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Mr. V's Ch.15 Test
Political Studies
11th Grade

Additional Political Studies Flashcards




Hausa-Fulani Ethnic Group

- Live in the North

- Are orthodox Muslims

- Have Northern Africa and Arabian Roots




-First Republic- Northern Peoples Congress and Northern Elements Progressive Union (elected leader was Aminu Kano)

- Second Republic- National Party of Nigeria (leader was Ahmadu Bello)

Yoruba Ethnic Group

- Preside to the region west of the Niger and Benue

- Converted to Christianity

- Together with the Igbo make up of 60-65% of the nations population and produce the most leading politicians

Igbo Ethnic Group

- Preside on the Eastern part of Nigeria

- Converted to Christianity

-Together with the Yoruba make up of 60-65% of the nations population and produce the most leading politicians

Middle Belt

- No single dominant ethnic group or religion

- Produces nationallity oriented leaders

- Holds nations capital, Abuja

Before the British

- Very well organized economy, political system and very developed culture

- Hausa-Fulani roots was formed in the Thirteenth Century when a single king united many Hausa States

- Fulani influence in the ninettenth century helped foster Islam's influence with Sharia

- Yoruba had a sophisticated political system with a single king ruling all and helped establish Yorubian culture

- Igbo had an elaborate social and politcal system where citizens were rewarded and rose in class based upon merit

Slave Trade, Colonization and Deterioration of Nigeria

- Slave trade had significant quantifiable costs but also tremendous social, psychological and political effects

- Greatly hindered Africa's development

- Thanks to foul play, Britain was able to obtain most of eastern and western Nigeria

- Through Sir George Goldie, they were able to obtain most of Northern Nigeria as well

- Helped strengthen ethnic divisons by forcing Nigerians into tribes and using the leaders of these tribes to control the people

Importance of British Education
  1. Created a new elite seprate from the traditional authroites (which the British controlled) that formed the core of the independence movement
  2. Made it possible for literate Nigerians to critically press the British
  3. Gave unequal attendance to British schools gave advantages to these groups that sent the most children to them

-Mainly southerners sent children to school; helped harbor movement towards independence

Independence of Nigeria

- Imposing of heavy taxes to pay for WWI unified Nigeria

- Tribes established by Britain was the base of the movement of independence

- Foundation of the Nigerian National Democratic Party by Herbert Macaulay (didnt demand independence but unified Nigeria in 1923)

-Establishment of Nigerian Youth Movement made first call for self-government

- Finally Herbert Macaulay and Nnamdi Azikiwe formed the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) which demanded Independence

First Republic

- On October 1st, 1960 British Commonwealth of Nations named Tafawa Balewa as Prime Minister of Nigeria and Nnamdi Azikiwe as governor-general of Nigeria

- Modeled after British parliamentary system that was bicameral but implimented federailsm

- Four Main Parties established four leaders:

  1. Nnmadi Azikiwe of the NCNC
  2. Obafemi Awolowo of the Action Group
  3. Aminu Kano of the Northern Elements Progressive Group
  4. Ahmadu Bello of Northern People's Congress

-Awolowo of the AG lead to opposition to the NCNC

Fall of the First Republic

- AG split after Awolowo lead the Opposition in Lagos between him and Akintola who lead the regional AG

- Implimention of Census based political power opened first door for governmental corruption and fraud where many groups lied about populations to obtain more parliamentary seats

- Akintola formed Nigerian National Democrtic Party as the NCNC and AG (under Awolowo)

-Akintola riggs the next election and then in power orders hits on his allies and violence began to spread like wildfire

- In January 14, 1966 Akintola, Ahmadu Bello and Tafawa Balewa tried to restore order but the military intervened and killed all three of them, effectively overthrowing the Republic

Military Rule I

- Major General Aguiyi Ironsi of Igbo headed the military regime

- Started cracking down on corrupt officials and promised to return to Democracy

- Suppressed civil liberties and established Supreme Military Comand along with a Federal Executive Council which helped foster civil serveants who governed to country

Fall of Military Rule I

- Ironsi announces new, centralized constitution on May 26, 1966

- Pissed of North bc this convinced them that Igbo was going to control the entire country

- Ironsi gets taken over by Lieutenant Col. Yakubu Gowon

- Yoruba lead east tries to seceed to from the Republic of Biafra; begins Nigeria-Biafran Civil War

