# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

MSE Quiz 4
Quiz 4.. Engr. Rulloda - Mapua Institute of Technology
134
Engineering
03/03/2012

Term
 Magnetic Forces
Definition
 generated by moving electrically charged particles
Term
 Magnetism
Definition
 the phenomenon by which materials asset an attractive or repulsive force or influences on other material
Term
 Magnetic Induction
Definition
 represents the magnitude of the internal field strength within a substance that us subjected ti an H field.
Term
 Tesla
Definition
 weber per square meter (w/m^2)
Term
 Magnetic field strength
Definition
 the externally applied magnetic field (H)
Term
 Permeability
Definition
 a property of the specific medium through which H fields partes and in which B is measured
Term
 Magnetic Susceptibility
Definition
 measures the response of electrons to a magnetic field
Term
 Diamagnetic Field
Definition
 H=0
Term
 Curie Temperature
Definition
 temperature above which a ferromagnet becomes a paramagnet
Term
 Neel Temperature
Definition
 temperature above which antiferromagnet becomes a paramagnet
Term
 Magnetic susceptibility
Definition
 the proportionality constant between magnetization M and magnetic Field Strength M.
Term
 magnetization
Definition
 total magnetic moment per unit volume of material. A measure of the contribution to the magnetic flux by some material within an H field.
Term
 Bohr magneton
Definition
 The most fundamental magnetic moment which is of magnitude of 9.27x10^-24 A.m^2
Term
 Diamagnetism
Definition
 is a very weak form of magnetism that is nonpermanent and persists only while an external field is being applied
Term
 Paramagnetism
Definition
 A relatively weak form of magnetism that results from the independent alignment of atomic dipoles with an magnetic field. Results when the atomic dipoles that are free to rotate preferentially align,by rotation with an external field.
Term
 Ferromagnetism
Definition
 permanent magnetic moment in the absence of an external field, and manifest very large and permanent magnetization.
Term
 Saturation Magnetization
Definition
 the maximum possible magnetization
Term
 antiferro magnetism
Definition
 the alignment of the spin moments of neighboring atoms or ions in exactly opposite directions
Term
 Ferrimagnetism
Definition
 ceramics that exhibit permanent magnetization.
Term
 curie temparature
Definition
 temparature where in saturation magnetization diminishes gradually and then abruptly drops to zero
Term
 domain
Definition
 small-volume regions in which there is mutual alignment in the same direction of all magnetic dipole moments
Term
 hysterisis
Definition
 effect produced in which the magnetic induction field lags begin the applied H field or decreases at a lower rate
Term
 remanence
Definition
 the material remains magnetized in the absence of an external H field
Term
 Coercivity
Definition
 The applied magnetic field necessary to reduce to zero the magnetic flux density of a magnetized ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic material
Term
 Soft magnetic material
Definition
 small are of loop (hysterisis); are used in devices that are subjected to alternating magnetic fields and in which energy must be low
Term
 eddy currents
Definition
 elecrtical currents that are induced in a magnetic material by a magnetic field that varies in magnitude and direction with time
Term
 Hard magnetic material
Definition
 large area of hysterisis; used in permanent magnets have a high resistance to demagnetization
Term
 Critical Temparature
Definition
 temparature at which material attain superconductivity
Term
 Neisser effect
Definition
 a phenomenon where in an applied magnetic field will be excluded from the body of material
Term
 Capacitor
Definition
 material that stores energy
Term
 Capacitance
Definition
 magnitude of charge stored or either plate divided by the applied voltage`
Term
 Dielectric
Definition
 electrically insulating,exhibit electric dipole structure
Term
 dielectric constant (k)
Definition
 ratio of the permittivity of a medium to that of a vacuum.
Term
 Capacitance
Definition
Term
 Dielectric displacement
Definition
 magnitude of charge per unit area of capacitor plate
Term
 Dielectric strength
Definition
 magnitude of an electric field necessary to cause significant current passage through a dielectric material (breakdown).
Term
 Polarization
Definition
 process of dipole alignment
Term
 Electronic polarization
Definition
 result from the distortion of an atomic electron cloud by an electric field
Term
 Ionic Polarization
Definition
 result from the relative displacement of elecrically charged ions in response to an electric field
Term
 Orientation polarization
Definition
 found only in substance posses permanent dipole moment which results a rotation of the permanent moment into direction of applied field.
