# Shared Flashcard Set

Oceanography 3
midterm number 3
118
Geography
03/18/2013

## Additional Geography Flashcards

Term
 What is a tide? What is the equation for the force of a tide? What causes tides?
Definition
 Periodic short-term change in the height of the ocean surface at a particular place, generated by long-wavelength progressive waves that are caused by the interaction between force and inertia. Movement of the earth beneath tide crests results in falling of sea level. F=G(m1m2)/r^2 Force is equal to gravity X (mass of first object x mass of second object)/radius between the two objectsThey are caused by the earth's rotation (and position in relation to the moon and sun)
Term
 How long is a tidal day?
Definition
 24 hours and 54 minutes (the time it takes for the earth to line up with the moon again)
Term
 What causes "high tide" and "low tide" ?
Definition
 Centripetal force pushes water out toward one side and the pull of the moon toward the other side.
Term
 What happens to tides during a new moon?
Definition
 Every 28 days, the sun and moon are lined up on one side of the earth and they pul together, creating SPRING TIDES. These have the greatest highs and the greatest lows.
Term
 Where is the sun during a full moon?
Definition
 on the opposite side of the earth as the moon.
Term
 What are intermediate, or "neap" tides?
Definition
 intermediate tidal heights (neither the sun, earth nor moon are lined up) causing weaker tides.
Term
 What is a "semi-diurnal" tide?
Definition
 Semi-Daily or "perfect" tide. in any “tidal day” we would have two highs and two lows that are approximately equal. We have this along the Atlantic coast of the US and the European coast.
Term
 What is a "diurnal" tide? Where do we see this located?
Definition
 ONe high and one low per day. Gulf Coast, Texas, and Alabama for example.
Term
 What is a "mixed semi-diurnal" tide?
Definition
 Two highs and two lows that are unequal. Has to do with the size of the pacific and the way the waves are washing back and forth. We see these on the California/Pacific coast
Term
 How do tide tables/gauges work?
Definition
 Tide tables use average of lower low water and that becomes “0” on tide gauges.
Term
 What is a "Flood Tide"?
Definition
 When water is going in
Term
 What is an "eb" tide?
Definition
 When water is going back out
Term
 What is a "tidal bore"?
Definition
 When the tide is trying to get up into the large river it will be held awhile until it overcomes the river and moves back up the river (some can go dozens of miles)
Term
 What are "king tides"?
Definition
 A couple of times a year we get tides that are even higher than typical tides (some in December and January)
Term
 What shape is the orbit around the earth? What is a perigree king tide? What is an apogee king tide?
Definition
 Elliptical, not circular.Perigree: moon closestApogee: moon farthest away
Term
 What is a perihelion king tide? Aphelion?
Definition
 Perihelion: closest to the sun (usually January)Aphelion: farther from the sun (usually July)
Term
 What conditions would make tidal power feasible?
Definition
 Large volume of salt water, a large tidal range, a restricted entrance, and close to the people that it will be powering.
Term
 What conditions make hydrokinetic power feasible?
Definition
 An area where currents are really high (such as Florida currents)
Term
 What are the results of the SF tide gauge?
Definition
 Water has gone up 8 inches over the last century (2mm per year)High tides are higherWaves come in further inlandMore storm damage SF airport would be covered with a 16 in sea level rise.
Term
 How much did sea level rise in Juneau Alaska over the last 100 years?
Definition
 8 inches
Term
 How much does sea level rise per year in Grand Isle, Louisiana?
Definition
 about 9mm per year. Land is sinking. New Orleans does not have a bright future.
Term
 What are the attributes of a "leading edge" coastline? Which coast line has these attributes?
Definition
 Also called collision/convergent/active marginCoastal cliffs, Uplifted terraces, Narrow continental shelf, mountains (some volcanic), seismic activity, small drainages/steep, coarse sediment, high yield (very erodible) --> tons per square mile per year. West Coast
Term
 What is a trailing edge? Which coast has these attributes?
