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Near Eastern Archaeology
Midterm!!
80
Archaeology
Undergraduate 2
03/02/2009

Additional Archaeology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Culture history
Definition
standard interpretations and conventional wisdom
Term
Paleolithic
Definition

-relationships between Neanderthals and modern humans

-chipped stone tools

-in NE, during last glaciation, Levant occupied by hunters and foragers

                -mobile, lived in camps

                -diet based on “broad spectrum” of plants and animals

                -preadaptations to agriculture (storage facilities like pits, ground stone tools)

-type site: Ohalo II

Term
Mesolithic
Definition

later addition into Three Age System for Middle East

-Holocene foragers

-includes Natufian culture

Term
Neolithic
Definition

-Middle East is one of first places where people began to select and care for plants and animals, leading to domestication

-neolithization

-sedentism

-sites bigger than Natufian

-use of mud-brick, absent from Natufian culture

-first blades (specialized product, length 2x width)

-abundant fire-cracked rocks

-silos

-specification of gender in human depiction for first time

                -emerging role of women

                -predecessor to mother-goddess

-continued to gather/hunt

                -broad-spectrum subsistence like Natufians

-long-distance exchange (obsidian)
Term
Neolithization
Definition

domestication, occurs at different rates in different places

Term
Architecture
Definition

-traditional indicator of sedentism

-earliest constructed dwellings: semi-subterranean, single-room, round abodes, walls of poles and reed

-PPNA: houses are freestanding structures, round or oval, often semi-subterranean, mostly single rooms, but one 2-roomed structure at Netiv Hagdud, long axes 4-6 m

                -generally stone foundations, superstructure of mud-bricks, stone slabs, and small stones in mud

-internal hearths, mud plaster floors, reed mats on floors, some exterior hearths

                -internal partitioning at Jericho, Mureybit, Netiv Hagdud

-PPNB: mudbrick houses, multi-room, rectangular, for extended families

-Ubaid: tripartite houses with long central hall and smaller rooms to sides

-can be used in cross-dating (not too common)

Term
PPNA
Definition

9500-8500 BC, from Jordan to Euphrates

-crop cultivation (earliest evidence for plant domestication), gathering, hunting, no animal domestication

                -ate barley, wheat, lentils, legumes, wild plants inc. fruits

                -gazelle, wild ass, capra-ovines, deer, boar (in Jordan)

-first clay figurines, both female and male but few anthropomorphic figurines, no zoomorphic figurines

-focus on female monotheism

-small and large stone sculptures to north, associated with special purpose buildings with human and animal images—regional centers for ritual? (ex: Jericho tower)

-all settlements at low elevations, close to perennial water source

                -in Mediterranean zone, close to source of wood

                -often on or near renewed alluvial soil

-houses are freestanding structures, round or oval, often semi-subterranean, mostly single rooms, but one 2-roomed structure at Netiv Hagdud, long axes 4-6 m

                -generally stone foundations, superstructure of mud-bricks, stone slabs, and small stones in mud

-internal hearths, mud plaster floors, reed mats on floors, some exterior hearths

                -internal partitioning at Jericho, Mureybit, Netiv Hagdud

                -square houses at Jerf el Ahmar, square and round houses at Mureybit—evidence that square architecture developed in north during PPNA, adopted by south during PPNB

Term
PPNB
Definition

8500-6000 BC

-expansion in varieties of cereals cultivated, addition of critical new crops

-hunting of herd animals still important, esp. gazelle

-development of herding sheep and goats

-architecture: mudbrick houses, multi-room, rectangular, for extended families

                -sometimes have hearths, ovens, benches, basins, and storage containers or bins

                -extremely fine, hard plaster on floors and walls (decorated in south)

                -similarities of houses across long distances

-revolution of symbols

-differences in rituals between Levant & SE Anatolia

-social function of PPNB rituals = group cohesion

-4 structuring principles underlying PPNB rituals and ideology:

                -communality (public display): integrate communities, conflict resolution

-BUT only a few people could fit into ritual buildings—were they in use simultaneously? Used by certain people for specific purposes?

-dominant symbolism: use of highly visual, powerful, and evocative symbols (coming to terms with socioeconomic changes?)

-vitality: focus on head (artificial deformation of heads, auroch horns)

-human-animal linkage (counteraction to domestication?)

-skull separation, plastering, and display characterizes Levant

                -cranial deformation

-3 burial styles in MPPNB:

                -subfloor and courtyard, decapitated

                -courtyard, skull intact (lower status than decapitated?)