Term
 Relaxation Frequency
Definition
 reciprocal of minimum reorientation time for realignment of dipoles when e- field is reversed
Term
 Dielectric loss
Definition
 absorption of e- energy by a dielectric material subjected to an alternative current e- field (microwave)
Term
 Dielectric Strength
Definition
 breakdown strength
Term
 FerroElectricity
Definition
 dielectric material that exhibit spotaneous polarization in the absence of electric field
Term
 Piezoelectricity
Definition
 press electricity polarization is induced and electric field is established across a specimen by the application of external forces
Term
 Capacitance
Definition
 quantity of charge stored on either plate
Term
 Capacitor
Definition
 stores energy
Term
 Polarization
Definition
 the process of dipole alignment. The increase in charge density above that for a vacuum because of the presence of the dielectric
Term
 Electronic polarization
Definition
 it results from displacement of the center of the negative by charged electron cloud relative to the positive nucleus of an atom by electric field
Term
 ionic polarization
Definition
 occurs only in material that are ionic. An applied field acts to displace cations in are direction and anions in the opposite direction,which gives rise to the net dipole moment
Term
 orientation polarization
Definition
 is found only in substances that possess permanent dipole moments
Term
 dielectric loss
Definition
 the absorption of electrical energy by a dielectric material that is subjected to alternating field
Term
 Dielectric strength
Definition
 represents the magnitude of an electric field necessary to produce breakdown
Term
 ferroelectrics
Definition
 dielectric materials that exhibit spontaneous polarization-that is polarization in the absence of an electric field
Term
 piezoelectricity
Definition
 pressure electricity,polarization is induced and an electric field is established across a specimen by the application of external forces.
Term
 Transducers
Definition
 devices that convert electrical energy into mechanical strains and vice versa
Term
 intrinsic semiconductors
Definition
 are those in which the electrical behavior is based on the electronics structure inherent in the pure material
Term
 extrinsic semiconductors
Definition
 the electrical characteristics are dictated by impurity atoms
Term
 Donor
Definition
 donates single electron to the conduction band
Term
 n-type extrinsic semiconductor
Definition
 the number of electrons in the conduction band far exceeds the number of those in the valence band
Term
 acceptor
Definition
 capable of accepting an electron from the valence band, leaving behind a hole
Term
 p-type
Definition
 holes are present in much higher concentrations than electrons
Term
 intrinsic temperature region
Definition
 region where electron concentration increases above P content an aymptotitacally approaches the intrinsic curve as temperature increases
Term
 charge carrier's mobilities
Definition
 the ease with which electrons and holes are transported through the crystal
Term
 Hall effect
Definition
 is a result of the phenomenon where by a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the direction of motion of a charged particle exerts a force on the particle perpendicular to both magnetic field and the particle motion directions
Term
 Diode
Definition
 an electronic device that allows the current to flow in one direction
Term
 p-n rectifying junction
Definition
 is constructed from a single piece of semiconductor that is doped so as to be n-type on one side and p-type on the other
Term
 Forward bias
Definition
 the positive terminal may be connected to the p-side and the negative terminal to the n-side. The holes on the p-side and the electrons on the n-side are attracted to the junction
Term
 Reverse bias
Definition
 the negative terminal is connected to the p-side and the positive terminal is connected to the n-side. Both holes and electrons are rapidly drawn away from the junction.
Term
 Breakdown
Definition
 a phenomenon where in very abrupt increase in current occurr
Term
 Transistors
Definition
 serve as switching devices in computers for the processing and storage information
Term
 Flash memory
Definition
 a rapidly evolving information storage technology that uses semiconductor devices
Term
 conducting polymers
Definition
 polymers that have electrical conductivities on part with metallic conductors
Term
 Dielectric material
Definition
 one that B electrically insulating and exhibits or may be to exhibit an electric dipole structure
Term
 Electric dipole
Definition
 separation of positive and negative electrically charged entities on a molecular or atomic level
Term
 Piezoelectric materials
Definition
 used in transducers
Term
 transducer
Definition
 device that convert electrical energy to mechanical strains
Term
 transducer
Definition
 materials are titanates of barium and lead zirconate (Pb2O3) quartz
Term
 transistors
Definition
 for amplification of electrical signals
Term
 donor impurities
Definition
 excess electron
Term
 acceptor impurities
Definition
 excess holes
Term
 permittivity
Definition
 proportionality constant between the electric displacement and the elctric field
Term
 ohm's law
Definition
 relates the current I or time rate of charge passage to the applied voltage
Term
 electrical conductivity
Definition
 used to specify the electrical character of a material
Term
 current density
Definition
 the current per unit area
Term
 electric field intensity
Definition
 the voltage difference between two points divided by the distance separating them
Term
 Metals
Definition
 are good conductors typically having conductivities on the order of 10^7 (ohmmeter)^-1
Term
 Insulators
Definition
