownaways

 

·         Lost/Injured/Otherwise Missing(L.I.M.)

 

Term
Information an officer should gather during a preliminary interview in a family abduction missing child case.
Definition

 

·         Determine who has custody rights

 

·         Confirm the suspected family member as the actual abductor

 

·         Establish the intent of the abductor

 

·         Ask additional questions

 

Term
Why the closure stage provides an important opportunity for law enforcement:
Definition
To learn not only about how the runaway survived but to investigate if other crimes were being committed at home that may have caused the child to run.
Term
Questions recommended for an officer to ask a returned runaway child:
Definition

 

-Ask questions to determine if a crime(e.g. neglect, abuse, domestic violence) is being committed at home.

 

                                -Ask questions to determine if a crime(e.g. abuse, assault, human trafficking, drug use) occurred while he/she was on the streets.

 

Term
Determine when the criteria are met for activating the Amber Alert-
Definition

 ·         You confirm that the child is under 18 years old

 ·         You believe that the abduction poses a credible threat of immediate danger of serious bodily harm or death to the child.

 ·         There is sufficient descriptive information about the child, the suspect, and/or the circumstances surrounding the abduction to believe that activation of the alert will help locate the child.

 ·         You determine the child is not a runaway and has not been abducted as a result of a family abduction, unless the investigation determines the child is in immediate danger of serious bodily harm or death.

 

Term
All criteria must be met before activating an endangered missing child alert:
Definition

 ·         Victim is under 18 years old

 

·         The missing child is lost, non-witnessed/non-confirmed abduction

 

 ·         The child’s whereabouts are unknown

 

Term

 

State the period within which a law enforcement agency must enter a missing person, age 21 or older, into NCIC, if foul play is suspected-

 

Definition
If missing person is 21 years of age or older and foul play is suspected, all information contained in the report must be entered into NCIC within 7 days.
Term
All criteria must be met before activating an Adult Alert-
Definition

 ·         You must confirm the person is missing

 

·         The individual is 65 years of age or older or has a mental impairment

 

 ·         The disappearance of the individual poses a credible threat of immediate danger or serious bodily harm or death to the individual.

 

 ·         There is sufficient descriptive information about the individual and the circumstances surrounding the individual’s disappearance to indicate that activation of the alert will help locate the individual.

 

Term

 

List two forms of Human Trafficking

 

Definition

 

·         Sex trafficking

 

·         Labor trafficking

 

Term
What will help you get more information and helps to minimize stress and fear the victim may be experiencing
Definition
Building rapport with the human trafficking victim will help you get more information and helps to minimize stress and fear the victim may be experiencing.
Term
ORC 2911.01
Definition
Aggravated robbery
Term
ORC 2911.02
Definition
Robbery
Term
ORC 2911.11
Definition
Aggravated burglary
Term
ORC 2911.12
Definition
Burglary
Term
ORC 2911.13
Definition
Breaking and entering
Term
ORC 2911.21
Definition
Criminal trespass
Term
ORC 2911.211
Definition
Aggravated trespass
Term
ORC 2911.23
Definition
Criminal trespass on place of public amusement
Term
ORC 2911.31
Definition
Safecracking
Term
ORC 2911.32
Definition
Tampering with coin machines
Term
ORC 2909.02
Definition
Aggravated arson
Term
ORC 2909.03
Definition
Arson
Term
ORC 2909.04
Definition
Disrupting public services
Term
ORC 2909.05
Definition
Vandalism
Term
ORC 2909.06
Definition
Criminal damaging or endangering
Term
ORC 2909.07
Definition
Criminal mischief
Term
Types of child abuse-
Definition

·         Physical abuse- an act of commission toward a child by a parent or caregiver that results in harm to the child or is intended to harm a child.

 

·         Neglect- an act of omission that can be a single event or pattern of unsafe or inadequate care.

 

·         Sexual abuse- engaging in sexual activities with children who cannot give consent and do not understand the significance of sexual acts.