- After much blood is shed, Gowon is eventually overthrown and replaced by General Murtala Muhammaed who removes 10,000 corrupt officials and tried to set-up four year plan to democracy

- Assassinated and is then replaced by Lt. Gen. Olusegun Obasanjo

- Obasanjo countinues with move to Democracy and in 1979, he gives up power

Second Republic

- Obasanjo changes to American model of Democracy

- First Republic Parties changed in name only to fit the bill of this Republics elections:

- National Party of Nigeria (and was led by Alhaji Shehu Shagari)> Northern People's Congress

- United Party of Nigeria > Action Group (heavy Yoruba support)

- Nigerian People's Party > NCDC (Igbo headed group led by Azikiwe)

-People's Redemption Party > NEPU (Hausa-Fulani group)

Fall of Second Republic

- Didn't learn from the problems of the First Republic

- Blatant manipulation of voter registration lists existed and bribes and corruption continued to exist in all groups

- After the results of the 1979 election showed a massive landslide victory for NPN and Shagari, the Military stepped in on New Year's Eve of 1983

Military Rule II

- Widely accepted as a a result of the level of governmental corruption

- Led by Muhammadu Buhari, very remienecent of old one

- Supreme Military Command was reimplimented


- Began to misuse and abuse power:

-- Government had power to arrest anyone who was seen as a "security risk"

-- Military tribunals tried former politicians and government officials

-- Banning of any publication or broadcast that "inaccurately criticized" any government official or policy

 Military Rule II cont.

- Extreme supression of rights made Buhari and Co. very unpopular

- Overthrown in August 25, 1985 by General Ibrahim Babangida who assumed title as president

- Loosened supression of free speech but contiuned to crackdown on corrupt politicians

-Began to impliment structural adjustment which began to foste fiscal austerity and support of market economics and other capitalist ideas

- Also outlined eventual transition back to democracy by 1990

- In 1988 began setting up constitution for third republic and rebuilt political parties into two parties:

1. National Republican Convention (Right-center)

2. Social Democratic Party (left-center)

Fall of Military Rule II

- Both Canidates from respected parties very unsutable for ruling

- Only 30% voter turnout

- Government nullifies vote in order to remain legitimate

- Tries to impliment another attempt at democracy by placing Ernest Shonekan in power (political puppet of Babangida)

- Rule lasted only 83 days after Supreme Court ruled that his government was illegal

- Replaced by military leader, Sani Abacha

Military Rule III

- Sani Abacha lead a regime that was the most repressive and corrupt in Nigerian history

- Ruthlessly cracked down on all dissidents and critizers of the government to keep its real and potential opposition in check

- Purged many cabinet members and heads of trade unions, the military, and most government institutions

- His family alone leaked $5 Billion dollars out of a country and his regime ended when he died

 Buildup to The Fourth Republic

- After Abacha supressed all partisan activitiy, political parties from the Second Republic died down and three main political parties emerged after Abacha's death

- Three parties emerged:

1. People's Democratic Party lead by Obasanjo and other major critics of Abacha

2. All Nigeria People's Party is lead by politicians who were close to Abacha

3. Alliance for Democracy is lead by people who were close to Abiola


Elections of 1999 and 2003

- Obasanjo and the PDP won just about 60% of the vote

- For the presidential election, Obasanjo won nearly 63 percent of the vote

- In 2003, nothing changed except the PDP and Obsanjo gained more percentages of the vote

- The second place ANPP became the leading opposing party to the PDP in Nigeria and is trying to muscle out Obsanjo for political power

The Fourth Republic

- Centerpiece of Obasanjo's state is an American-style presidency, legislative branch and because of his legacy, Presidency has much power

- President manages day-to-day poperations of the state, is commander in cheif which makes sure no more military coups and he is able to make statements to initiate legislature

- Although it has been a major problem in the past, Obasanjo has made major attempts to reduce corruption and has been successful

Democratization in Nigeria

- Although many political leaders beginning with Babangida have tried to move Nigeria towards a democracy, many problems continue to plague this movement

- Babangida endorsement of the custodial theroy where the government can only hold power momentarily to prepare the nation for Democracy

- However his plan made sure each of the main ethnic groups had one of the thirty-one states

- Babangida also tried to setup systems that would inject democracy into Nigeria and would then tear down what he built making progress impossible

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