Shared Flashcard Set


O Chem Test 1
Organic Chemistry
Undergraduate 3

Additional Organic Chemistry Flashcards




Frozen Methane Perspective (4)
Methane can form a clathrate-when molecules of one substance form a cage around molecules of another substance.

Despite the difference in polarity, water surrounds methane in an open latticework.

This Methane is on the ocean floor, and scientists want to mine it.

Is it safe though? Methane is flammable and a greenhouse gas. SUPPOSEDLY NASA thinks they can tell what happened 55 million years ago and they think that a giant methane release from tectonic plate shifting made a 13* F change in temp.

I don't believe in global warming, and I sure as hell hope the teacher doesn't. I guess she does though...
Oil Eating Microbes Perspective (OEM's) (4)
We use 710 million gallons of oil a day, and 100 million gallons of oil spilled per year on average.

There was a 240 mil gallon oil spill that was never covered, but there was an exxon valdez spill that was 11 mil that was covered.

Animals can't keep warm when soaked in oil, and birds can't fly. Some die because they ingest poison trying to clean themselves.

Dispersants allow OEM's to eat the oil, as long as they have nutrients and oxygen.
Petroleum and Gasoline Production (4)
Petroleum is a mixture of alkanes and aromatic compounds.

Distillation is used to separate out the alkanes.

The gasoline portion is alkanes and cycloalkanes with 6 to 12 carbon atoms. These make poor fuel and can cause knocking, but Alkenes and aromatic compounds are good fuels. One of the best fuels however is trimethylpentane or isooctane which has an octane rating of 100.

Catalytic cracking fragments large hydrocarbons into smaller ones, while catalytic reforming does the opposite.
Medical Perspective (4)
Many polyhalogenated hydrocarbons do not break down rapidly such as DDT, chlordane, kepone, and lindane. They can cause neurological damage.

Others are useful as anesthetics, such as Chloroethane and Chloromethane applied topically can deaden the nerve endings.

Chloroform used to be used as a general and local asesthetic. It rapidly causes a loss of consciousness. Although powerful it is short duration.

Trichloromethane Chloroform no longer used because it's carcinogenic. Instead, Halothane is used. Which looks like: and is considered very safe
F C C Br
F Cl
Hydrogenation, Hydration, and Halogenation require what indivual cirumstances?
Halogenation - Light or heat depending on the molecules involved.

Hydrogenation - Heat or pressure + Pt, Pd, or Ni

Hydration - Acidic
What does the prefix iso mean?
That two methyl groups are attached to the end of an alkyl group.
Ring Order for Naming
Triple, Double, Halogens (alphabetically), methyls (alphabetically)
Common names for ethene, and ethyne, and the iupac name for chloroform


Chloroform- Trichloromethane
Life Without Polymers Perspective (5)
Isoprenes make up rubber as monomers. Isoprene structure is

Scientists don't have a clue how Polyacrylic acid sucks up so much water in diapers.

Tetrafluoroethene is used to produce teflon in an addition polymer rxn.

When you stretch teflon to make Gore-Tex it is used to protect firefighters because of its fire resistance.

It is also used by military forces and amateur athletes for protection in the cold during strenuous activity. It is also used in medical procedures for sutures, synthetic blood vessels, and tissue reconstruction.
Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH) (Mutl-Benzene Rings) (4)
2 - Napthalene

3 in a row - Anthracene

3 in a half honey comb - Phenanthrene

5 in a 3 row with two above the top right two - Benzopyrene
Heterocylcic Aromtic Compounds
Aromatic compounds with other atoms than C in the ring, such as N
Benzene Ring names with Nitrites, Ethane, Bromine, Caboxyls, Aldehydes, Methyls, Alcohols, Amines, Ketones

5 Normals, 4 Uniques
Nitrite- Nitrobenzene
Ethane- Ethylbenzene
Bromine- Bromobenzene
Carboxyl- Benzoic Acid
Aldehyde- Benzaldehyde

Methyl- Toluene
Alcohol- Phenol
Amine- Aniline
Ketone- Anisole

2 Methyls - Xylene

Alcohol and Methyl- Cresol
Difference between a phenyl and benzyl group
Phenyl is attached to a CH, whereas

Benzyl is attached to a CH2
Benzene + Cl2 Results in
1 Chlorobenzene and 1 HCl
Nitrobenzene rxn
Benzene + Nitric Acid with H2SO4 present and 50-55*C = Nitrobenzene which is benzene with a nitrite.
6 Heterocyclic Common Names
Pyridine- One N

Pyrimidine- 2 N's, Meta

Purine- same but with cyclopentane with 2 meta N's

Imidazole- 2 Meta N's with N1 having a H

Furan- An O in the ring

Pyrrole- An NH in the ring.
The 7 Different Recyclable Numbers
1 PETE Polyethylene terephthalate, usually clear or green and rigid

2 HDPE High-density polyethylene

3 PVC Polyvinyl chloride, semirigid

4 LDPE Low-density polyehtylene, Flexible

5 PP Polypropylene, Semirigid

6 PS Polystyrene, Brittle, Styrofoam

7 Other Multilayer Plastics, Squeezable
Recycling Perspective
First invented in 1862, in the us 75 billion pounds of plastic are made each year. Plastics are versatile, and as a result are both a blessing and a curse. They have many uses, but do not biodegrade for 40 to 50 years.

Since there are many types of plastics, they need to be sorted when being recycled, #1 or PETE is ground up into tiny pellets and then made into carpets or for pillows.

HDPE or #2 when recycled is used for pipes, plastic, and trash cans. Whereas LDPE is used to make trash bags and lumber.

PVC or #3, although not usually recycled in the US is used to make shoe-soles, sweaters, and pipes when recycled.

PP or #5 normally used for fabrics, carpets, and margarine tubs, is used for gardening and fabrication when recycled.

#6 or PS is used to make egg cartons, "peanuts" for packaging, and Styrofoam. Food containers are not recycled, but non-food PS is made into hangers, desktop accessories, and plastic trays.
Supporting users have an ad free experience!