 

·         Emotional abuse- damaging interactions between a parent or caregiver and a child that are repeated resulting on the child feeling unwanted, unloved, or worthless.

 

Term
Conditions under the ORC that allow Peace Officers to remove a child from his/her caregiver:
Definition

 ·         If there is reasonable grounds to believe that the child is suffering from illness or injury and is not receiving proper care, as defined in R.C. 2151.03, and the child’s removal is necessary to prevent immediate or threatened physical or emotional harm.

 ·         If there is reasonable grounds to believe that the child is in immediate danger from the child’s surroundings and that the child’s removal is necessary to prevent immediate or threatened physical or emotional harm.

 ·         If there is reasonable grounds to believe that a parent, guardian, custodian, or other household member of the child’s household has abused or neglected another child in the household and to believe that the child is in immediate or threatened physical or emotional harm from that person.

 ·         If there is reasonable grounds to believe that the conduct, conditions, or surroundings of the child are endangering the health, welfare, or safety of the child.

 

Term
Characteristics of multi-disciplinary team approach when responding to child abuse:
Definition

 ·         The team generally consists of police officers, prosecutors, and other court officers, social workers, counselors, victim advocates, nurses, and physicians.

 

·         Many of the teams have specific protocols in place so the response is consistent and effective, keeping the child’s best interest in mind.

 

Term
The average OVI violator drives while intoxicated:
Definition
80 times each year. (once every five or six nights)
Term
Define the term OVI detection
Definition
The entire process of identifying and gathering evidence to determine if a suspect should be arrested for a DWI violation.
Term
Identify the three phases of OVI detection:
Definition

 

                Phase 1: Vehicle in motion

 

                Phase 2: Personal contact

 

                Phase 3: Pre-arrest screening

 

Term
Identify the decision point in OVI detection phase 1:
Definition

 

Should I stop the vehicle?

 

Term
Identify the decision point in OVI detection phase 2:
Definition

 

Should I have the driver exit the vehicle?

 

Term
Identify the decision point in OVI detection phase 3:
Definition

 

Should I arrest the driver?

 

Term
The three standardized field sobriety tests are:
Definition

 

·         Horizontal gaze nystagmus (HGN)

 

·         Walk and turn

 

·         One leg stand

 

Term
Three clues of Horizontal Gaze Nystagmus:
Definition

 

·         Lack of smooth pursuit (one per eye)

 

·         Distinct and sustained nystagmus at maximum deviation (one per eye)

 

·         Onset of nystagmus prior to 45 degrees (one per eye)

 

Term
Two stages to the Walk and Turn (divided attention test- mental task and physical test)
Definition

 

·         Instruction stage

 

·         Walking Stage

 

Term
Walk and Turn test clues:
Definition

 ·         Can’t balance during instruction

 ·         Starts too soon

 ·         Stops while walking

 ·         Doesn’t touch heel to toe

 ·         Steps off the line

 ·         Uses arms to balance

 ·         Improper turn (or loses balance on turn)

 ·         Wrong number of steps

 

Term

 

Two stages of the One Leg Stand (Divided attention test- mental task and physical test)

 

Definition

 

·         Instructions Stage

 

·         Balance and Counting Stage

 

Term

 

One Leg Stand Clues:

 

Definition

 

·         Sways while balancing

 

·         Uses arms for balance

 

·         Hops

 

·         Puts foot down

 

Term
State the officer’s authority for traffic control:
Definition
ORC 2921.331(A)- No person shall fail to comply with any lawful order or direction of any peace officer invested with authority to direct, control, or regulate traffic.
Term
Identify three elements of the traffic system:
Definition

 

·         The people

 

·         The vehicles

 

·         The trafficway

 

Term
Identify the two elements that affect the stopping distance of a vehicle:
Definition

 

·         Driver’s perception and reaction time

 

·         Braking distance of the vehicle

 

Term
Identify the benefits of effective speed enforcement:
Definition

 

·         Reduces fatal collisions

 

·         Reduces injury collisions

 

·         Reduces property damage collisions

 

Term
Identify the three basic types of speed laws:
Definition

 

·         The basic speed law

 

·         The prima facie speed law

 

·         The absolute speed law

 

Term
State the purpose of judicial notice as it relates to speed enforcement:
Definition

 

·         Officer will testify to knowledge, skills, abilities, and experience to determine the detecting, tracking and documenting of a speed violator.