Definition
 Also referred to as Passive/Divergent margin Coastal Plain, Wide SHelf, No mountains/earth quakes, no volcanoes, depositional features, large, low gradientsEast Coast
Term
 What factors effect coastal variation?
Definition
 Tectonic history (leading edge/trailing/marginal)Sea-Level History (relative to land)Rock type (important in determining how resistant that coastline is to wave attacks) - somewhere like Monterey Peninsula is granite and does not erode very quickly (thus can resist wave attacks)Structure (things like bedding) - also determines resistance to coastline.Wave EnergySediment SupplyLittoral DriftPresence/Absence of a BeachCLimate & WeatheringOrganic ActivityHuman Activity we have added sand and mined sand which can have a profound effect)
Term
 What is "jointing" in coast line structure?
Definition
 Rocks are stressed and they break or crack.
Term
 What is the "purisima formation" in coast line structure?
Definition
 Lots of sea shells and fossils, extends from west cliff down Rio Del Mar
Term
 Most cliffs/bays are oriented along...
Definition
 a joint set.
Term
 As we go up the North Coast we have Santa Cruz Mudstone, which has "sedimentary intrusions". What are those?
Definition
 In deposits, under mudstone sand was saturated with water/oil.Sandstone is squeezed out of the deposits.Biggest sandstone intrusions int he world are right here on our coast.Sand is weaker than surrounding mudstone so often waves will attack that.
Term
 How does the presence or absence of a beach effect the coastline?
Definition
 Wide sandy beaches end up with dunes and wave will not be attacking the cliff directly.Example: lighthouse point to Monterey peninsula is a wide sandy beach so waves don't get back to the back of the cliff.The monterey bay peninsula and further waves are attacking cliffs and eroding them from the back.
Term
 Tropical climate mangroves _______ the coastline.
Definition
 stabilize
Term
 How long is the California coast?
Definition
 1100 miles long.
Term
 What are the two large categories of landforms on the California coast? How much (%) of our coast do each of these take up?
Definition
 Sea Cliffs (790 miles or 72%): high relief mountains (140 miles or 13%) and low cliffs (650 miles or 59%).andCoastal Lowlands (310 miles or 28%): wide beaches, dunes, estuaries, lagoons. Ex: SF bay, Inner Monterey Bay, and much of Southern California
Term
 Why is the coast considered an "economic engine"
Definition
 \$46 billion a year from coastal environment (ports and harbors)\$23 billion a year from coastal tourism and recreationLess than 5% = oil/gas industries.
Term
 What are the most common minerals on our coast?hint: there are two categories (light and heavy)
Definition
 Light minerals: Quarts, Feldspar, also most common minerals in granite and sandstone.Heavy minerals: Iron & Magnesium. Give it black or green or pink color.
Term
 Beach sand is in constant motion, driven two directions by wave action. What are the two directions?
Definition
 On shore and off shore: waves wash up sand at some angle (not quite parallel to the sand after refraction) and follows saw tooth in and out pattern.Along shore: long shore current / littoral drift - driven dominantly by waves form the northwest. Moves north to south.
Term
 What happens to beach sand during summer months?
Definition
 Low waves wash up on the beach and build up wide summer berm (terrace formed by wave action along the backshore of a beach). The beach is wide and higher and there is not a lot of wave energy.Low wave heights, long wavelengths, low steepness (H/L), long periodsSteep foreshore, broad berm/wide beach.
Term
 What happens to the beach during winter months?
Definition
 Tend to get large, more energetic, steeper waves.Stir up more sand but does not have a chance to settle out because the next wave approaches.
Term
 Does the total amount of sand in summer and winter differ?
Definition
 no.
Term
 What determines the slope of the beach?