 materials with very low conductivities, ranging between 10^-10 and 10^-20
Term
 Semiconductors
Definition
 materials with intermediate conductivities,generally from 10^-6 to 10^4 (ohmmeter)^-1
Term
 electric current
Definition
 results from the motion of electrically charged paricles in repsonse to focus that act on them from an externally applied electric field
Term
 ohm's law
Definition
 relates the current I or time rate of charge passage to the applied voltage
Term
 electrical conductivity
Definition
 used to specify the electrical character of a material
Term
 current density
Definition
 the current per unit area
Term
 electric field intensity
Definition
 the voltage difference between two points divided by the distance separating them
Term
 Metals
Definition
 are good conductors typically having conductivities on the order of 10^7 (ohmmeter)^-1
Term
 Insulators
Definition
 materials with very low conductivities, ranging between 10^-10 and 10^-20
Term
 Semiconductors
Definition
 materials with intermediate conductivities,generally from 10^-6 to 10^4 (ohmmeter)^-1
Term
 electric current
Definition
 results from the motion of electrically charged paricles in repsonse to focus that act on them from an externally applied electric field
Term
 ohm's law
Definition
 relates the current I or time rate of charge passage to the applied voltage
Term
 electrical conductivity
Definition
 used to specify the electrical character of a material
Term
 current density
Definition
 the current per unit area
Term
 electric field intensity
Definition
 the voltage difference between two points divided by the distance separating them
Term
 Metals
Definition
 are good conductors typically having conductivities on the order of 10^7 (ohmmeter)^-1
Term
 Insulators
Definition
 materials with very low conductivities, ranging between 10^-10 and 10^-20
Term
 Semiconductors
Definition
 materials with intermediate conductivities,generally from 10^-6 to 10^4 (ohmmeter)^-1
Term
 electric current
Definition
 results from the motion of electrically charged paricles in repsonse to focus that act on them from an externally applied electric field
Term
 ohm's law
Definition
 relates the current I or time rate of charge passage to the applied voltage
Term
 electrical conductivity
Definition
 used to specify the electrical character of a material
Term
 current density
Definition
 the current per unit area
Term
 electric field intensity
Definition
 the voltage difference between two points divided by the distance separating them
Term
 Metals
Definition
 are good conductors typically having conductivities on the order of 10^7 (ohmmeter)^-1
Term
 Insulators
Definition
 materials with very low conductivities, ranging between 10^-10 and 10^-20
Term
 Semiconductors
Definition
 materials with intermediate conductivities,generally from 10^-6 to 10^4 (ohmmeter)^-1
Term
 electric current
Definition
 results from the motion of electrically charged paricles in repsonse to focus that act on them from an externally applied electric field
Term
 electronic conduction
Definition
 current arises from the flow of electrons within solid materials
Term
 ionic conduction
Definition
 net motion of charged ions produces a current
Term
 electron energy band
Definition
 this is formed when each atomic state split into a series of closely spaced electron states in the solid
Term
 Fermi Energy
Definition
 the energy corresponding to the highes filled state at 0K
Term
 conduction band
Definition
 conduction electrons are those that have been excited to states within this band
Term
 band gap energy
Definition
 for semiconductors and insulators, the energies that lie between the valence and conductions bands; for intrinsic materials, electrons are forbidden to have energies within this range.
Term
 Hole
Definition
 a vacant electron statein the valance band that behaves as a positive charge carrier in an electric field
Term
 Free electrons
Definition
 electrons with energies greater than Fermi energy accelerate in the presence of electric field that participate in the conduction process
Term
 Scattering phenomenon
Definition
 is manifested as a resistance to the passage of an electric current
Term
 drift velocity
Definition
 the average electron velocity in the direction of the force imposed ny applied field
Term
 electron mobility
Definition
 an indication of the frequency of scattering events
Term
 Matthiessens's Rule
Definition
 the total resistivity of a metal is the sum of the contributions from thermal vibrations,impurities and plastic deformation, that is the scattering mechanism act independently of one another
Term
Definition
 considered to be wavelike consisting of electric and magnetic field components that are perpendicular to each other and also to the direction of propagation
Term
 photons
Definition
 groups or packets of energy
Term
Definition
 corresoponds to the energy being transmitted per unit of time across a unit area that is perpendicular to the direction of propagation
Term
 Transparent
Definition
 materials that are capable of transmitting light with relatively little absorption and reflection
Term
 translucent
Definition
 materials are those through which light is transmitted diffusely; that is; light is scattered within the interior, to the degree that objects are not clearly distinguishable when viewed through a specimen of the material
Term
 LASER acronym
Definition
 light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
Term
 photoconductivity
Definition
 attendant increase in conductivity, photon-induced electron transitions in which light is absorbed
Term
 light-emitting diode
Definition
 the device that produces electroluminiscence
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