 

Term
Identify the R.C. Section that gives the authority to use electrical devices for speed measurement:
Definition
R.C. 4511.091
Term
Identify the required information for prosecuting a speeding violation:
Definition

·         Driver Identification

·         Vehicle Identification

·         Date and Time

·         Venue- right to be there/ right to ticket

·         Offense

 

Term
Identify the components of a speed enforcement tracking history:
Definition

 

·         Visual observation

 

·         Vehicle Identification

 

·         Driver Identification

 

Term
Identify the principles of estimating vehicular speed:
Definition

 

·         Knowledge and experience in watching traffic

 

·         Associate the target vehicle movement in relation to stationary objects

 

·         Vehicle movement

 

·         Erratic driving

 

Term
Demonstrate documentation for case preparation of a speed violation given a Uniform Traffic Ticket and a written scenario of a violation.
Definition

 

·         Driver’s Identification and description

 

·         Vehicle Identification

 

·         Area of violation and venue

 

·         Allegation specifics of the charge

 

·         Environmental conditions of the area of the offense

 

·         Statement of facts

 

Term
The process of observation occurs in 3 stages:
Definition

 

·         Attention

 

·         Perception

 

·         Reporting

 

Term
Five obstacles to accurate observations:
Definition

 

·         Prejudice

 

·         Physical limitations

 

·         External factors

 

·         Past experiences

 

·         Distracting influences

 

Term
Eight key factors that affects one’s perception:
Definition

 ·         Level of maturity

 ·         Past experience

 ·         Mental condition

 ·         Emotional involvement

 ·         Physical conditions

 ·         Training

 ·         Cultural and ethnic background

 

Term
Basic reasons vehicles are stolen
Definition

 

·         Joy/Riding/Transportation

 

·         To commit other crimes

 

·         Theft for profit/commercial theft

 

·         Owner give ups

 

Term
Common indicators associated with stolen vehicles
Definition

 

·         Abnormal driver behavior

 

·         License plate irregularities

 

·         Condition of vehicle

 

·         Unusual transportation of other vehicle or equipment

 

Term
Identify evidence on or in the area of the VIN plate which indicates the vehicle may be stolen.
Definition

 ·         Characters on plate that are not clean and clear

 ·         Scratches or paint on the plate

 ·         Inconsistencies with rivets

 ·         Scratches, smeared glue, or adhesive residue on the area around the plate

 ·         Evidence that the windshield has been removed

 ·         Crooked VIN plate

 ·         Damage to dashboard near the vin plate

 

Term
Identify common methods thieves use to defeat the Federal Certification Label on a vehicle:
Definition

 

·         Removal and reapplication of a completely different label from a donor car.

 

·         Alteration of the existing label

 

·         Replacement with a counterfeit label

 

Term
Types of Injuries that a victim may suffer-
Definition

 Victims of crime can suffer primary injuries

 ·         Physical injuries including death and disfigurement

 ·         Financial loss leading to economic hardship

 ·         Emotional trauma and reactions (e.g. anxiety, guilt, sleep disturbance, shock, denial, depression, loss of trust, and relationship problems)

 

Victims can also suffer secondary injuries:

 ·         Injustice- believing the system has “let them down” or doesn’t really care.

 ·         Indignities- having to repeat sordid details, possibly several times and in public.

 ·         Isolation- lack of follow up and keeping victim informed of case investigation and prosecution progress.