Definition
 Grain size:Very fine sand - perfectly flat (1-2 degrees)Very coarse sand - steeper (5-10 degrees)Pebbles and Cobbles - much steeper (15-20 degrees)Rip Rap (rock down along west cliff) - stack up to angle of repose (up to 30 degrees or steeper)
Term
 What are Littoral budgets?
Definition
 Sediment on beaches. Along any particular stretch of coast, one of the following conditions exist:accretion predominates: sand supply is greater than losses and beach is building out.Stability or equilibrium: sand supply is equal to sand loss (most of SC)Erosion: sand losses exceed sand supply
Term
 What are littoral cells?
Definition
 Sources of beach sand Along shore transport of sand is littoral driftSinks for sandFIrst defined in southern California after canyons we have rocky headland / no sand
Term
 What are sources of beach sand?
Definition
 River or stream inputSea cliff or bluff erosionLittoral transport form upcoastONshore transport from continental shelfBeach nourishmentBiogeneous deposition (Reefs
Term
 What is a berm?
Definition
 terrace formed by wave action along the backshore of a beach
Term
 What do dams do in terms of sand transport?
Definition
 They form COMPLETE barriers to sand transport. Also reduce flood flows
Term
 In CAlifornia in the last century, how many major dams, reservoirs, and debris basins were built?
Definition
 480 major dams and reservoirs and nearly 200 debris basins. All of these trap sand that would have normally flowed to the shoreline.
Term
 What is beach nourishment? What is the problem?
Definition
 Bringing in sand to the beaches. Multi-million dollar enterprise in the east coast. Barrier islands start way out at the shelf and as sea level rose they migrate toward where they are today.Problem: we build on the barrier island. Pour hundreds of millions of dollars in sand to save the beaches Argument is that beach nourishment is "preserving our infrastructure"
Term
 What is SAMDAG / San Diego Association of Government? What are the concerns?
Definition
 Spent 17 1/2 million dollars dredging up 2 million cubic yards of sand from off shore. Spread it out on 12 different northern san diego county beaches and started monitoring them. In most cases within a year or a year and a half all the sand was gone again. Went out again this time with a hopper dredge and blew stuff out onto the shoreline (cost 28 1/2 million dollars. Concerns: environmental impact. cost - who pays for it?
Term
 What do groins do?
Definition
 trap sand, hold it in place, make a beach, widen a beach.
Term
 What are jetties?
Definition
 They are always built in pairs (SC harbor has two)Extend out across the beach and go into the harbor (lower and upper)Designed to contain and protect the entrance so boats could go in and out. Also trap sand, widen beach, and leads to a loss of sand down coast (hence, sand being trapped at Seabright - huge beach)
Term
 What do breakwaters do?
Definition
 Provide an area for boats. Detached break water - separated from the shoreline - as waves come in they can not get over the break water and boats anchor behind it. Caused who area behind to fill up with sand due to a lack of waves.
Term
 What do seawalls do?
Definition
 Protect the coast directly
Term
 Where is it smart to build a harbor? Why?
Definition
 Harbors at the up coast or in the middle of two cells have not had problems.Wherever we built harbors in the middle or down coast of littoral cells we have to dredge them.
Term
 What are the hazards of beach front construction?
Definition
 Public policy IssueVulnerable to high tides and storm wavesSometimes try to move things back instead of protecting.There are obvious hazards in building on sand dunesEx: Monterey Bay Hotel (base of dunes eroding back at 2-3 feet per year, at some point it will become a peninsula, then an island. Ex: Ocean Harbor House Condominiums - initially 88 apartment complexes, retreating at 1-2 feet per year. City of monterey demanded that emergency riprap be removed from beach. Led to property owners installing 50 feet deep concrete pier foundation system. In el nino winter of '97-'98, front units were threatened as dune erosion continued.
Term
 What are glacial erratics?
Definition
 BIg chunks of rocks in places that don't belong. Geological evidence for past climate change and ice age in huge boulder left behind by glaciers in places like farm lands of the mid-west.
