Shared Flashcard Set


Muscular Anatomy Deck for Fitness Theory
This card deck focuses on learning muscular anatomy, muscle movement and proper exercises for muscles.

Additional Fitness Flashcards







Tibialis Anterior


The Tibialis Anterior (Shin Muscle) originates at the lateral side of the Tibia bone and inserts near the foots first metatarsal. 

Movement: Dorsi Flexion and Inversion (pulls up the toes, opposite of calf raises)

Exercise: Walking. Doesn't need strength training.

Stretch: Point the toes

Gastrocnemius, Soleus and Peroneus[image] [image]

Gastrocnemius, Soleus, & Peroneus are the calf muscles. Gastrocnemius originates at the posterior femur bone, and inserts at the calcaneus bone. 

The soleus is underneath and originates at the posterior tibia and fibula bones, and inserts at the posterior calcaneus bone, attatching to the Achilles Tendon. Peroneus longus, origates at lateral side of leg below knee, at the fibula and inserts at first metatarsal. 

[image]Gastrocnemius Movement: Crosses the knee and ankle, so it does Plantar Flexion (Calf Raises) but also Knee Flexion. Exercise: Calf Raises. Stretch: Toes up against wall.

Soleus Movement: Plantar Flexion only when the knee is bent. Exercise: Seated Calf Raises, Squats. Stretch: Same as gastrocnemius, except slightly bend knee.

Peroneus Movement:  Eversion (pulling and rolling foot laterally). This muscle is the one that stops you from rolling your ankle inwards, and it helps in arch support. 






Biceps Femoris, Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus make up the Hamstrings, they all attatch to the ischium (sit bones), the biceps femoris attatches at the lateral head of the fibia bone, and the other two muscles attatch to the tibia bone.

Lot's of people forget to work the hamstrings and only focus on the front quadriceps, but the hamstrings should make up 80% of  leg strength.

Movement: They cross the hip joint and the knee joint. They extend the hip and flex the knee.

Exercise: Swiss Ball Pull (lay on back, feet on ball, raise hips in air, roll ball in with feet) 

Stretch: Lay on back, pull straight leg towards chest, or done seated while leaning over straight legs.

* Squats and lunges don't actually work the hamstrings, because they are antogonist at the knee!






Adductor Brevis (smallest), Adductor Longus, Adductor Magnus (largest) and the Gracilis make up the adductor group. The 3 originate at the pubis and insert at the femur, except the gracilis inserts at the tibia. 

Movement: They all adduct the Hip Joint. The Gracilis is also capable of a tiny bit of knee flexion.

Exercise: Squats and Lunges, or Swiss Ball Squeezes.

Stretch: Sit, hold ankles, gently push knees to floor.  

*Side Leg Raises are unsafe, don't work the adductors, overwork the gluteus medius and hip flexors, strains sacroiliac join and lumbar, and impinges hip joint. 


Quadriceps Femoris 



Rectus Femoris, Vastus Medialis, Vastus Intermedius, and Vastus Lateralis make the Quadriceps Femoris. The Rectus Femoris originates at ilium (front of pevlis) and the Vastus Group originates at the anterior femur bone at the top. All 4 muscles insert at the pateller ligament to the tibia.

Rectus Femoris Movement: It crosses the knee and hip! It's a hip flexor, and a knee extensor. Exercise: Squats, Lunges, Leg Press. 

Vastus Group Movement: Knee extension (like kicking a soccer ball).

The vastus medialis stabilizes the patella. Exercise: same as above.



Gluteus Maximus, Medius and Minimus




Gluteus Maximus originates at posterior iliac crest and sacrum,  and lower sacrum and coccyx and inserts at femur and illotibial band. Medius and minimus originate at crest of illium and insert at anterior, superior femur. 

Gluteus Maximus Movement: Extends hip and rotates hip laterally. 

Gluteus Medius and Minimus Movement: Hip Abductors and Hip Flexors and rotates hip medially.

Exercise: Squats and Lunges work the Gluteus Maximus. 

The Gluteus Medius and Minimus stabilize the hips during these exercises. To work them, balance on one leg. 

Stretch: Sit, cross one leg over the other and pull knee to chest.





The Illiacus, Psoas Major and Psoas Minor make up the Illoapsoas. The Illiacus originates at inner iliac crest and sacrum, and the Psoas muscles originate at the transverse process of lumbar vertebrae and T-12. They all insert at top of femur. 

Movement: Hip flexion and lateral rotation (leg lift and up to side) and lumbar vertebrae flexion.  

Exercise. None. It's strong from walking and doesn't need any strengthening. Illiopsoas take over when doing full sit ups or straight legged sit ups. 


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