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Betty's Class

Additional Biochemistry Flashcards








Temporal lobe


Temporal - "tempermental killer has a hurt eye yet recognizes faces, names and can find objects easily."  

Deep in the brain, it's a layer above the brain stem.  Facial recognition, name recall and object retrieval happens here.  The amygdala is in the temporal lobe.  Meditation is positively correlated with amygdala size and empathy.  Serial killers have damage to one or both of their temporal lobes.






Occipital Lobe


Occipital - "I recognize, process and read language"


Occipital Lobe is at the very back of the brain and is responsible for written language.  Specifically word recognition, processing and reading. 








Last & largest 2 develop.   Judgment. higher thinking and discernement.  Caution based upon reason.   Delayed gratification.  Structure.  Solid decision making.  Reasoning, planning, problem solving. Intelligence, comprehension.


Depression seen here as a decrease of activity. Most dopamine delicate neurons are here.  Dopamine system is correlated to reward, attention, short term memory tasks, planning and motivation. 







Parietal Lobe - "My eye watches my hand move to touch the hot podium to speak"

Very top of brain.  Responsible for sensory perception including temperature, eye-hand coordination and language. Visual mapping, it knows where we are in space so we can coordinate movements relative to objects around us. Number representation.



4 lobes




Frontal, Occipital, Temporal, Parietal





What areas in the brain are responsible for self regulation-self-mastery?  What are some strategies to minimize hijacking?  What are some strategies to regulate your own thoughts/behavior when your buttons are pushed



Frontal Lobe's connection to amygdala.  Balance of emotion and action

Self regulation is important 'cuz we're social beings.  Need awareness of our thoughts, feelings and actions so that they stay w/in social norms.

Can't regulate emotion without secure attachment to caregivers.  Coping has to be modeled.

amygdala - fear, indignation, anger, aggression, distress.  needs to be mediated by hypothalamus in limbic system releasing oxytocin.

Social beings so need to remain connected to the group.  Can't if you're a jerk

identify triggers/hijack apparoaching

meditation, empathy, visualization of happy place, yoga

to alter how we THINK, FEEL, ACT






Name and describe the three types of empathy.    



CEEC - Understand/Feel/Act


Cognitive- can walk in their shoes. Must have cognitive empathy to go up mgnt ladder. Understand their perspective and know what language to use w/them Psychopaths are good @ this 'cuz being connected to others give them opportunity 2 inflict max pain or whatever.


Emotional- feel the emotions of the other person = very well attuned.  Chemistry & rapport.  It's catching like experiencing an actors' emotions.  Can lead to overload


Empathatic Concern- spontaneously moved to act upon feeling the other persons emotions.  Draws upon reptilian, caretaking brain ex; love for a child.  





No Empathy?











What is the difference between empathy and compassion? Discuss at least three strategies to create/cultivate empathy.



Compassion is feeling sorry for another's plight.


Empathy (Cognitive, Emotional, Empathetic Concern) - is being able to put yourself into their shoes to Understand, Feel and take Action because of another's plight.

sit with a person quietly

overtly mirror their movements & expressions to get on the "same wavelength"

active listening / reflectin

role playing to get them out of their head - "how do you think ___ will respond to your offer?  Apply story telling metaphors.

be unbiased & calm

get them to tell their story

*cannot feel empathy and ager @ the same time.  switch lens from anger to empathy.





Describe the concept of mimicry and three of the ways that it has an impact on relationships.  



Mirror neurons - empathy - survival mechanism - aligns neurological pathways - social learning.

use in mediation - subtle mimicry - body language to opening.  align to mine, notice if they are aligned to each other.




What is the role that hormones play in collaboration and conflict?  (Pick three and describe their roles).


Neurotransmitters – chemicals used by neurons to pass information to other neurons.  Released into the synaptic gap and these chemicals either excite or inhibit the receiving neuron.

Oxytocin -bonding, happy, social

Adrenaline -immediate, pounding heart, ready for battle, surging energy

Norepinephrine - immediate release - hyper aware, focused, redirect blood flow to important areas



Cortisol - minutes to appear fluid balance, blood pressure






Describe the structures of the limbic system (3) and describe each of their main functions. 


Many components - feeling and reacting brain - emotion id and processing center - responds in a nanosecond.  deep inside the brain - it arcs around the reptilian brain.  motivation, emotions, endocrine and autonomic system.

Hippocampus - sea horse shaped.  encodes memories from implicit to explicit memory when flooded with oxytocin. "my hippocampus encoded the memory from class that release of vasopressen from the hypothalamus is positively correleted with sexual fidelity. alzheimers - damaged memories and damaged spatial orientation (get lost)

Hypothalamus - secreted hormones that control breathing, hunger, elimination. sleep, appetite, heartbeat, digestion, temperature regulation.

Amygdala - stores, encodes and interprets emotions, can only look to the past, alerts to danger.  recognizes faces - anything as threatening or safe





Describe how each of the structures of the limbic system work together in the areas of fear response, trauma, and conflict



Amygdala - reactivates neural networks when a threat was first experienced.  Amygdala hijack.  Goes on overdrive flooded w/cortisol/epheniphrine (changes blood flow to essential parts of body for fighting, narrows focus of eyes, surge of energy).

Hippocampus -severe trauma prevents Hippocampus from encoding memory.

Hypothalamus (HPA axis Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Adrenal)- Locus of stress response, secretes too many or too few chemicals cortisol/ephiniphrine which amp up or flatten out affect.  Flat line too high of cortisol is correlated with PTSD.  HPA axis downregulation is correlated with depression.  Anti-depressants work on HPA axis. 

Goldilocks relationship to stress = not too much, not too little, just enough. Too much can overpower oxytocin (which if under childhood stress the kid wouldn't have enough of anyway)





What are at least 3 ways to improve your curiosity?  Why is this important that you, as a peacemaker/conflict resolver, adopt this skill?


brain seeks novelty, learning is direct and peripherial experience, focused attention/peripheral perception, new neurological pathways.  Learning creates mylenation = turbo charges chemical xfer 'cuz synaptic gap is shortened

Can be trained:

meditate (non judgment set aside(

mindfulness (notice and absorb)

ask questions - seek experts

reward new connections = take a pause to let it sink in & have emotional context





Describe the impact of traumatic stress on the brain.


Physical, emotional or both.  PTSD.  every cell records memories.  every embedded memory can be re-activated. (react vs respond).

reptilian brain takeover

HPA axis (hypothalamus, pitiuitary, adrenal) surges hormones of fight/flight = redirects blood flow, focuses attention, changes breathing, increases strength.  This can get stuck and not allow parasympathetic (rest and digest) nervous system to come back on line.

*hypervigiliance, *intrusive thoughts,

*mood disturbance (blame, shame, depression), *avoidance

no new memories from hypocampus.  adrenal stop functioning, depression,

antidepressants work on HPA

cortisol -neurotransmitter of stress response - doesn't go through typical peaks and valleys can midline too high or too low

want goldilocks of cortisol





How can emotions impact decision making?  What other elements can alter the way by which people make decisions?

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