Term
 What are the natural causes of climate change?
Definition
 Changes in solar energy production (measurements of solar energy output, including sunspot cycles (11 year cycle)Volcanic Eruptions (large eruptions ash and gas high into the atmosphere but cooling effect is small and short-lived)Movement of earth's tectonic plates. Variations in earth's orbit around sun.
Term
 What does variation in Earth's orbit determine?
Definition
 How much sunlight we receive and how warm or cool the earth is at any given time.
Term
 What are the three orbital cycles of the earth?
Definition
 Shape of orbit (100,000 years)Tilt of axis of rotation (41,000 years)Wobble of Earth's axis (26,000 years)
Term
 Climate changes are recorded in...?
Definition
 Deep-sea sediment oresIce cores from Greenland and AntarcticaGlacial deposits such as erratics.
Term
 How many years has deep sea drilling been underway for?
Definition
 40 years
Term
 Ice coring in Greenland has now reached a depth of...?
Definition
 9500 feet
Term
 What is the "Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum"?
Definition
 56 million years gao all the ice melted and sea level was 220 feet higher than today - very very warm time.
Term
 Beach Nourishment
Definition
 Move the coast back, build a line in the sand, add more sand to the beach.Expensive and short lived (littoral drift). Unless impounded it is not going to stay there.
Term
 What was a solution for re-establishign equilibrium and retturning sand to a littoral system?
Definition
 bypass dredging
Term
 What are the effects of the Santa Cruz Harbor?
Definition
 Upcoast accretionRegular dredgingDowncoast sand loss and bluff erosionLoss of beach at Capitola
Term
 What happened with the Santa Barbara littoral cell?
Definition
 1928 SB decided they wanted a harbor, a lot of erosion down coast and wave energy but no sand. NOw they have a building on old ocean floor that has been backed up by sand behind the harbor.
Term
 What happened with the Santa Monica and San Pedro littoral cells?
Definition
 Sand comes down the coast to Rodondo King Canyon.Built Redondo harbor in a perfect place where they don't have to dredge (just down coast / between two cells works!)
Term
 What happens during El Nino?
Definition
 Wind slows down. Pressure reverses and water flows back across hitting the coast of South America. Warm water moves in, upwelling stops. Fish and birds go away. Happens around December/JanuarySends warmer water up the coast of north America and we get species of fish we have never seen before. Drought in Australia, Africa, and Indonesia while we are flooding.
Term
 What happens in Greenland during ENSO?
Definition
 Undergoes seasonal melting, which isn't included in IPCC (intergovernmental panel on climate change) estimates but could raise sea level up by 24 feet. Weren't including original ice melt or permafrost (conservative)Greenland itself melting completely would raise sea level 24 feet but Antarctica would raise 200 feet.
Term
 Continuing an accelerated sea level rise will bring which two coastal problems?
Definition
 Depending on topography:Inundation (covering with water) or Cliff Retreat
Term
 18,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age, sea level was about ____ feet lower than today. Location of the shoreline is constantly ____
Definition
 350 feet, but we did not have development. Shoreline is constantly changing.
Term
 THere are now ____ (#) people living within 3 feet of sea level?
Definition
 150 million people
Term
 How does climate change effect the ocean?
Definition
 Changes surface water tempChanges ocean circulation/patterns/mixing and nutrient distribution, and biological reproductivity).Increases or decreases volume of sea ice and albedo
Term
 What are Milankovitch Cycles?
Definition
 Earth's wobble on it's axis. 20,000 year cycleTilt (40,000 years)EccentrityOrbitEver since we have had an earth and a sun we have had these cycles.
