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OB Chapter 9
Undergraduate 1

Additional Business Flashcards




LG1- Define group and differentiate between different types of groups.
- A group is defined as two or more individuals, interacting and interdependent who have come together to achieve particular objectives
- Formal group: a designed work group defined by an organization’s structure
- Informal group: a group that is neither formally structured nor organizationally determined, such a group appears in response to the need for social contact
- Command group: a group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager
- Task group: people working together to complete a job task
- Interest group: people working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned
- Friendship group: people brought together because they share one or more common characteristics
LG2- Identify the 5 stages of group development.
Five-stage model:
Characterizes groups as they proceed through 5 stages:
-Forming (when a group is starting, not everything is clear yet)
-Storming (intragroup conflict over who will control the group)
-Norming (When group assimilate a common set of expectations, camaraderie)
-Performing (When the group if fully functional, last stage development)
-Adjourning (wrapping up activities rather than task performance)
- An alternative model for temporary groups with deadlines
o Punctuated-equilibrium model: a set of phases that temporary groups go through that involves transitions between inertia and activity.
LG3- Show how role requirements change in different situation.
1. Roles: a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit
-Role identity: certain attitudes and behaviors that are consistent with the role
-Role perception: how we’re supposed to act in a given situation
-Role expectations: the way others believe you should act
-Role conflict: when an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations
LG4- Demonstrate how norms and status exert influence on an individual's behavior.
oNorms: acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members
oPerformance norm
oAppearance norms
oSocial arrangement norms (with whom group members eat lunch)
oResource allocation norms
oThe Hawthorne studies
 Examining relationship between the physical environment and productivity
oConformity: the adjustment of one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group
 Reference group: important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform
 Asch’s study (influence of others on what one says –in order to be conformed to them)
oDeviant workplace behavior: voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in so doing, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members. Also called antisocial behavior or workplace incivility. (eg lying, stealing, cheating)
oA socially defined position or rand given to groups or group members by others
oStatus characteristic theory: a theory that states differences in status characteristics create status hierarchies within groups)
oIs determined by:
 The power a person wields over others
 A person’s ability to contribute to a group’s goals
 An individual’s personal characteristics
LG5- Show how group size affects group performance.
Large groups are good for gaining diverse input
-Small groups are better at doing something productive with that input

Social loafing: tendency to expend less effort when working collectively than when working alone. More in individualistic countries.
When a group becomes larger, the total productivity goes up but the individual productivity decreases.
When the input per person is not clear, there might be ‘free riders’.

To prevent social loafing/free riding: Set group goals, increase intergroup competition, engage in peer evaluation, and distribute group rewards based on each member’s unique contributions.
LG6- Contrast the benefits and disadvantages of cohesive groups.
5. Cohesiveness: degree to which members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.
This influences productivity.

How to encourage cohesiveness:
-Make the group smaller
-Encourage agreement with group goals
-Increase the time spend together
-Increase the status of the group
-Stimulate competition with other groups
-Reward the group rather than rewarding individuals
-Physically isolate the group
LG7- Contrast the strengths and weaknesses of group decision making.
Strengths: more complete information and knowledge, more approaches and alternatives to be considered and members are likely to enthusiastically support the decision and encourage others to accept it too.
Weaknesses: Time-consuming, conformity pressures in the groups, a few people dominate the discussion, suffer from ambiguous responsibility.

Effectiveness and efficiency:
Groups decisions are more accurate than the average member but less accurate than the most accurate member. Also, it takes more time for groups to make a decision, but the solution will be more creative and has a higher degree of acceptance.
LG7- Describe the two byproducts of group decision making: Groupthink and Groupshift.
Groupthink: Situation in which the group pressures for conformity
Group shift: Situation in which members tend to exaggerate the initial positions they hold. Groups make riskier decisions.
LG8- Compare the effectiveness of interacting, brainstorming, nominal and electronic meeting groups.
o Interacting groups: typical groups in which members interact with each other face-to-face
o Brainstorming: an idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives while withholding any criticism of those alternatives
o Nominal group technique: a group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion
 1. Members meet as a group but before any discussion takes place, each member independently writes down ideas on the problem
 2. After this silent period, each member presents one idea to the group.
 3. The group discusses the ideas for clarity and evaluates them
 Each group member silently and independently rank-orders the ideas. The idea with the highest aggregate ranking determines the final decision
o Electronic meeting: in which members interact on computers, allowing for anonymity of comments and aggregation of votes
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