 

Term
Common needs most victims have after a crime has been committed:
Definition

 ·         Safety- the need to feel safe

 

·         Healing- the need to express their emotions

 

 ·         Justice- the need to know “what comes next”

 

 ·         Restitution- the need to pay for financial losses or bills

 

Term
List the source of victim’s rights in Ohio:
Definition

 

·         Article I, section 10a of the Constitution of Ohio

 

·         R.C. Chapter 2930

 

Term
Describe what law enforcement agencies are required to provide, in writing to the victim:
Definition

 

·         An explanation of the victim’s rights under R.C. Chapter 2930

 

·         Information about medical, counseling, housing, emergency, and any other services that is available to a victim.

 

·         Information about the Ohio Victim Compensation Program

 

·         Information about protection that is available to the victim, including protective orders issued by a court.

 

·         A brochure called Picking up the Pieces, produced by the Attorney General’s Office, which includes most of the statutorily required information.

 

Term
Indicators of Gang Membership:
Definition

 ·         Admits membership to a group that meets the criteria of a gang

 ·         A reliable informant identifies the person as a gang member

 ·         Resides in or frequents a particular gang’s area

 ·         Adopts its style of dress, symbols, and tattoos

 ·         Associates with known gang members

 ·         Has been arrested in the company of identified gang members for offenses consistent with gang activity

 ·         Has a documented criminal history

 An individual must meet two or more of the indicators to be considered a gang member.

 

Term
Means gangs use to make their presence known in a community:
Definition

 ·         Graffiti-

 o   Sends messages to other members

 o   Warns &challenges intruders and rival gang members

 o   Tributes to fallen members or gang leaders

 o   Marks the gang’s power, status, and territory

 o   Found on traffic signs, buildings, alleyways, train cars, overpasses, billboards

 ·         Popular Culture-

 o   Internet- provides for instnt worldwide communication

 o   Social media- used to promote, recruit, post pictures, make threats, facilitate criminal activities, and get information out to other members quickly.

 o   Video sharing websites (Youtube)

 o   Videogames

 o   Movies, Television, and Music

 ·         Schools

 ·         Malls

 ·         Parks

 ·         Public Events

Term
Recognize a Peace Officer’s duties in response to the gang problem:
Definition

 ·         Stay educated on gang trends, names, colors, members

 

·         Document any potential gang activity with notes and photography

 

 ·         Become familiar with jurisdiction and take notice of repeat offenders and the nicknames used

 

 ·         Develop contacts with other agencies to share information

 

Term

 

The role of a peace officer regarding traffic is:

 

Definition
Traffic enforcement and traffic investigation.
Term
State the five common uses for Uniform Traffic Tickets
Definition

 ·         Serves as legal document and court form

 

·         Often used for officer’s notes

 

 ·         Data on the form is forwarded to Bureau of Motor Vehicles for driving records.

 

 ·         Reflect one of the most frequent contacts law enforcement has with the public; the traffic

 

 ·         Sometimes used as a measure of an officer’s stop productivity.

 

Term
Information an Officer must explain to a violator concerning the Violator’s Failure to Appear in Court at the time stated on the Affidavit or pay for a traffic ticket.
Definition

 ·         The violator’s license is subject to cancellation

 ·         If cancelled, the violator is not eligible for reissuance of a license for one year from the date of cancellation.

 ·         In the event of cancellation, the violator remains subject to any applicable criminal penalties.

 

Term

 

State the four exceptions allowing an officer to effect an arrest for minor misdemeanor:

 

Definition

 ·         Offender requires medical aid or cannot provide for his/her own safety

 ·         Offender will not or cannot offer satisfactory proof of identity.

 ·         Offender refuses to sign ticket.

 ·         Offender has previously been issued a ticket for the commission of that particular misdemeanor and failed to satisfy obligations to appear.