Term
 What is "Albedo-Reflectivity"
Definition
 Cause ice to retract, ocean is exposed, more heat (warmer)
Term
 What is permafrost
Definition
 Part of Milankovitch CyclesUnderlies 25% of the earth's surface. Beaneath surface all the pores/spaces are filled with ice (Frozen soil/rock). In there is a lot of methane, carbon dioxide, and other things. During a warm period permafrost thaws and more methane and carbon dioxide are released (greenhouse gasses)
Term
 Causes of sea level rise?
Definition
 Glacial meltPlate tectonicsTidesHurricanesTsunamisEl NinosNOT the most pressing concern
Term
 What percent of of the atmosphere is nitrogen? oxygen? what is the other 1%?
Definition
 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen = 99%1%= water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide
Term
 Where do green house gases come from? What percentages?
Definition
 Transport 14%Industry 16.8%Power Production 21.3%Waste Disposal 3.4% (A lot of methane)Land Use 10% (biomass burning, forest fires, agriculture burning)Residential/Commercial 10.3%Fossil Fuel Retrieval/Drilling/Pumping/Processing/Transportation/Distribution 11.3%
Term
 What is fracking?
Definition
 Drill down and pump water under pressure opening up cracks and oil and gas flow out. Lessens our depnedence on foreign oil but we are still burning fossil fuelds and more methane is getting out. People are worried about their ground contamination.
Term
 In the last 150 years or so, how much has methane gone up? carbon dioxide? nitrous oxide?
Definition
 Methane: 43%Carbon Dioxide: 40%Nitrous Oxide: 17%Methane soaks up 25% more heat than carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide is 200x more important
Term
 HOw much carbon dioxide is produced per hour? How much goes into the ocean? (in tons per hour) What does this do to the ocean?
Definition
 3,245,000 T/Hour3% into the ocean. Makes the ocean more acidic and becomes a buffer (if ocean didn't absorb it it would be in the atmosphere)50 X more in ocean than atmosphere so if ocean burps (like it has in the past) it will have an effect on climate change.
Term
 How long is the California coast? How much of that is bluffs, cliffs and mountains? How much is dunes/lowlands/estuaries/wide sandy beaches?
Definition
 1100 miles 800 miles bluffs/cliffs/mountains300 miles dunes/lowlands/estuaries/beaches
Term
 Erosional Processes
Definition
 Hydraulic Impact: wave breaking on the cliff.Abrasion: grinding sand/pebbles back and forth across the platformChemical Weathering: salt/seawater is corrosive material.Biological ActivityHuman Activity
Term
 What variables Effect Erosion?
Definition
 Rock TypeStructural WeaknessesWave exposureBeachTidal RangeStorm Frequency (big events)Climate (Freezing and thawing breaks down rocks)Human Activity
Term
 Cliff Retreat Rates
Definition
 Determined from historic stereo aerial photographs or old maps
Term
 What are short term options along the shoreline?
Definition
 Planned or unplanned relocation/retreatARmor/protectionSand replenishment or nourishment
Term
 What are seawalls made of?
Definition
 concrete, timber, steel
Term
 What is rip rap?
Definition
 putting large rocks stacked on the beach (absorb wave energy, harder/more resistant than sand dunes)Revetment: more engineeredRocks can be 2-500 dollars a piece
Term
 How much of the California coast is armored today? How much of an increase is that since 1971?
Definition
 10% of 1100 miles of coast is armored. 400% increase since 1971. 33% of shoreline of California's 4 southern counties now armored
Term
 How much does armoring cost?
Definition
 \$3000-8000/ft or \$15-40 million per mile.
Term
 What is armoring built to protect?
Definition
 Cliffs or bluffs, not beaches. Not permanent solution and its effectiveness is dependent upon resistance to overtopping, outflanking, battering, and undermining (logs break through boards and waves come in under and take sand out from behind)
Term
 What are the impacts of seawalls?
Definition
 Access restriction - vertical and lateralVisual impacts Reduction of sand supply from cliffsPlacement losses (rocks take oer beach with placement of rip rap)Passive erosion (results from rising sea level and shoreline erosion coming up against a fixed barrier. MAssive beaches will be lost if there is a retaining structure behind the beach. Active erosion
Term
 What mineral resources are there from the sea?
