# Shared Flashcard Set

## Details

Moseley Vocabulary 12.16.10
Science Vocabulary
115
Science
12/17/2010

Term
 signifcant figures
Definition
 prescribed decimal that determines the amount of rounding off to be done based on the precision of the measurement
Term
 exact number
Definition
 is known to be absolutely correct and is obtained by counting or by definition
Term
 measured number
Definition
 believed to be correct, involves one estimation by the person making and recording measurement
Term
 problem
Definition
 scientific question that can be answered by experiment
Term
 hypothesis
Definition
 an educated predictiona bout how the independent variable will affect the dependent variable stated in a way that is testible (If . . then . . because)
Term
 independent variable
Definition
 the variable that is charged on purpose (I vary)(X)
Term
 dependent variable
Definition
 the variable that responds to the independent variable (Y)
Term
 control
Definition
 a factor in an experiment that is kept the same in all trials
Term
 repetitive trials
Definition
 the number of times an experiment is repeated
Term
 science
Definition
 the knowledge obtained by observing natural events and conditions in order to discover facts and formulate laws or principles that can be verified or tested
Term
 technology
Definition
 the application of science for practial purposes
Term
 scientific law
Definition
 a summary of many experimental results and observations; a law tells how things work
Term
 scientific theory
Definition
 an explanation for some phenomenon that is based on observations, experimentation and reasoning
Term
 critical thinking
Definition
 the ability and willingess to assess claims critically and to make judgments
Term
 negative terminal (electrode)
Definition
 an electrode made of a metal such as zinc that accumulates negative charge (gains electrodes)
Term
 positive terminal (electrode)
Definition
 an electrode made of a metal such as copper that accumulates positive charge (loses electrons)
Term
 electrolyte
Definition
 a liquid solution or paste whose molecules spontaneously separate into positively or negatively charged atoms or groups of atoms called ions.
Term
 scientific method
Definition
 a series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting date, formulating a hypothesis and stating conclusions
Term
 length
Definition
 a measure of the straight-line distance between two points
Term
 mass
Definition
 a measure of the amount of matter in an object
Term
 precision
Definition
 the exactness of a measurement (built into the masuring device)
Term
 accuracy
Definition
 a description of how close a measurement is to the true value of the quantity measured (reflects the skill of the person measuring device)
Term
 physical science
Definition
 the studey of non-living matter and energy
Term
 observation
Definition
 the process of obtaining information by using the senses
Term
 volume
Definition
 a measure of the size of an object or region in three-dimensional space (the space an object takes up)
Term
 weight
Definition
 a measure of the gravitational force exerted on an object
Term
 scientific notation
Definition
 a method of expressing a quantity as a number multiplied by 10 to the appropriate power
Term
 data
Definition
 any pice of information acquired through observation or experimentation
Term
 model
Definition
 a pattern, plan, representation or description designed to show the structure or workings of an object, system or concept
Term
 density
Definition
 the ratio of the mass of a substance to the volume of a substance D = m/v
Term
 temperature
Definition
 measure of how hot or cold something is; specifically a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object
Term
 motion
Definition
 an object's change in position relative to a reference point
Term
 displacement
Definition
 the change in position of an object
Term
 speed
Definition
 the distance traveled divided by the time interval during which the motion occurred
Term
 velocity
Definition
 the speed of an object in a particular direction
Term
 terminal velocity
Definition
 the constant velocity of a falling object when the force of air resistance is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force of gravity
Term
 free fall
Definition
 the motion of a body when only the force of gravity is acting on the body
Term
 projectile motion
Definition
 the curved path that an object follows when thrown, launced or otherwise projected near the surface of earth
Term
 inertia
Definition
 the tendance of an object to resist being moved or, if the object is moving, to resist change in speec or direction until an outside force acts on the object.
Term
 momentum
Definition
 a quantity definded as the product of the mass and velocity of an object
Term
 pressure
Definition
 the amount of force excerted per unit area of a surface
Term
 pascal
Definition
 the SI unit of pressure
Term
 atmospheric pressure
Definition
 the pressure caused by the weight of the atmosphere
Term
 bouyant force
Definition
 the upward force that keeps an object immersed in or floating on a liquid
Term
 Archimedes principle
Definition
 states that the buoyant force on an object in a fluid is an upward force equal to the weight of the volume of fluid that the object displaces
Term
 Bernoulli's principle
Definition
 states that the pressure in a fluid decreases as the fluid's velocity increases
Term
 lift
Definition
 an upward force on an object that moves in a fluid
Term
 thrust
Definition
 the pushing or pulling force exerted by the engine of an aircraft or rocket
Term
 drag
Definition
 a force parallel to the velocity of the flow; it opposes the direction of an aircraft and, in combination with thrust, determines the speed of the aircraft.
Term
 Pascal's principle
Definition
 states that a fluid in equilibrium contained in a vessel exerts a pressure of equal intensity in all directions
Term
 hydraulic devices
Definition
 devices that use liquids and Pascal's principle to move or lift objects
Term
 turbulance
Definition
 an irregular or unpredictable flow of fluids; increases drag and can destroy lift.
Term
 flaps
Definition
 part of a wing that can change the shape of the wing to reduce drag caused by turbulance
Term
 ballast tanks
Definition
 tanks on submarines that can allow sea water to flow in or out to change the overall density of the submarine
Term
 overall density
Definition
 the density of an object found by taking the total mass divided by the total volume of the object
Term
 buoyed up
Definition