 

Term
Steps an officer must follow for requesting a re-examination
Definition

 ·         Notify the operator that he/she intends to refer the driver for re-examination

 ·         Complete a BMV Form 2308, including the facts which led the officer to believe the re-examination was necessary.

 ·         Forward the BMV 2308 to the chief executive officer of agency for review and signature.

·        The BMV Form 2308 is forwarded to the chief executive officer of the agency for review and signature before being forwarded to the BMV.

Term
Identify benefits of understanding different cultures.
Definition

 (1)    Enhances and embraces positive police-community relations.

 (2)    Reduction in frequency of lawsuits

 (3)    Greater personal/organizational benefits

 (4)    End to old idea

 (5)    Police image and perception

 

Term
Describe the two types of racism
Definition

 (1)    Individual racism

 (a)    Person to person discrimination based on one’s own bias and prejudices.

 (b)   Assuming someone’s race based on how they sound over the phone.

 

(2)    Institutional racism

(a)    Can be enforced through rules, procedures, or policies.

(b)   This type of racism can be systemic to the agency or company’s culture.

 

Term
Difference between Criminal Profiling and Racial/Bias Profiling
Definition

 

·         Criminal Profiling- based on observed behaviors and characteristic

 

·         Racial/Bias Profiling- factors of race/enthnicity and bias toward that race are initiating factors for law enforcement intervention.

 

Term
Interpret the difference between high and low context communications:
Definition

 Low Context Communication

 ·         Words send most of the message with specifics, details, and facts.

 ·         The words are extremely important and carry explicit meaning. Communication process is less important.

 ·         Language has less emotion

 ·         Eye contact is usually more direct

 ·         Language deals primarily with who, what, where, when, why, and how. Language is based on linear thinking that is structured and direct.

 High Context Communication-

 ·         Words send only part of the message

 ·         The process of communication is just as important as the words used and may bury the implicit meaning of the words used or the intended message.

 ·         Emotion, posturing, and gesturing may be part of the communication process ( e.g. facial expressions, hand and arm movements)

 ·         Less direct eye contact

 ·         Historical perspective may have an emphasis on the context of the message.

Term
Effects of Hate Crimes on victims and the community
Definition

 ·         Unique, emotional and psychological impact of fear and vulnerability on the victims and their community because of specific characteristics (e.g. race, religion, sexual orientation)

 ·         Increase racial, religious, and sexual orientation tensions in the community

 ·         Escalating violence and turmoil because of reprisals by others in the community

 

Term

 

Describe indicators an officer can use to determine if a crime was motivated by hate:

 

Definition

 ·         The presence of visible symbols of hatred and/or bias

 

·         Witness/victim’s report as to what the perpetrator said and did

 

 ·         Absence of any other apparent motive

 

Term
ORC 2913.02
Definition
Theft
Term
ORC 2913.03
Definition
Unauthorized use of a vehicle
Term
ORC 2913.04
Definition
Unauthorized use of property- computer, cable, or telecommunication property
Term
ORC 2913.05
Definition
Telecommunications fraud
Term
ORC 2913.06
Definition
Unlawful use of telecommunications device
Term
ORC 2913.11
Definition
Passing bad checks
Term
ORC 2913.21
Definition
Misuse of credit cards
Term
ORC 2913.31
Definition
Forgery- Forging identification cards or selling or distributing forged identification cards
Term
ORC 2913.42
Definition
Tampering with records
Term
ORC 2913.44
Definition
Personating an officer
Term
ORC 2913.441
Definition
Unlawful display of law enforcement emblem
Term
ORC 2913.49
Definition
Identity fraud
Term
ORC 2913.51
Definition
Receiving stolen property
Term
ORC 4301.22
Definition
Rules for sales of beer and intoxicating liquor under all classes of permits and from state liquor stores
Term
ORC 4301.62
Definition
Opened container of beer or intoxicating liquor prohibited at certain premises
Term
ORC 4301.63
Definition
Purchase of beer or intoxicating liquor by persons under twenty-one prohibited
Term
ORC 4301.631
Definition
Purchase or consumption low-alcohol beverage by persons under eighteen prohibited
Term
ORC 4301.633
Definition
Furnishing false information to obtain beer or intoxicating liquor for person under twenty-one
Term
ORC 4301.634
Definition
Furnishing false information to obtain beer or intoxicating liquor by person under twenty-one.
Term
ORC 4301.636
Definition
Manufacture, transfer, sell, or distribute false identification card or driver’s license
Term
ORC 4301.64
Definition
Prohibition against consumption of beer or intoxicating liquor in motor vehicle
Term
ORC 4301.67
Definition
Illegal possession of spirituous or intoxicating liquor or beer prohibited
Term
ORC 4301.69
Definition
Underage persons offenses concerning
Term
State the guidelines officers should follow when operating the radio:
Definition