Definition
 Deposits on the sea floor, thermal vents/ridges (zinc, iron, copper, silver, chromium, gold, platinum), nodules/crusts (nickel, cobalt, manganese), sea floor sedimentary rocks (oil and gas)Non-renewable.
Term
 History of oil/gas
Definition
 Not much change in sources since 1950-2010Gas amount has gone way upHad coal way before we had oil, horribly dirty. Gone down 38%Today 83% comes from fossil fuelsA little less than 10% nuclear energy. 8% renewable energy. We use about 21 million barrels/day in the US, 52% is imported. \$100 a barrel to import. World uses 80 million barrels/day. We use 23% with 4% of population. Bulk comes from Mexico, Venezuela, and Canada.
Term
 All of the energy we use is basically derived from the ___what happens to that energy?
Definition
 sun! nuclear is the only source of fuel that is not solar dependent. 30% reflected in the atmosphere47% stored as heat23% mechanical (Freezing or evaporation)0.02% goes into photosynthesisIn the ocean solar radiation produces
Term
 How do phytoplankton/algae and photosynthesis create oil and gas?
Definition
 lots settle to the sea floor, accumulate organic matter and it gets buried, pressure and temperature increase with burial, becomes oil and gas
Term
 Oil companies looking for oil need:
Definition
 Source of organic matter (marine plankton)Source rock (to form in)Reservoir rock (for storage)
Term
 What is porosity?
Definition
 The amount of voids in something (a source rock for oil), a very clean sand could have 30% of that space available for oil/water.
Term
 What is permeability? in terms of oil.
Definition
 ability to pump it out
Term
 Why is there so much oil in the middle east?
Definition
 In the Jurassic period (150 mya) a cross section from Africa to Eurasia on the equator (the Tethys sea). It was tropical with tons of productivity. Thousands of feet of sand filled with oil under pressure. So now Saudi Arabia and the middle east have 2/3 of the world's oil trapped in anticlines.
Term
 Drilling and Production of Oil
Definition
 30% of oil comes from offshore today. Began with slant drilling, then piers, then island, then offshore platforms. 25,000 wells offshore of 70 different countries840 total offshore rigs, 710 under contractdrilling to depths of 7500 feet beneath seafloor in water depths of 10,000 feet
Term
 87% of the energy we use is from fossil fuels but it is not sustainable. What percent of that is renewable energy? What kinds of renewable energy?
Definition
 7% is renewable, of that: 1% solar, 5% geothermal, 7% wind, 34% hydropower, 53% biomass
Term
 What are the arguments against wind turbines?
Definition
 Drive tourists away, industrialize, change seafloor from soft bottom to hard structure, bats would run into it, damage to submerged vegetation, threats to navigation aircraft, changes in sediment.In order for this to be economical, we may have to subsidize them.
Term
 Assimilative Capacity
Definition
 how much can the coastal ocean assimilate
Term
 What do we need to monitor in terms of marine pollution?
Definition
 currents and circulation (what happens one place effects other places)mixing or dilution: concentrationsacute vs. chronic effectsbiological magnification (expanding in concentration as it goes up the food chain)Cumulative or synergistic events
Term
 What happened with biological magnification and DDT?
Definition
 DDT became world wide pesticide, huge impact on malaria. Stimulates liver to produce enzymes which break down hormones necessary for healthy egg shell production.Most recognizable effects are in marine birds at the top of the food chainFor several years in 1960s no young pelicans were bornOutlawed in 1972
Term
 What are the different levels of biological impacts? (marine pollution)
Definition
 Biochemical or cellular level (minutes to hours) --> cell walls broke down Organismal level (hours to months) --> effects whole animal Population Dynamics (months to years) --> entire populationCommunity dynamics or structure (years to decades)Global impacts (decades) --> ocean acidification
Term
 Types of marine pollutants
Definition
 Oil PollutionDomestic waste/sewage (liquid waste, plastic in the ocean, garbage)Industrial and agricultural waste and runoff (industry, fertilizers, pesticides)
Term
 Where marine pollution comes from (percentages)?
