# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Mr. Wright - 8th Grade Physical Science
1st Semester Exam
104
Science
8th Grade
01/15/2013

## Cards Return to Set Details

Term
 Yes or No   Generally, gases insulate much better than solids.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   Conduction is the main method of heat flow in solids.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   Temperature indicates the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 The amount of thermal energy that must be gained or lost to change the temperature of 1g of a substance 1oC is called the substance's ___________.
Definition
 specific heat (capacity)
Term
 The amount of thermal energy required to change the temperature of an object 1oC is called its ______________.
Definition
 heat capacity
Term
 Two touching objects that have the same temperature have reached _________________.
Definition
 thermal equilibrium
Term
 How are the fiducial points of the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales similar?
Definition
 They both use the phase-change points of water.
Term
 A Stirling engine converts thermal energy to ________ energy.
Definition
 mechanical
Term
 Which of the following is the best conductor of thermal energy? air silver glass snow
Definition
 silver
Term
 Two objects in contact with each other continue to conduct thermal energy until...
Definition
 the objects have the same temperature.
Term
 You warm your hands on a cup of hot chocolate through...
Definition
 conduction
Term
 Which temperature system has a fiducial point at the boiling point of water? Celsius Kelvin Fahrenheit Celsius and Kelvin Celsius and Fahrenheit Celsius, Kelvin, and Fahrenheit
Definition
 Celsius and Fahrenheit
Term
 Which of the following has particles with the highest kinetic energy? 1-a bathtub of warm water 2-a lake in the winter 3-a mug full of boiling water 4-a thimble full of steam
Definition
 a thimble full of steam
Term
 Which type of heat transfer is demonstrated by heat lamps keeping food hot?
Definition
 radiation
Term
 Which type of heat transfer is demonstrated by the sun heating the leather seats in a car?
Definition
 radiation
Term
 Which type of heat transfer is demonstrated by hot air rising from the land?
Definition
 convection
Term
 Which type of heat transfer is demonstrated by the heating of a light bulb when it is on?
Definition
 radiation
Term
 Which type of heat transfer is demonstrated by ice melting when placed in a warm drink?
Definition
 conduction
Term
 Which type of heat transfer is demonstrated by the fact that a balloon filled with hot air rises, while one full of cold air sinks?
Definition
 convection
Term
 Be able to convert   Celsius to Fahrenheit AND Fahrenheit to Celsius
Definition
Term
 Fluid pressure is not affected by the __________________.
Definition
 volume of the liquid
Term
 Yes or No   Kelvin temperatures are measured from absolute zero, which is about -273oC.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   Even single gas molecules have momentum.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   The pascal is equivalent to a newton per square meter in SI base units.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   The larger the area over which a given force is exerted, the higher the pressure.
Definition
 No
Term
 Atmospheric pressure ________ as altitude increases.
Definition
 decreases
Term
 Pressure that increases with depth in a swimming pools is called ___________ pressure.
Definition
 hydrostatic
Term
 Meteorologists report atmospheric pressure in ________.
Definition
 millibars
Term
 The derived SI unit for pressure is the ________.
Definition
 pascal
Term
 Which of the following fluid principles applies to a pure gas at a constrant pressure? 1-Boyle's law 2-Coanda effect 3-Charles's law 4-Dalton's law of partial pressures
Definition
 3-Charles's law
Term
 Which of the following is not a part of a hydraulic machine? 1-resistance piston 2-effort piston 3-hydraulic fluid 4-screw jack
Definition
 screw jack
Term
 Objects immersed in water _______________________.
Definition
 weigh less than they do in air
Term
 Two solids in contact ________________________.
Definition
 exert pressure on each other
Term
 Fluid mechanics is the study of ________________________.
Definition
 how fluids do work
Term
 Yes or No   Most energy is actually a form of kinetic or potential energy.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   Potential energy is the energy possessed by objects that are in a position to move.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   Cities are measurably hotter than the surrounding suburbs.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 The first law of thermodynamics is also known as the law of the ____________________.
Definition
 conservation of energy
Term
 What was originally thought to be the source of magnetism? Why?
Definition
 Witchcraft or magin was thought to be the source of magnetism because magnetism exerts an influence from a distance.
Term
 Electrical energy does work on _____________.
Definition
 electrical charges; electrons
Term
 The change in thermal energy in a system is called ______.
Definition
 heat
Term
 When a force acts on an object to move it through a distance, ______ is done.
Definition
 work
Term
 Energy is the ability to do _____.
Definition
 work
Term
 Which of the following is utilized by a compass pointing north? electrical energy magnetic energy electromagnetic energy nuclear energy
Definition
 magnetic energy
Term
 Which of the following does a warm pot of water have? electrical energy magnetic energy electromagnetic energy thermal energy
Definition
 thermal energy
Term
 Which of the following does a rolling bowling ball have? acoustic energy electrical energy mechanical kinetic energy mechanical potential energy
Definition
 mechanical kinetic energy
Term
 Which of the following is produced by a student's blaring trumpet? acoustic energy thermal energy nuclear energy mechanical potential energy
Definition
 acoustic energy
Term
 Which of the following is used when gasoline burns in a car engine? acoustic energy chemical energy electromagnetic energy mechanical kinetic energy
Definition
 chemical energy
Term
 Which has kinetic energy? -a book on your bookshelf -an avalanche -a compressed spring -a case of dynamite
Definition
 an avalanche
Term
 In processes that are lessthan 100% efficient, energy is still conserved because ___________________.