 ·         Location should always be the first thing mentioned on a stop or call

 ·         Listen before you transmit

 ·         Speak directly into the microphone, holding it about 6 inches from your mouth

 ·         Be familiar with equipment and its capabilities

 

Term
Define the term proactive patrol:
Definition
Working to prevent crime rather than waiting for it to occur
Term
Define the term reactive patrol:
Definition
Responding to crimes and incidents after they have occurred and have been reported.
Term
Main responsibilities when responding to calls for service
Definition

 

·         Respond to the incident

 

·         Secure the scene

 

·         Preliminary investigation

 

Term
Factors an officer should consider when determining response to a call of a crime in progress:
Definition

 ·         Urgency of the situation

 ·         Safety of any victim who may be under attack

 ·         Time of day

 ·         Traffic conditions for responding units

 

Term
Actions a responding officer should consider while en route to a crime in progress.
Definition

 ·         Be on the alert for anyone and anything that appears to be out of the ordinary for the area

 ·         If possible, record license plate numbers of the vehicles leaving the scene or driving around the area.

 ·         Unless tactically necessary, arrive as quietly as possible

 ·         If possible, make your arrival using parallel streets to avoid being seen by a lookout or the suspect.

 ·         Do not park directly in front of the location unless absolutely necessary

 

Term
Identify ways to maintain situational awareness while conducting searches:
Definition

 ·         If working alone, continually stop, look, and listen so you are aware of your environment.

 ·         If working with others, have one person focused on the search and one focused on covering the search officer.

 

Term
Different types of Building Searches
Definition

 

·         Unknown Risk (Open doors, alarm drops, suspicious activity)

 

·         High Risk (active shooter, hot pursuit, or knowledge of serious physical harm)

 

Term

 

Difference between cover and concealment

 

Definition

 

                Cover- a position or situation affording protection from fire.

 

                Concealment- to place out of sight

 

Term
Primary reason for traffic enforcement
Definition

 

·         To reduce traffic collision, resulting injuries, and to facilitate the safe and expedient flow of vehicular and pedestrian traffic.

 

Term
Identify the ORC section that covers definitions related to motor vehicle offenses:
Definition
Located in the .01 section of each Chapter of 4511.01 Traffic and 4513.01 Equipment
Term
R.C. Chapter 4503
Definition
Covers the licensing and registration of motor vehicles
Term
R.C. Chapter 4510
Definition
Covers driver’s license suspension
Term
Identify the ORC Chapter that covers moving violations:
Definition

 

·         ORC Chapter 4511 covers moving violations

 

Term
ORC 4511.12
Definition
Obedience to traffic control devices
Term
ORC 4511.20
Definition
Operation in willful or wanton disregard of the safety of persons or property
Term
ORC 4511.21
Definition
 Speed limits – assured clear distance
Term
ORC 4511.22
Definition
Slow speed
Term

 