Definition
 50% municipal and industrial (land based runoff)24% transportation and shipping (a lot could be oil)13% atmosphere (anything we put in the air that comes down into the ocean)11% natural sources2% offshore production
Term
 Where does US Oil Pollution come from? (percentages)
Definition
 63% natural seepage form seafloor22% industrial and municipal run-off 13% offshore operations
Term
 What happened in the Torrey Canyon 1969 oil spill?
Definition
 Spill off the coast of England, Saudi Arabian crude oil, Ship owned by one American oil company but chartered by a second oil company, registered in Liberia, Italian crew, German captain, taking oil to England.Who is responsible?Tried to hit it with flame throwers to get it to burn but it just cooked everything on surfaceTried chemical dispersants which did more damage than the oilON shore tried to sop it up with hayDidn't learn very much, damaged coast of France and England.
Term
 What happened at Platform A in Santa Barbara Channel?
Definition
 17,000 Barrels spilled. Set up platform in an anticline and started drilling. Inner three miles under state patrol, beyond three miles is federalPressure is thousands per square inch (REALLY wants to come out)Knew there was oil already seeping out of seafloor so they decided to go in. Used short casing to save money and put 50 tubes in each direction. o Decided there were too many rock chips and tried to pull of the drill string and ended up pulling up the mud with the drill string. Pretty soon pipe is getting blown out of the hole. Fuel line broke and all of the sudden gas and oil is boiling up on the seafloor.
Term
 What happened in the EXXON Valdez Alaska oil spill?
Definition
 260,000 barrels spilled, which was 22% of the cargo. Ranked only as 53rd largest spill. "the worst drunk driving accident in history"5 billion dollar lawsuit
Term
 What happened in the BP Horizon April 2010 oil spill?
Definition
 5,000,000 barrels and 11 deaths.Drilled in very deep water (5,000 feet), Initial estimates were about 5,000 barrels a day- it was more like 75,000 a day.
Term
 Four major constituents of liquid waste?
Definition
 Oxidizable organics (requires oxygen). Would take O2 out of the water that organisms need. Nutrients (nitrates, phosphates, iron, silicate). Not a problem if diluted but leads to plant growth. Toxic substances - heavy metals, organic compounds.Virus and Bacteria - water born diseases that tend to be pretty low in a pop like ours. We do have things like hepatitis. Anywhere else is poleo and typhoid. We measure for coliform bacteria as it is an indicator of contamination from domestic sewage.
Term
 What happens in "primary" waste treatment?
Definition
 • Involves one process of settling: sewage that comes in goes through a couple of grinders and goes into a big tank. After 2-4 hours anything that floats get scraped off, the things that settle get scraped, those go into the sludge digestor → ultimately spread it out over the land, use in pastures, take it and put it in the ocean, convert it to fertilizer that is packaged. AFter that liquid chlorinated and pumped into the receiving water body.Would not drink after just this stage
Term
 What happens in "Secondary" water treatment?
Definition
 Take primary water and goes through second process of "bio-oxidation"Trickling filter: huge big tanks filled with rocks covered with algae and microorganisms, sprinkle over these rocks. Slowly break down organic matter and compounds.Outdoor oxidation ponds (algae does the same thing)Repeats settling process, chlorinate again, and goes into body of water.
Term
 What happens in "tertiary" processing of waste?
Definition
 Coagulation (add aluminum solfate) causes particles of dirt to coagulateSettling - remove solidsNeutralizing pH - add carbon dioxideFiltration - gravel and sand and charcoal ChlorinateOut the city!
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