                -infant

-rectangular houses in large settlements sometimes referred to as “megavillages”

-non-domestic buildings and stone stelae at Nevalı Çori, Çayönü, and Göbekli Tepe

-burgeoning of anthropomorphic, zoomorphic, and geometric figurines in middle PPNB

                -animal and human figurines recovered from almost all PPNB sites

-religious shift to bull/masculine god

-chipped stone

                -blades from bipolar cores, stemmed projectile points, sickle blades, burins, borers

-ground stone in profusion (slabs, mortars, pestles, beads, pendants)

Term
Samarran
Definition

6400-5800 BC

-irrigation agriculture

-to south of Hassuna culture

-chocolate-brown painted pottery, patterns maybe inspired by basketry

Term
Hassuna
Definition

during 7th millennium BC in Northern Mesopotamian plain, areas with rainfall farming

-new styles of pottery: more elaborate, incised

-copper tools and jewelry

Term
Ubaid
Definition

early occupation of Southern Mesopotamian plains, 6000-4000 BC

-tripartite houses with long central hall and smaller rooms to sides

-pottery

-seals

-widespread communication and interactions (supported by far-reaching similarities in material culture)

-some large settlements with temples, storehouses, & cemeteries… social hierarchy?

-copper-based metallurgy in some areas, 5th millennium BC

Term
Uruk
Definition

4th millennium BC = urbanized societies

-clay tokens, cylinder seals

-weaving of woolen textiles became major Mesopotamian industry for local consumption and export

-domesticated donkeys in Mesopotamia (transport for goods or people over long distances)

-Uruk tradition reached way far by late Uruk—termed “Uruk expansion”

Term
Copper
Definition

5th millennium = substantial metalworking in Turkey, N. Iraq, the Levant, and Iran

-major industry in Levant during Uruk period, implies specialization

-hammered native copper into sheets, then bent or rolled sheets to form artifacts

-some tools subjected to heat, “annealed” to reduce strain built up in metal due to working, reduces cracking, increases hardness

-awls, hooks, beads at Çayönü, sheet bead at Ali Kosh

-copper tools and jewelry characteristic of Hassuna culture

Term
Chalcolithic
Definition

later addition to Three Age System for Middle East

-use of metals

-rise of urban states

Term
Bronze Age
Definition

large-scale cities, states, empires

-begins ~3000 BC

Term
Iron Age
Definition
developed polities, empires
Term
Early Dynastic Period
Definition

2900-2350 BC

-city-states

-oikos economy in S. Mesopotamia

-fluorishing trade

-smaller urban centers in N. Mesopotamia and Levant than in S. Mesopotamia

-distinct material culture in S. & W. Iran

Term
Oikos economy
Definition

hierarchically organized households control land, other means of production, and a dependent labor force

-in S. Mesopotamia during Early Dynastic Period

Term
Traditional Near Eastern archaeologists
Definition

work within a historical framework, focusing on regions

-emphasis on history and historical models

-emphasis on area, language, all periods in that area (ex: Schwartz)

-philologists study language form, writing system, texts (ex: Cooper)

-historians focus on documents and the way they chronicle events (ex: van de Mieroop)

Term
Biblical archaeology
Definition

variant of traditional NE archaeology

-focuses on relationship of archaeological remains to the Hebrew bible

-usually not very interested in other parts of the NE

Term
Egyptologists
Definition

work in historical periods, must know language and texts

-strongly art historical

-a few influenced by anthropology and prehistory (ex: Kemp)

Term
Anthropologists or prehistorians working in Egypt
Definition

-know the Egyptological material but trained also in anthropology, very rare, difficult to have a good knowledge of both (ex: Bard, anthropologist)

-trained in prehistory, use Egypt as example of process (ex: Meskell, Australian postmodernist)

Term
Art Historians
Definition

different set of assumptions, different history of development of field

-study images that emphasize style, iconography, artistic traditions

-Egyptology strongly art historical so few would identify themselves as pure art historians working in Egypt

-in NE, small but growing number of art historians trained in field archaeology

Term
NE Prehistorians
Definition

European discipline

-in past, relied on historical models, but today very much influenced by American prehistory as practiced by anthropologists, European cultural anthropology, and post-processualism

-(ex: Bernbeck, Akkermans, Verhoeven)

Term
Anthropological archaeologists
Definition

work on all periods

-interested in everything that people do

-adopt anthropological perspective, interest in comparison, understanding reasons behind change based on processes observed or known from ethnohistorical and historical sources (ex: Pollock, a Marxist, and Wattenmaker)

-focus on economic and socio-political aspects of the past, but increasingly interested in ideology, values

-also focus on images, which represent ideas that structure societies

Term