ORC 4511.25

Definition
Lanes of travel upon roadways of sufficient width
Term
ORC 4511.251
Definition
Street racing
Term
ORC 4511.26
Definition
Vehicles traveling in opposite directions
Term
ORC 4511.29
Definition
Driving to left of center of roadway in overtaking and passing traffic proceeding in same direction
Term
ORC 4511.30
Definition
Driving upon left side of roadway
Term
ORC 4511.41
Definition
 Right-of-way rule at intersections
Term
ORC 4511.42
Definition
Right-of-way rule when turning left
Term
ORC 4511.43
Definition
Right-of-way rule at through highways, stop signs, yield signs
Term
ORC 4511.45
Definition
Right-of-way of public safety or coroner’s vehicle
Term
ORC 4511.55
Definition
 Operating bicycles and motorcycles on roadway
Term
ORC 4511.66
Definition
 Prohibition against parking on highways
Term
ORC 4511.661
Definition
 Unattended motor vehicles
Term
ORC 4511.44
Definition
Right-of-way at highway from any place other than another roadway
Term
ORC 4511.451
Definition
Right-of way of funeral vehicle
Term
Primary responsibilities of the first responder to a crime scene:
Definition

 

·         Assist the victim

 

·         Protect the crime scene

 

·         Deny admission to unauthorized personnel

 

Term

 

Five Crime Scene Search Patterns:

 

Definition

 ·         Strip Method

 ·         Grid Method

 ·         Spiral Method

 ·         Zone Method

 ·         Wheel Method

 

Term

 

Three major types of evidence

 

Definition

 ·         Direct evidence- evidence which is a fact all by itself. It stands on its own two feet and without any other explanation, proves the point.

 ·         Indirect evidence- also known as circumstantial evidence. It is that evidence that, in itself, does not directly prove the fact in issue but establishes a certain fact or series of facts which tend to prove certain elements of the case or question

 ·         Real evidence- Sometimes called demonstrative evidence. Real evidence speaks for itself, except for identifying the object and establishing its connection with the crime, it tells its own story

 

Term
Types of fingerprint patterns
Definition

 ·         Arches

 o   Plain

 o   Tented

 ·         Loops

 o   Radial loops

 o   Ulnar loops

 ·         Whorls

 o   Plain Whorl

 o   Central pocket loop

 o   Double loop

 o   Accidental Whorl

Term
Three possible forms of fingerprint impressions an officer may encounter at a crime scene
Definition

 ·         Latent or invisible impressions deposited by natural body secretions on the hands, fingers, and feet.

 ·         Visible impressions

 ·         Plastic impressions

 

Term

 

Two factors which determine the choice of fingerprint powder

 

Definition

 

·         Adherence

 

·         Color

 

Term
Three types of fingerprint powder used to enhance latent fingerprints.
Definition

 

·         Oxide powder

 

·         Metallic powder

 

·         Magnetic powder

 

Term
State the five hurdles by which a confession must pass before it may be received into evidence in a court of law:
Definition

 ·         It must be voluntary and trustworthy

 ·         It must not be obtained due to a delay in taking the defendant before a judge or magistrate for his/her arraignment

 ·         It must not be obtained as a result of a violation of the defendant’s Miranda rights

 ·         It must not be obtained as a result of an illegal search

It must not be obtained in violation of the defendant’s right to counsel

Term
The free and voluntary rule is stated as follows:
Definition
A confession of a person accused of crime is admissible in evidence against the accused only if it was freely and voluntarily made, without duress, fear, or compulsion in its inducement and with full knowledge of the nature and consequences of the confession.
Term
State the test a court will apply in determining whether a confession was freely and voluntarily given:
Definition
The “totality of the circumstances”
Term
State the three areas to which a court with refer in looking at the totality of the circumstances surrounding a confession:
Definition

 

·         Use of force

 

·         Threats or promises

 

·         Psychological coercion

 

Term

 

State when an officer is required to read Miranda Warnings to a suspect.

