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OB Chapter 4
Undergraduate 1

Additional Business Flashcards




LG1- Define personality
Personality: The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others.
LG1- Describe how personality can be measured
Measuring personality
-tests, observer-ratings surveys
LG1- Explain the factors that determine an individual's personality.
Heredity- Factors determined at conception, one's biological, physiological and inherent psychological makeup.
Personality traits- Enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behavior.
Education( heredity affects more than education)
LG2- Describe the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(MBTI) personality framework and assess its strengths and weaknesses.
-most widely used personality-assessment instrument, 100Qs
-classified people as: extraverted (E) or introverted (I), sensing (S) or intuitive (N), thinking (T) or feeling (E), judging (J) or perceiving (P)
-strengths: 16 personality types
-weaknesses: not a valid measure of personality, forces a person into one category: this or this, nothing between.
LG3- Identify the key traits in the Big Five personality model.
- extraversion: a personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious and assertive
- agreeableness: a personality dimension that describes someone who is good natured, cooperative, and trusting
- conscientiousness: a personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized
- emotional stability: a personality dimension that describes someone as calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed and insecure (neg.)
- openness to experience: a personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imagination, sensitivity and curiosity
LG4-Demonstrate how the Big Five traits predict behavior at work.(Diagram)
LG5- Identify other personality traits relevant to OB.
- Core self-evaluation: the degree to which an individual likes or dislikes himself or herself, whether the person sees himself or herself as capable and effective, and whether the person feels in control of his or her environment or powerless over the environment
- Machiavellianism: the degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means
- Narcissism: the tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement
- Self-monitoring: a personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust his/her behavior to external, situational factors
- Risk taking: willing or not willing to take risk
- Type A personality: aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant, struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or other people
- Proactive personality: people who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action and persevere until meaningful change occurs
LG6- Define value and value system
Values: Basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence
Value system: a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity
Generational values
- Different generations have different values
LG6- Demonstrate the importance of values
Importance of values
- They lay the foundation for our understanding of people’s attitudes and motivation because they influence our perceptions
- Values generally influence attitudes and behavior
LG6- Contrast terminal and instrumental values.
Terminal vs. instrumental values
Rokeach Value Survey
- Terminal values: desirable end-states of existence, the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime
- Instrumental values: preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values
LG7- Identify the dominant values in today's workforce.
Linking an individual’s personality and values to the workplace
- Person-job fit
o A theory that identifies six personality types(Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, conventional) and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover
- Person-organization fit
o Matching people to organizations: people are attracted to and selected by organizations that match their values
LG8- Identify Hofstede´s five value dimensions of national culture
Hofstede’s Framework for assessing cultures: one of the most widely referenced approaches for analyzing variations among cultures was done in the late 1970s by Geert Hofstede.
Power distance
- A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.
- A national culture attribute that describes the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups
- A national culture attribute that describes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them
- A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which the culture favors traditional masculine work roles of achievement, power and control. Societal values are characterized by assertiveness and materialist.
- A national culture attribute that has little differentiation between male and female roles, where women are treated as the equals of men in all aspects of the society
Uncertainty avoidance
- A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tried to avoid them
- A national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence
Short-term orientation
- A national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfillment of social obligations
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