Definition
 the total energy of the system does not change
Term
 Which nuclear process releases energy when two atoms merge?
Definition
 fusion
Term
 Which nuclear process releases energy when one atom splits?
Definition
 fission
Term
 Which of the following is not a type of radiant energy? sound waves x-rays microwaves radio waves
Definition
 sound waves
Term
 Which of the following does not possess magnetic energy? -a compass needle -a wire conducting electricity -the earth -wood
Definition
 wood
Term
 Which field of study is not part of modern mechanics? -kinematics -statics -light and optics -dynamics
Definition
 light and optics
Term
 Suppose you are calculating the speed of a dragster. Which of the following is not included in the system? -driver -tires -road surface -windshield
Definition
 road surface
Term
 Which of the following is a vector qualntity? -mass -calendar day -density -tension on a rope
Definition
 tension on a rope
Term
 Traveling down a road with a posted 65 mi/h speed limit, you could be in danger of getting a speeding ticket if your ___________ exceeds this amount when you pass a police car.
Definition
 instantaneous speed
Term
 The rate at which the rate of motion changes is __________.
Definition
 acceleration
Term
 In what field is analyzing the liftoff of a space shuttle classified?
Definition
 dynamics
Term
 In what field is improving a long-distance runner's stride and pacing classified?
Definition
 kinetics
Term
 In what field is designing the supports of a large suspension bridge classified?
Definition
 statics
Term
 In what field is studying the aerodynamics of how a wind turbine moves in a wind tunnel classified?
Definition
 kinetics
Term
 In what field is analyzing the pushes and pulls on the frameworks of radio telescopes classified?
Definition
 statics
Term
 When are displacement and distance equal?
Definition
 They are the same for an object that has traveled in a straight line in one direction between two points.
Term
 A displacement divided by a time internal equals _______.
Definition
 velocity
Term
 Yes or No   Scientists in ancient times were called natural philosophers.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   The earth is one example of a system.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   For any given system, there is no one correct reference frame.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   For any given system, one reference frame is probably preferred.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   The magnitude of a vector is a scalar.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   Distance and displacement can be the same value.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   For one-dimensional motion, the sign of an object's velocity indicates its direction.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   Velocity is a vector quantity.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   Physicists use velocity more than speed because it gives more information.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   A falling object is not accelerating in the first few seconds of its fall.
Definition
 No
Term
 Yes or No   Acceleration due to a change in speed is a vector quantity.
Definition
 No
Term
 Yes or No   Car seats reduce the rish of child death in car accidents by changing the acceleration to which the children are subjected.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Scientists prefer what type of data? Why?
Definition
 Scientists prefer quantitative data over qualitative data. Quantitative (or numerical) data is more objective and affected less by observational bias. It is also much more precise.
Term
 Convert 4000 Mg to kilograms with the same number of significant digits.
Definition
 4,000,000 kg
Term
 The water displacement method of determining volume is most accurate when the volumes are read at the _______ of the meniscus in a graduated cylinder.
Definition
 center
Term
 Name an instrument that measures weight.
Definition
 A spring scale or an electronic scale can measure weight.
Term
 The system of internationally accepted units is known as the _____________.
Definition
 Systeme International d'Unites (SI)
Term
 How do physical changes differ from chemical changes?
Definition
 Physical changes change the shape or state of a material, but chemical changes actually change the composition of the material.
Term
 A substance's properties can be affected by both ________ and ________.
Definition
 temperature; pressure
Term
 How does an atom become an ion?
Definition
 An atom becomes an ion when it gains or loses electrons to create a charge imbalance in a previously neutral atom. An atom cannon gain or lose protons to become an ion.
Term
 Molecules are atoms that are connected by _______.
Definition
 bonds
Term
 Volume and mass are fundamental properties of all ________.
Definition
 matter
Term
 Yes or No   Gravity can change depending on the position on the earth at which it is measured.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   A measurement can end with a zero that is significant.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   In a measurement is precise, then it is always accurate.
Definition
 No
Term
 Yes or No   Complete accuracy is impossible in scientific measurements.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   Every scientific measurement contains some error.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   The royal cubit was the same length as the common cubit.
Definition
 No
Term
 Yes or No   Most metric prefixes are based on a power of 10.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   Molecules are always made of atoms.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Yes or No   Physical objects are not necessarily made of matter.
Definition
 No
Term
 yes or No   When steam appears, liquid water has been destroyed to create the steam.
Definition
 No
Term
 Yes or No   Lubricants reduce friction by introducing another, more slippery layer of matter between two surfaces that rub against each other.
Definition
 Yes
Term
 Which of the following will change with a solid object's change in location? -mass -volume -weight -density
Definition
 weight
Term
 Which of the following numbers has the most significant digits? - 901.0 - 12,000 - 34.6 km - 0.0000042 J
Definition
 901.0 s
Term
 Science was difficult in the Middle Ages because _____ was/were not standardized.
Definition
 units
Term
 Which is not a measurable dimension of a house? - height -volume -amount of electricity usage -value
Definition
 value
Term
 Which of the following is not a mixture? - a gold ring -pure water -air -a paper bag
Definition
 pure water
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