 

Definition

 

·         During police, custodial interrogation

 

Term
The Miranda warnings are:
Definition

 ·         You have the right to remain silent

 ·         If you give up that right, anything you say may be used against you in court

 ·         You have the right to be represented by an attorney and have them present with you during questioning

 ·         If you cannot afford an attorney, one will be appointed for you prior to any questions, if you wish.

 

Term
Define custodial interrogation:
Definition

 Any interrogation involving a law enforcement officer’s questioning that is reasonably likely to elicit incriminating responses and in which a reasonable person in the subject’s position would consider self in custody.

 

Term
Factors to consider in determining whether an individual being interviewed is “in custody” include, but are not limited to:
Definition

·         The environment

·         The number of officers present

·         The attitude of the officers toward the person being questioned

·         The stage of the investigation

·         Whether the interviewee is free to leave

 

Term
State the standard against which a waiver will be judged when an accused waives his/her Miranda rights:
Definition
Is that warnings and waiver have been given and that the statements were made knowingly, voluntarily, and intelligently.
Term
Define the concept of “fruits of the poisonous tree” doctrine:
Definition
If a confession is derived immediately from an unlawful arrest or unlawful search, the confession is “tainted” and neither it nor its fruits may be used against the defendant whose 4th Amendment rights were violated.
Term
State the “public safety” exception:
Definition
Statements elicited from a defendant as well as real evidence resulting from such statements may be used in evidence even if the officers do not recite the Miranda Warnings before asking questions IF the officer’s safety or the safety of others is in jeapordy.
Term
Define the term strip search:
Definition
The inspection of a naked individual without scrutinizing the subjects body cavities
Term
Basic Requirements for Body Cavity Search
Definition

·         You must obtain a search warrant unless there is a medical emergency justifying a search.

·         Must be conducted under sanitary conditions in a location that permits only the person being searched to observe

·         Must be performed by a medical professional (ie. Physician, registered nurse, licensed practical nurse) of same sex.

 

Term
Major items for which the officer must be alert for during a preliminary health screening.
Definition

 ·         Behavior (eg. Assaultive, suicidal, physical or mental illness)

 ·         Body deformities and ease of movement

 ·         Conditions of skin

 

Term
Four causes of illegible fingerprints
Definition

 ·         Failure to produce the focal points

 ·         Allowing the fingers to skip or twist

 ·         Failure to clean the fingers and equipment of foreign substances and perspiration

 ·         Insufficient ink

 

Term
Definition of Evidence:
Definition

 ·         Anything that will support a challenge information that subject or witnesses alleges to be fact.

 ·         Any legally obtained object or material which aids the investigator in reconstruction of the offense or the identification of the offender.

 

Term
Advantages of Physical Evidence over testimonial evidence:
Definition

 ·         Physical evidence provides a tangible object for the jury to see

 ·         Defendant cannot misrepresent physical evidence

 ·         Physical evidence is not subject to memory loss

 ·         Physical evidence can be independently tested.

 

Term
Types of Physical evidence:
Definition

 ·         Transient

 o   Temporary

 o   Easily lost or changed

 o   Examples: imprints, indentations, odors

 ·         Conditional

 o   Produced by an action or event

 o   Things that can be changed with ease

 o   Examples: whether lights were on/off whether doors or windows were locked/unlocked, noises, rigor mortis, weather.

 ·         Pattern

 o   Forced contact between persons and objects

 o   Examples: hit/skip attachments, powder residue, blood splatter, glass fractures, tire skid marks.

 ·         Transfer

 o   Most commonly encountered

 o   Produce by physical contact between persons and objects

 o   Examples: fingerprints, bloodstains, tool marks, glass, hair.

Term
Class Characteristics of Evidence:
Definition

 

·         Fiber

 

·         Hair

 

·         Soil

 

Term
Individual Characteristics of Evidence
Definition

 ·         Sets the object apart from all others in its class

 ·         Individual characteristics are unique

 ·         Allows for Individualization of evidence or identification of the individual source