 when part of an object pops up above the fluid because the buoyant force is greater than the objects weight
Term
 air pressure
Definition
 the pressure exerted by the weight of the air above the object
Term
 water pressure
Definition
 the pressure exerted by the weight of the water above an object
Term
 atmosphere
Definition
 the layer of nitrogen, oxygen and other gases that surrounds the Earth
Term
 pressure equation
Definition
 states that pressure is equal to the force divided by the area
Term
 density equation
Definition
 states that density is equal to the mass divided by volume
Term
 fluid
Definition
 a non-solid state of matter in which the atoms or molecules are free to move past each other; as in a gas or liquid flows and takes shape of its container
Term
 work
Definition
 the transfer of energy to a body by the application of a force that causes the body to move in the directions of the force
Term
 joules
Definition
 the SI units used to measure work, equal to 1 Newton times 1 meter.
Term
 power
Definition
 a quantity that measures the rate at which work is done or energy is transformed
Term
Definition
 a quantity that measures how much a machine multiplies force or distance, it is equal to the output force divided by the input force.
Term
 mechanical efficiency
Definition
 a comparison of a machine's work output with the work input.
Term
 machine
Definition
 a device that helps do work by either overcoming a force or changing the direction of the applied force.
Term
 simple machine
Definition
 one of 6 basic types of machines, which are the basis for all other forms of machines.
Term
 ideal machine
Definition
 a machine that had 100% mechanical efficiency which is impossible to build.
Term
 block and tackle
Definition
 multiple pulleys are sometimes put together in a single unit.
Term
 work input
Definition
 the work done on a machine; the product of the input force and the distance through which the force is exerted.
Term
 work output
Definition
 the work done by a machine; the product of the output force and the distance through which the force is exerted.
Term
 compound machine
Definition
 a machine that combines two or more simple machines.
Term
 mechanical energy
Definition
 the amount of work an object can do because of the objects kinetic and potentials
Term
 non-mechanical energy
Definition
 energy that lies at the level of atoms and doesn't affect the motion on a large scale
Term
 lever
Definition
 a simple machine that consists of a bar that pivots at a fixed point called a fulcrum
Term
 fulcrum
Definition
 the fixed point around which a lever pivots
Term
 pulleys
Definition
 a simple machine that has a grooved wheel that holds a chain or wire passes
Term
 wheel and axle
Definition
 a simple machine consisting of two circular objects of different sizes; the wheel is the larger of the two circular objects.
Term
 inclined plane
Definition
 one of the simple machines, a plane surface inclined to the horizon.
Term
 energy
Definition
 the capacity to do work
Term
 kinetic energy
Definition
 the energy of an object that is due to the object's motion
Term
 potential energy
Definition
 the energy that an object has because of the position, shape or condition of the object
Term
 mechanical energy
Definition
 the amount of work an object can do becasue of the object's kinectic and potential energies.
Term
 energy conversion
Definition
 a change from one form of energy to another
Term
 friction
Definition
 a force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are in contact.
Term
 law of conservation of energy
Definition
 states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed from one form to another
Term
 nonrenewable resouce
Definition
 a resource that forms at a rate that is much slower than the rate at which it is consumed.
Term
 fossil fuel
Definition
 a nonrenewable energy resource formed from the remains of organisms that lived long ago.
Term
 renewable resource
Definition
 a natural resouce that can be replaced at the same rate at which the resource is consumed.
Term
 acceleration
Definition
 the rate at which velocity changes over time; an object accelerates if its speed, direction or both change.
Term
 force
Definition
 an action exerted on a body in order to change the body's state of rest or motion; force has magnitude and direction.
Term
 unbalanced force
Definition
 causes a change in motion (speed up, slow down, change direction)
Term
 friction
Definition
 a force that opposes motion between two suraces that are in contact
Term
 static friction
Definition
 the force that resists the initiation of sliding motion between two surfaces that are in contact and at rest.
Term
 kinetic friction
Definition
 the force that opposes the movement of two surfaces that are in contact and are sliding over each other.
Term
 rolling friction
Definition
 occurs if a round object rolls over a flat surface
Term
 sliding friction
Definition
 occurs when two objects slide past each other
Term
 fluid friction
Definition
 friction between a moving solid going through a fluid (liquid or gas)
Term
 lubricants
Definition
 usually a liquid, but may be a gas or solid, that reduces harmful friction by relacing sliding friciton with fluid friction,
Term
 balanced force
Definition
 does not change the motion of an object.
Term
 net force
Definition
 is the combination of all of the forces acting on the object.
Term
 resultant velocity
Definition
 the sum of all the velocities of an object combined.
Term
 instantaneous speed
Definition
 speec measure in an infinitely small time interval
Term
 average speed
Definition
 total distance divided by the total time.
Term
 constant speed
Definition
 speed that does not change
Term
 stationary object
Definition
 an object that stays in place in relation to another, sometimes called a reference point
Term
 law of universal gravitation
Definition
 states that all objects in the universe attract each other through gravitational force
Term
 apparent weightlessness
Definition
 a continuous free falling state of things in orbit that appear to float and be weightless
Term
 action force
Definition
 the force exerted by an agent on an object
Term
 reaction force
Definition
 the force exerted by an object on the agent
Term
 watt
Definition
 the SI unit used to measure power, equal to a Joule per second
Term
 wedge
Definition
 a simple machine that is made up of two inclined planes andmoves; often used for cutting
Term
 screw
Definition
 a simple machine that consists of an inclined plane wrapped around a cylinder
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